Skip to main content

Full text of "Stevens indicator .."

See other formats




Stevens Indicator 

A Quarterly Journal of 
Mechanical Engineering 

Volume XXX 

Alumni of the 

Hoboken, New Jersey 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2014 

I)k. A i. i:\A\DKit ('. Humphreys 


m 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 M 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 ? i n 1 1 1 1 ; 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 h 1 1 1 1 1 m 1 1 1 1 1 ; m 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 nTT : 1 

Stevens Indicator \ 

Vol. XXX % JANUARY, 1913 No. 1 If 


■ I 


STEVENS alumni dinners are always notable for the 
large proportion of the total number of alumni who at- 
tend, for the good fellowship that prevails, and the spirit 
of harmony that is manifest between the college management 
and the graduates. 

The dinner of 1913 will be even more important in marking 
a milestone in the history of the college of large significance, 
the celebration of a decade in the administration of Dr. Alexan- 
der C. Humphreys as executive head of the Institute. 

That the celebration may be worthy of the occasion, many 
new features will be introduced. For the first time, the dinner 
will be held in the grand ball room of the Hotel Astor, whose 
boxes will be available, so that ladies may attend. The great 
organ, one of the finest in the country, has been placed at the 
disposal of the committee, and musical selections will be ren- 
dered throughout the dinner. The organ will be especially 
effective as an accompaniment to the singing. 

The list of speakers will include some of the foremost engi- 
neers and educators of the country, joining with Stevens to do 
honor to her president. The toast list will also include many 
notable Stevens graduates. E. H. Peabody, president of the 
Alumni Association, has been asked by the committee to serve 
as toastmaster. 


Among those who are expected to speak are Dr. Henry S. 
Pritchett, Dr. Palmer C. Ricketts, president of Rensselaer Poly- 
technic Institute ; Dr. J ohn H. Finlay, president of the College 
of the City of New York; Prof. Charles F. Kroeh, Prof. Albert 
F. Ganz, Henry Torrance, and Dr. Humphreys. 

Some of the invited guests are: Job E. Hedges, John Cotton 
Dana, Nicholas Murray Butler, Andrew Carnegie, Frank A. 
Vanderlip, H. P. Davison, George G. Mason, John D. Rocke- 
feller, Jr., G. B. Schley, Livingston Gifford, Howard E. White, 
R. C. Jenkinson, James Bertram, James T. McCleary, Col. 
George Harvey, Franklin Kirkbride, Dr. Henry S. Pritchett, 
Dr. Palmer C. Ricketts, Dr. John H. Findlay, T. B. Wells, 
F. T. Leigh, A. D. Chandler, F. A. Duneke, John Larkin, John 
I. Waterbury, Walton Clark, Richard Stevens, George West- 
inghouse, Samuel T. Bodine, Col. E. A. Stevens, Dr. Edward 
Weston, Richard V. Lindabury, R. A. Franks, S. S. Palmer, 
Edgar Palmer, E. P. Meany, V. P. Snyder, Randall Morgan, 
J. Edgar Bull, Chester S. Lord, Louis Wiley, C. R. Miller, 
Oswald Garrison Villard, Rollo Ogden, W. A. Day, J. B. 
Lunger, Charles B. Alexander, Frank S. Witherbee, Charles H. 
Zehnder, Samuel M. Felton, Bradish Johnson, Charles D. Nor- 
ton, E. H. Outerbridge, Alton B. Parker, William E. Paine, 
W. W. Finley, Emerson McMillin, Thos. F. Ryan, T. F. C. 
Penfield, and Alfred B. Eaton. 



■ ■ 


By Alexander C. Humphreys, M.E., Sc.D., LL.D. 



DOUBTLESS we are all prepared to agree that special 
qualifications, natural and acquired, must necessarily 
involve a commensurate responsibility to employ those 
qualifications in effective service. For many years past I have 
been deeply impressed with the particular responsibility of the 
engineer to the community, by reason of his special equipment. 
If, through his special equipment, he is qualified to render serv- 
ice to the community at large, that service should not be lim- 
ited to his particular field of work. 

My proposition then is that to-day, by reason of the present 
complex conditions surrounding the industries, there are offered 
to us as engineers opportunities for public service which are 
exceptional; and our responsibilities are the greater because 
these conditions were in part created by members of our pro- 
fession. These opportunities are offered to us; if we refuse 
to accept them, we assume a grave responsibility. The fact 
that others are more than willing to take the lead in the effort 
to solve the problems which are threatening our well being as a 
nation does not relieve us of responsibility, but rather to the 
contrary. If we leave it to the lawyers, theoretical economists 
and others, to shape the measures of reform, then just so far as 
we could have bettered the result, the reproach must rest upon 
us. As far as possible, the work of reform should be the result 
of sincere cooperation on the part of all conscientious and com- 
petent members of the body politic. 

* Abstracted from President's Address delivered before the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers, Dec. 3, 1912. 



The question of the responsibility of the engineer must carry 
back to those who are responsible for his education and specific 
training, including not only the colleges of engineering, but 
also the graded schools and the employers and others in con- 
trol of those employed. 

With regard to the schools in which our boys are prepared 
for the engineering college or for a direct entry into business 
or industrial life, may we not charge that these schools are not 
as a rule conducted for the benefit of the masses? May we not 
claim that the public schools, supported by taxation, should be 
administered primarily for the preparing of the masses for self- 
support ? The keynote in our scheme of public education should 
be thoroughness, and particularly with regard to the three Rs 
and the elementary studies in general. The course of instruction 
in our public schools should be shaped for the benefit of those 
who are not to enter college; that is, for those who by one 
cause or another are forced to become wage-earners at eighteen 
years of age or less. In the scheme, adequate provision should 
be made for those who do not and cannot remain in school be- 
yond the grammar school period. This change would not work 
an injustice to those who find themselves in a position to con- 
tinue their book and laboratory-study in the colleges. The 
present scheme tends strongly toward superficiality, which 
must be harmful to all. 

In the case of those who are preparing to enter the College 
of Engineering, I hold that they should not be subjected to a 
specialized preparatory training. I hold that these boys par- 
ticularly should receive a sound general training, for they are 
the ones who will obtain later the advantages of the specialized 
training. The high school pupils who are not to enter the 
college of engineering are the ones more in need of instruc- 
tion in mechanical drawing, manual training and the like. If, 
in the allotted time, the boys preparing for the College of 
Engineering could get a sound preparation in the general 
studies and also get the preliminary practical training, so much 



the better. But the crowded curriculum of the present day tends 
to prevent this. To secure thoroughness our public schools 
must reduce their requirements or increase their efficiency, or 
both. And in this connection it must be realized that all cul- 
ture is not obtained from so-called cultural studies. 

Of late years we hear much to the effect that by reason of 
the rapid strides made and being made in engineering science, 
the courses in our colleges of engineering should be extended 
from four years to five, six and even seven years. Included in 
this scheme of extension is the purpose to devote a consider- 
able portion of the college course to the general or non-tech- 
nical studies. If this is wise, then why not use the years of 
preparation most advantageously on the general studies? In 
the case of the boy preparing for the College of Engineering, 
why begin to specialize before he enters college? The case of 
the boy who is to go out from the grammar school or high 
school to become a wage-earner is quite different. We might, 
if it is practicable, specialize in his case. And here the co- 
operative system, the alternating of school and shop, or school 
and business, demands our thoughtful and sympathetic consid- 
eration. This same system carried on a higher plane is par- 
ticularly worthy of our professional attention, especially as 
now being tried so intelligently under Dean Schneider, of the 
College of Engineering of the University of Cincinnati. In 
any case, in the four years' engineering course, the general 
studies should not be slighted and the technical studies should 
be so presented and taught as to give them the greatest possi- 
ble cultural value. / 

For the great majority of students I cannot believe that it 
is the part of wisdom to extend the college engineering course 
beyond the four years which is now the general rule. For these 
men the age of graduation, on the average, is about twenty- 
two years. At that age a young man intended for our profes- 
sion certainly should be prepared to earn a living; continuing, 
however, to be a student, as he must continue to be to his last 



active day in his profession, if he aims to fill a position of 

If the college course is to be extended by reason of the many 
more things now to be learned, will five, six, seven, ten or even 
twenty years be sufficient? My answer is in the negative, and 
for two reasons — No matter how many years the student re- 
mained in college there would be more to learn of engineering 
science: And much that the engineer needs to know the college 
or university cannot teach. But in four years the College of 
Engineering should be able to teach its students, if they have 
the natural qualifications and have been soundly prepared, 
how to learn by themselves and so how to profit effectively by 
the teachings of experience. Is there not some measure of 
disadvantage in keeping an engineering student engaged ex- 
clusively on the study of theory even if the theory is presented 
in as practical form as is possible in the class-room and labora- 
tory? Is it not true that those who employ young engineers 
who have had only four years of college environment com- 
plain that too many of them are at first more or less disquali- 
fied for practical work by having too high an appreciation of, 
and too great a reliance upon, their college training? The 
longer they stay in college the more apparent will be this par- 
tial disqualification. 

I know that I shall here be misunderstood to the effect that I 
am arguing against college training for the engineer. Nothing 
could be farther from the truth. I am arguing in favor of a 
proper balance between the teaching of the college and the 
teaching of the school of experience; that is, a proper balance 
between theory and practice. 

Also, I am not arguing against post-graduate courses for the 
few who may be specially qualified for advanced study in theory 
and research. Though here I believe that many engage in col- 
lege post-graduate study who would do better out in the world 
of work. A man is not temperamentally qualified for research 
simply because he thinkfl lie is. The best graduate school for the 



great majority of engineer graduates is the school of experi- 
ence. In many cases even research can be more advantageously 
pursued outside the environment of the college, in direct con- 
tact with the conditions governing practice. This is shown 
in the many instances of the fruits of outside research carried 
back into the college and there taught to the undergraduates, 
giving them the data so disclosed and helping to impress upon 
them the value of and necessity for experience teaching. 

Why is it that in the face of these facts continually presented 
to the college instructors, certain of them are so ready to claim 
a monopoly of all educational agencies? 

It can be claimed that the store of experience teaching thus 
carried back to the college can there best be classified and stand- 
ardized. To a large extent this is true. But here as in every 
other such question there are two sides to be considered. Not 
always is the schoolman qualified to interpret correctly and 
comprehensively the data thus placed in his hands. Here is 
where our engineering societies are doing an important work 
outside of the colleges as well as in cooperation with them and 
their professors as individuals. In the cause of increased effi- 
ciency this all speaks for cooperation, and particularly for an 
adequate appreciation of the value of cooperation between school- 
men and practicing engineers. To this end the professors of 
engineering should be encouraged to engage in practice for 
their own benefit and for the benefit of their students. This 
cooperation can be further developed by direct interchange 
of ideas and data between professors and their former students, 
as practiced in some measure in this country, and to a much 
greater extent, I understand, in some of the German univer- 

Are not many of our troubles with respect to education oc- 
casioned by the belief on the part of many educators that all 
education is to be obtained only within the school and college 
walls ? If they do not believe this, do not many of them minimize 
the educational value of experience in the world of work in con- 



tact and competition with one's fellows? Having in mind some 
of the men we are constantly associating with, it seems absurd 
to have to remind ourselves that the school of experience 
teaches many things which the school and college cannot teach, 
and that this school of experience also may exert a strong cul- 
tural influence. 

Even if some of the schoolmen are inclined to under stimate 
the educational value of experience teaching, we as engineers 
must not forget that before the first college of engineering was 
organized the engineer was busy at his many tasks and the 
mechanical engineer had produced the steam engine, that most 
potent progress maker of the ages. 

While referring to experience teaching and the insufficiency 
of the unsupported college training for the engineer, permit 
me to give a word of advice to the Juniors of our profession. 
Too frequently young engineer graduates assume the respon- 
sibility of acting as consulting engineers before they have had 
adequate practical experience. A few make the more serious 
mistake of assuming this great responsibility immediately after 
graduation, before they have had any practice. The engineer 
graduate is not an engineer until he is qualified to deal with 
the practical conditions of his selected specialty. He must be 
a commercial engineer in the sense that he should regard the 
money for the investment of which he is more or less responsible, 
as a sacred trust. It is not for him to risk his employer's money 
in experiments for which he is not qualified by specific experi- 

Still more unfortunately some of these young men set up as 
general consulting engineers. The saving clause is that they 
are probably as competent in one engineering specialty as an- 
other. No man should attempt the role of consulting engineer 
until he has had a comprehensive practical experience in his 
specialty. By doing so the offender brings discredit not only 
upon himself but upon our profession as a whole. 

Having said this to the young graduate, permit me to say 



a word as to the responsibility of his employer. The young 
graduate should not be left without guidance in the school of 
experience. If the employer is an engineer or is competent to 
direct in the practical things of his specialty, he should see 
to it that the employee gets every possible opportunity to learn 
the practical side of the business and to harmonize the theoret- 
ical with the practical. Too often the cadet engineer will be 
difficult to teach and direct because of his unreadiness to be- 
lieve that he needs this practical experience. Too often he is 
unwilling to get down to the long hours, dirt and drudgery 
which may be required to win this practical experience. It 
is the duty of the employer to provide the means for this, and, 
failing in success after a fair, patient and intelligent trial, to 
assist the youngster to a better understanding of what is re- 
quired of the engineer by giving him his discharge. I know 
of a number of good men who have been saved by this seemingly 
severe treatment. 

In the treatment of the cadet engineer there rests upon the 
employer a grave responsibility. Many a young fellow has 
been unfairly treated because through ignorance, indifference 
or stupidity the one in authority has expected more than could 
in reason be demanded. Some employers, not technical gradu- 
ates themselves, exaggerate the immediate results to be ob- 
tained from a college training. Others, college graduates them- 
selves, forget how little they knew of practical things when 
they graduated, and they think they are comparing the igno- 
rance of the cadet with what they knew when they graduated; 
but really they are comparing with what they know now after 
ten, twenty or thirty years of practical experience. 

Other cadets have the misfortune to fall under the control 
of so-called " practical men " who despise " book-learning " and 
are glad of an opportunity to expose the ignorance of the " col- 
lege boy." It is the duty of the employer, and especially if he 
is an engineer, to see that the young graduates taken into his 
employ are, as far as possible, saved from these harmful influ- 



ences — including the conceit of the graduate himself — which 
work injury to both employer and employed. 

From all that I have said as to the opportunities for im- 
provement, let it not be understood that I am condemning the 
combination of educational agencies which has produced the 
men who have done so much for this country through its indus- 
tries. We must realize that the passage of time has wrought 
of late great changes not only as to the science of engineering, 
but in a marked degree as to the sociologic and economic con- 
ditions within which we must practice, if we are to meet our 
responsibilities to both capital and labor. A system which 
permits men of more than average ability or determination to 
qualify for our profession should be so improved through ex- 
perience teaching as to enable us to turn out from our educa- 
tional mills a larger percentage of first-class product and to 
reduce the percentage of rejections. Many a young man who 
might have given a good account of himself, if he had been 
better handled at some turning point in his career in college 
or practice, has failed because he had not yet developed the 
stamina to resist the forces, negative and positive, which were 
opposing his progress. It is a source of gratification to me 
that I have saved some from breaking under the strain of in- 
justice in the college and in the school of experience, and it is 
a source of regret and humiliation to me that in certain cases, 
as I can now realize, I failed in my duty in this respect. 

In arguing for saner and better balanced educational meth- 
ods to meet the conditions referred to, conditions of the past 
as well as of the present, I have no sympathy with those who 
condemn all our educational theories and methods as obsolete 
and therefore to be consigned to the scrap heap. Some Eng- 
lish engineer, whose name I have forgotten, said that where 
the United States engineers and industrial managers had a dis- 
tinct advantage over his countrymen was in their readiness to 
scrap obsolete apparatus. This " scrapping " process can be 
like everything else, carried to extremes. We should first de- 



termine whether by new combinations the apparently obsolete 
apparatus or machinery cannot again be made commercially 
efficient. The inefficient elements only should be replaced. And 
when it comes to the question of scrapping plant we must 
determine whether the interest on both the old and the new 
does not absorb the anticipated savings. I do not hesitate to 
affirm that in this country, in our enthusiasm for improvement, 
we have frequently been guilty of wasteful practice in this 

This, in a marked degree, applies to much that has been 
proposed in connection with the scrapping of our educational 

In connection with discussions of industrial questions and 
the education of the engineer we hear much of the opportunities 
for increased efficiency. There are such opportunities and there 
always will be. But we also hear much of conservation, fre- 
quently from the same sources. Efficiency of methods should 
include true conservation; the elimination of the false and de- 
fective, but certainly the retention of all that has been proved 
through experience to be true and useful. With Patrick Henry 
I say, " I know of no way of judging of the future but by the 
past." Many of our modern reformers would change this to 
read, " I know of no way of planning for the future but by 
disregarding the past." 

With the conserving of the good and useful there should be 
the constant effort to render these still more useful. The 
older a method or practice, provided it has stood successfully 
the test of years, the more it is to be prized. Yet we are told 
by some reformers that because a thing is old, and for that rea- 
son alone, it should be scrapped. We are told that because 
of the marvelous progress made in engineering science in late 
years, all the teachings of our schools of engineering should 
be scrapped. We are told that practically all that was taught 
in these schools twenty-five years ago is now obsolete. Have 
all the teaching of languages, logic, history, mathematics, 



physics, chemistry of the past been rendered valueless because 
we have advanced in our knowledge of Nature's laws? Apart 
from more direct arguments we may say that one of the most 
valuable lines of instruction for the study of engineering is the 
history of the development of engineering science. 

If it is true that all this of the past is valueless, how was 
it that the men of the past, taught in the schools and outside 
of the schools, were able to bring about these wonderful ad- 
vances ? 

What is the specific function of the College of Engineering? 
Is it to store the brain with facts, or what the teachers believe 
at the time to be facts, or is it to train and discipline the brains 
of the students to think with facility and accuracy along the 
lines of their future vocations? Many of us who, for the time, 
have forgotten much of this store of facts without being seri- 
ously embarrassed by the loss have our answer to this ques- 
tion. Again let me say that the school and the college cannot 
complete the training of the engineer; and that these agencies 
can only prepare the student to learn his profession in the 
field of practice. Given the personality, it remains for him to 
develop in the field of practice the initiative for which the formal 
teaching and drill of the school and college should have pre- 
pared him effectively. Included in this preparation should 
be some teaching of the business side of engineering practice, 
including the principles of accountancy, depreciation, commer- 
cial law, patent law, specifications, contracts, analysis of data 
and the like. 

Whatever may be said as to the room for improvements in 
the agencies, processes and methods employed in the education 
of the engineer, it should need no argument to demonstrate that 
the leaders in the profession are as a class those best qualified 
to advise authoritatively in connection with the efforts to solve 
many of the most serious problems of the day, involved as these 
are with questions of transportation, public utilities and the 



industries in general. And for the well-being of our country 
these problems must be solved wisely. 

This is an age of reform, and of late years reforms have 
been so hastily and incompetently put forward as to bring the 
term reform into reproach. In fact a significant feature of 
many of our reform movements is the readiness of the leaders 
to act on impulse and without anything approaching adequate 
investigation. As has been well said, it seems to be a char- 
acteristic of this class of reformers to go too far and too fast. 

It is with deep regret that I express the belief that college 
professors, especially professors of economics, and ministers of 
the Gospel frequently have been offenders in this regard. I 
believe that certain professors are being retained in their chairs 
who should be displaced. Especially in the case of universities 
this may be due to. a tendency on the part of president and 
trustees to exaggerate the right of free speech. Certainly a 
professor in a State university, to say nothing of the endowed 
university, should not be permitted to teach doctrines sub- 
versive of law and order and the rights of the individual and 
property under the Constitution. If these men cannot be con- 
trolled by those to whom they are immediately responsible, 
they should be controlled by those who control the univer- 

It is to be borne in mind constantly that good intentions do 
not qualify one to do expert work, whether that work be in 
connection with some reform measure or in some other line of 
public activity. Here is to be found a grave error of which 
many an honest enthusiast is guilty. The more astute and sordid 
of the politicians welcome the assistance which they can secure 
by guiding the enthusiastic and hysterical reformers into lines 
of activity which will offer opportunities for trading in im- 
munity, obtaining fees for lobbying or securing remunerative 
employment as the agents of these enthusiasts. 

Righteous indignation is to be welcomed — and we had better 
start out in our reforms with the belief that as long as the world 



exists there will be full opportunity for righteous indignation. 
But righteous indignation does not of itself provide a remedy 
for the evils at which we rebel; it only supplies the desire, and 
possibly the purpose, to produce a remedy. Righteous indig- 
nation and misdirected zeal may produce conditions practically 
as bad as those which it was purposed to correct or eliminate. 
Reform should not depend upon hysterical suggestion and fit- 
ful support, but should be actuated and maintained by all the 
forces suggested by experience; it should be constantly and 
tenaciously, but not vindictively, pursued, acting along the 
best lines suggested by competent, sane, impartial investiga- 

As one of the forces to be reckoned with, and particularly 
in the industries in which our profession is so vitally interested 
and for which we must carry such a burden of responsibility, 
is the tremendous force of ignorance and prejudice constantly 
being swept in upon us by the tide of immigration. If we hold 
that our country is to be a haven for the ignorant and oppressed, 
it is then our duty to provide for the control of the elements 
of danger we so accept. If we offer a haven to these people 
so ignorant of our fundamental laws for the protection of life 
and property, certainly we have the right and it is our duty 
to demand that at least they shall be subject to those laws. 
The laws as they stand must bind them as they bind us until 
amended according to law. 

The record of recent happenings shows us that there are very 
real dangers to be apprehended from this source. We need 
only to read the reports of the trial at Indianapolis of the men 
of influence under indictment for dynamite outrages, the record 
of the Los Angeles dynamite outrage so closely linked with 
this Indianapolis trial, the trial recently ended at Lawrence 
of men of like influence indicted for murder through sugges- 
tion, the trial of the man who attempted recently to kill an ex- 
President of the United States, the trials of members of the police 
force and gangsters of New York, and many other like events 



indicating a confidently bold disregard for the rights and the 
very lives of those opposed to these enemies of law and order, 
to convince us that popular government is under trial as it 
never has been before in our history as a people. 

As I have before suggested, the danger does not lie alone wi'th 
the ignorant and it 



Ioclude one set 
covers and ads. 

y z Goat 




anC Yellow 





exists there will be full opportunity for righteous indignation. 
But righteous indignation does not of itself provide a remedy 
for the evils at which we rebel ; it only supplies the desire, and 
possibly the purpose, to produce a remedy. Righteous indig- 
nation and misdirected zeal may produce conditions practically 
as bad as those which it was purposed to correct or eliminate. 
Reform s\ ' J fit- 

ful suppoi 
forces sugg 
best lines 

As one 
in the ind 
and for v 

is the tre « 
being swe 
that our c 
it is then 
of dangei 
so ignora 
and prop 
to deman 
The laws 
The re 
real dan$ 
only to r 
of influer 
of the I 
this Indi 
of men c 
tion, the 
force am 


indicating a confidently bold disregard for the rights and the 
very lives of those opposed to these enemies of law and order, 
to convince us that popular government is under trial as it 
never has been before in our history as a people. 

As I have before suggested, the danger does not lie alone with 
the ignorant and the designing; if that were true, the danger 
might be met with greater confidence. But we have to see that 
the enthusiasm of honest but misguided reformers has to be 
reckoned with, and these people are to be found in our schools, 
colleges, universities, industrial establishments and counting 

Let me quote the words of Schrank who tried recently to 
assassinate ex-President Roosevelt : " The shot in Milwaukee, 
which created an echo in all parts of the world, was not a shot 
at an ex-President, not a shot at the candidate of a so-called 
Progressive party, not a shot to influence the pending election, 
not a shot to gain for me notoriety ; no, it was simply to tince 
and forever establish the fact that any man who hereafter as- 
pires to a third Presidential term will do so at the risk of his 
life. If I cannot defend tradition, if I cannot defend the coun- 
try in case of war, you may as well send every patriot to 

This is high-sounding and has a truly familiar ring. 

Two of the men on trial at Lawrence made statements which 
also indicated that they considered themselves champions of the 
defenseless, apostles of liberty and not of anarchy. These ap- 
peals to unreason have a strong influence upon those who are 
at once ignorant and highly emotional. Unfortunately those 
who cannot be charged with ignorance in the ordinary sense are 
led astray by these hysterical appeals to unreason because they 
appear to reflect a worthy motive. 

And yet this man Schrank, who considers himself a hero and 
martyr and who is able to put his dangerous views thus plainly 
and strikingly before us, by the unanimous verdict of a num- 



ber of competent physicians, has been declared to be a homicidal 

With the conditions at present surrounding us, which I have 
barely suggested, is it not of the first importance that our pub- 
lic school system should be kept free from teachings which are 
dangerous to our commonwealth? Should not the system go 
farther and exercise a positive influence for sane thinking upon 
the children under its influence during the most impressionable 
period of their lives? Not only should these pupils be taught 
directly respect for the rights of others and respect for consti- 
tutional government, but above all the aims and methods should 
be so amended that the thought constantly kept in the minds 
of teachers and pupils shall be that the pupils are being trained 
to become self-supporting and so self-respecting units of the 
body politic. This implies that these boys and girls shall be 
taught, shall have pressed home upon them constantly, directly 
and indirectly, that labor of the hands as well as of the brain, 
if conscientiously performed, is honorable. Undoubtedly there 
are many schools in the land where high-minded, sane teachers 
are doing their best to so influence their pupils. Of this my 
talks with many of them convince me; but I have been at the 
same time convinced that most of these faithful servants of the 
people feel that they are working under the disadvantages of 
a system which too generally fails to dignify the labor required 
for self-support and to cultivate pride in all work well per- 

A respect for law and order should be inculcated in our pub- 
lic schools by the maintenance of a more intelligent and more 
exacting discipline. The State has a right to demand and 
should demand that if a free education is provided for the youth 
of the country, those so benefited shall render prompt and exact 
obedience to those in authority. In many cases politics comes 
in to fetter those who are in immediate authority, and this to 
the great injury of the pupil, the teacher and the community. 
Many men and women, now parasites upon society or criminals, 



would be self-respecting members of the community if they had 
been trained to respect honest labor and at least directed to, 
and given a fundamental preparation for, some vocation. 

Let the public schools be conducted for the benefit of the 
masses and not for the benefit of the very few. The many 
can be provided for readily and effectively without sacrificing 
or even hindering those who are qualified by natural endow- 
ment to enter college. If some who now go to college were 
discouraged from so doing, it would be no loss to them or to 
the community. 

Upon us as members of the profession of engineering, indi- 
vidually and collectively, rests the responsibility for doing our 
utmost to check and correct the evils which I have thus inade- 
quately brought back to your attention. Collectively, and par- 
ticularly as members of this Society, we are responsible be- 
cause there are members of our profession who have been at 
fault as the advocates of hasty and ill-considered measures of 
so-called reform. Reforms, especially in connection with indus- 
trial administration and the relations between capital and labor, 
which might be inaugurated by our Society or its members after 
full and candid discussion, should be of decided benefit to the 
community as well as the profession. 

Certainly in the matters connected with public education our 
profession should be able to advise and direct, for the members 
of the profession have unsurpassed opportunities to judge 
of the effectiveness of the work of the schools by the results 
as evidenced in the product. I am quite aware that some pro- 
fessional educators will not be slow to charge that the engineer 
is not an expert in the field of education, but to this we may 
reply that this is not solely an academic question and the results 
are showing every day that the educators need the cooperation 
of all who are qualified to assist. And may we not claim that 
the members of our profession as a class are brought as close 
to the hearts of the people as are the workers in any other one 



Thus at considerable length, and yet inadequately, I have 
discussed the opportunities and consequent responsibilities of 
the engineer of to-day. If we claim, as we should, to be mem- 
bers of a profession, we must accept the responsibilities in- 
volved. We cannot claim that our profession is one of the 
three learned professions because the ignorance of the past 
created a limitation in favor of religion, law and medicine. But 
we can claim that though much of that which the engineer 
must have at his command is not to be learned from books, it by 
no means follows that his education is therefore less " liberal " 
than that of the minister, lawyer or physician. 

There appears to have been a tendency, not so apparent at 
present, to deny to the Mechanical Engineer the professional 
position more readily conceded to the Civil and Mining Engi- 
neer. This seems unreasonable and indefensible when we study 
the question and are forced to indorse Holley's claim that 
Mechanical Engineering underlies all engineering. The rea- 
son for this rather intangible discrimination is in part due, I 
believe, to that fact that so many of the rank and file of our 
department of engineering are engaged in working out the de- 
tails, more or less important, of undertakings which are under 
the general direction of Civil or Mining Engineers or others not 
members of our profession. Many Mechanical Engineers thus 
become absorbed in the invention and development of mechan- 
ical devices, possibly of vital importance in the general scheme, 
and so fail to take a grasp on the undertaking as a whole. 

The question of precedence need not be raised ; there is credit 
enough for all. As engineers we are committed to the doctrine 
of efficiency. Efficiency must come from cooperation, not from 
discussions as to precedence and relative dignity. Watt's steam 
engine made Cort's rolling mill possible. Cort's rolling mill 
opened up to Watt's engine a new sphere of usefulness. 

The Panama Canal, under the direction of thoroughly capa- 
ble engineers, was a failure until the bacteriologist, the physi- 
cian and the sanitarian made it possible for white men to live 



in the fever-stricken zone. Now, while under the general direc- 
tion and control of military and civil engineers, the success of 
the undertaking largely depends upon the Mechanical and Elec- 
trical Engineer. 

Then, while confidently asserting our claim to membership 
among the liberal professions, and accepting to the full the re- 
sponsibilities which are thereby involved, let us be prompt to rec- 
ognize that the progress of the world, material and ethical, de- 
pends upon the unselfish, intelligent and devoted cooperation 
in service of all professions and vocations under the leadership 
of men of vision, intellect, power and humanity. 

Note. — In the full text of his address, Dr. Humphreys quotes at length 
from presidential addresses delivered in past years, to demonstrate that 
the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, as represented hy its presi- 
dents, has from the first stood for a broad conception of the duties and 
responsibilities of the profession. — Editor. 





By William Kent, M.E., 9 76 


ABOUT ten years ago I was asked by the president and 
general manager of a large manufacturing corporation 
to advise him how to improve the performance of his 
boiler house. During the previous winter it was pushed to its 
utmost to deliver enough steam to run the engines and to keep 
the buildings warm, and the next winter, on account of extent 
sions to the factory and increased output, the demand for steam 
would be still greater. Before beginning my work the presi- 
dent told me something of the history of the company, and of 
how he came to be the general manager. It had grown in fifty 
years from a small concern to a large one, occupying several 
blocks of ground. The business was the manufacture of a vari- 
ety of shelf hardware. He had for several years been a director 
and the manager of the sales department, and on the death of 
the former factory manager the directors insisted on his tak- 
ing the place, although as he said he knew nothing about run- 
ning a factory. He started in to learn how by calling in the 
best outside expert advice available. He was paying $10,000 
for a year's services of a highly skilled expert in machinery, 
jigs, and methods of manufacturing, who was making a revolu- 
tion in the shop, which amply justified the high price paid for 
his services. This man said he knew nothing about boilers, and 
therefore I was called in to tackle the boiler problem. Inci- 
dentally the president told me that the catalogue of the products 
made by the concern contained 14,000 items, each of which 
involved patterns, jigs, templates, storage, bookkeeping, rec- 
ords and correspondence. Probably half of these items were 

* Reprinted from the Bulletin of the Society for the Promotion of 
Knoineehinu Kducation, Volume III., No. 2, 1912. 



either obsolete or in very small demand, and another large frac- 
tion were unprofitable to handle. Another $10,000 might have 
been properly spent in making a selection of which of the 
14,000 items should be abandoned and in printing a new cata- 

In regard to the boilers, the president told me I could get 
all information available from two men, the superintendent of 
the factory and the chief engineer, who were at loggerheads. 
One had told the president one story about the boilers, and 
the other an opposite story, and he did not know which one to 
believe. He called the superintendent into the office to tell me 
his story, and, dismissing him, called in the engineer who told 
me the other story. I then had the engineer take me through 
the whole factory, including the power plant. On my return 
to the office I told the president that the engineer had told the 
facts, and that the superintendent had not because he was igno- 
rant; he knew nothing about a power plant and never would 
know, for his bump of conceit was too great to permit of his 
learning. I reported further that the trouble from lack of 
steam was not the fault of the boilers — there were about twenty- 
five of them, crowding the boiler house to its capacity, and 
there was no available land for an addition to it — they were 
making as much steam as they should be called on to make 
with due regard to economy of fuel; but the trouble was en- 
tirely owing to the great waste of steam throughout the fac- 
tory in winter time. Live steam was used for heating, and 
numerous traps were wasting both steam and hot water. As 
a result of my investigation an exhaust-steam heating system 
was installed, and that stopped all complaints of the insuffi- 
cient supply of steam. 

This long story about a factory may seem to have nothing 
to do with academic efficiency, but there are several points of 
resemblance between its condition and that of some educa- 
tional establishments. They, like it, are suffering from in- 
efficient management continued through a long period of 



years; they have too many items in their catalogue; heads of 
departments at loggerheads; a board of directors who are 
capitalists, but who know nothing of the details of the business 
they are supposed to direct; a president and general manager 
who is well versed in the advertising part of the business, but 
knows nothing of the best ways of producing its product. The 
factory, however, has two points of difference from and advan- 
tages over the college. (1) The competition of its rivals forces 
it to improve its methods, while the college has no such stimu- 
lus to improvement. (2) The manager of the factory re- 
ferred to knows that he knows nothing about the best way of 
running a factory and therefore calls in outside expert assist- 
ance, the manager of the college thinks he knows it all, and 
therefore has no need of advice. 

I said some educational establishments, not all. There are 
others, and this brings me to another story. It is about a 

A certain large university more than twenty-five years ago 
had an engineering college that was already suffering from 
dry rot, although it was only about ten years old. It had a 
good location, excellent buildings and equipment, and ample 
funds, yet the college had lost prestige, and the number of 
students was decreasing. The president of the university 
knew nothing about engineering education, but he was wise 
enough not to pretend to know anything about it. He asked 
half a dozen or more consulting engineers and engineering 
professors to visit the college and independently to give him 
written reports as to what ought to be done to improve the 
college. I was one of the visitors. I found that the college 
was divided into two independent departments, one theoretical 
and the other practical, each presided over by a professor who 
was responsible only to the president. I spent a morning 
with one of these professors and an afternoon with the other. 
Bach told a tale of woe, about the utter worthlessness and 
total depravity of the other men. I advised the dismissal of 



both, and the appointment of a man who was big enough to 
be the head of the whole college. Some months were spent 
by the president of the university in getting these reports and 
in interviewing different experts, including men whose names 
had been suggested as qualified for the position. He selected 
the right man, gave him full authority, approved his every 
request, and the trustees gave him everything he asked for in 
the way of competent assistants and additional equipment. 
The theoretical professor resigned, and the practical one grace- 
fully subsided into a minor subordinate position, where he 
gave no trouble. The college grew with great rapidity. In 
ten years it was in the front rank of the engineering colleges 
of the world, which position it still holds. 

Note the points of similarity between the factory and the 
university as related in these two stories. Each was suffer- 
ing from inefficient management, each had a president who 
was ignorant of the details of the business, but who was con- 
scious of his ignorance and was willing to take advice from out- 
side. In each case the advice was taken, with the best possible 

My subject is entitled Academic Efficiency. I use this short 
term merely because it has been used before to mean the effi- 
ciency of educational methods, and it may be necessary to 
explain that the word " academic 99 here means relating to an 
academy or educational establishment, and not, as it some- 
times means, " unreal " or " unpractical." The word effi- 
ciency is often used with different meanings. Dr. Eliot, ex- 
president of Harvard University, in his little book on " Educa- 
tion for Efficiency 99 defines it as " effective power for work 
and service during a healthy and active life," and he says 
" national education will be effective in proportion as it secures 
in the masses the development of this power and its applica- 
tion in infinitely various forms to the national industries and 
the national service." The engineer uses a more restricted 
and technical definition, the quotient of output divided by 



input, or the relation or ratio of the result achieved to the 
effort in obtaining it. Mr. Harrington Emerson objects to 
this definition as insufficient in its not including an equitable 
standard of achievement or output as one of its factors, and 
defines efficiency as the " relation between an equitable 
standard and an actual achievement," or " the relation between 
what is and what could be." 

Strictly speaking, the engineer's definition is limited to cases 
in which both the input and the output may be measured in 
the same unit, or in units that are convertible one into the other, 
such as foot-pounds and heat-units, but it is a convenient defi- 
nition for many cases in which neither the whole output nor the 
whole input are capable of accurate measurement in similar 
terms. F or example, 

We spend or give : We get or gain : 

Wear and tear of machinery, 

If we take the engineers' definition expanded in this way 
so as to include in the input every conceivable kind of expendi- 
ture and in the output every conceivable kind of achievement, 
it will apply to every activity of man. The efficiency while 
it cannot be stated in figures, as a percentage, is measured by 
the value of the output in relation to the input or expendi- 
ture. Thus a business man may spend every one of the items 
listed under the head of input, and measured by a money stand- 
ard the result may show a high efficiency, but measured by a 
broader standard, in which the result as to health is a negative 
quantity, it is most inefficient. Then if he takes to playing 


Money or raw material, 
Physical labor, 
Mental labor, 
Nervous energy, 


Money or saleable goods, 



golf he may spend time, money and physical labor, and gain 
health: The efficiency by the money standard is zero, but by 
the broader standard, including health, recreation and satis- 
faction, he may consider that the efficiency of the operation is 
100 per cent. 

A college spends all the items listed under " input." Its 
efficiency is zero from the money standard, for its business is 
not to make money, and may be high or low measured in the 
other items listed under output. By Mr. Emerson's defi- 
nition, the relation of an equitable standard to the actual 
achievement, or the relation between what is and what could 
be, we compare the actual output in health, recreation, educa- 
tion and satisfaction, with what might be realized under the 
best possible conditions of system and management. Are the 
results what they ought to be in kind, in quality or in quan- 
tity, and if they are not, what are the defects and how can 
they be remedied? 

In the big factory of which the story has been told, the 
product included 14,000 items, many of which should have 
been abandoned, and much of the inefficiency was due to the 
factory's making products that should not have been made. 
When an efficiency expert begins his operations in a factory 
his first questions are: What kind of product is made? Why 
is it made? Why not abandon it if it is not profitable? The 
same questions might be asked of a college. The next set of 
questions covers the quality. Is the quality too highly refined 
and too costly, so that its market is limited? Is it too common 
and cheap, so that it has to be brought into competition with 
the poorest goods on the market? Is it out of date and un- 
fashionable? Is the quality what it ought to be, and if not 
what are the reasons, and how can it be improved? Surely 
these questions may be asked of a college, and it is the gen- 
eral belief that the answers would not be complimentary to 
the college. There are serious defects in the quality of the 
college product. 



Next come questions as to quantity. Is the factory turning 
out too much of one kind of goods, so that the market is 
glutted and the price too low? Is it turning out too little, so 
that it is not doing as much business as it might do? Is it 
turning out too much of one kind and not enough of another; 
and if so, what changes should be made so as to establish a 
proper balance? Is the college overcrowding the professions 
with men who are not needed in them? Is it failing to supply 
the demand for the kind of men who are needed? The com- 
mon opinion is that both of these questions must be answered 
in the affirmative. The last report of the Carnegie Founda- 
tion for the Advancement of Teaching says, " In almost every 
State of the Union there are more colleges in name than the 
country needs or can afford. They have been started without 
much regard to the ultimate educational demands — weak and 
often superfluous colleges. In many cases their existence 
makes impossible that of good high schools which would far 
better serve the educational interests of the community." 

After these questions of kind, quality, and quantity of prod- 
uct are considered, then comes the question of cost per unit 
of product and of possible methods of reducing that cost. In 
the factory the solution of these questions is one of great diffi- 
culty and complexity. It includes the items of location, build- 
ings, machinery, system of organization, functional foreman- 
ship, statistics, accounting, planning of work, routing it 
through the shop, methods of payment of wages, keeping high- 
priced men only on high-priced work and finally time study 
resolved into its elements, that is motion-study. I quote from 
Frank B. Gilbreth's new book on Motion Study: 

" There is no waste of any kind in the world that equals the 
waste from needless, ill-directed, and ineffective motions. . . . 
Tremendous savings are possible in the work of everybody — 
they are not for one class, they are not for the trades only ; they 
are for the officers, the schools, the colleges, the stores, the 



household, and the farms. ... It is obvious that these im- 
provements must and will come in time. But there is inesti- 
mable loss in every hour of delay. The waste of energy of the 
workers in the industries to-day is pitiful. ... In the mean- 
time, while we are waiting for the politicians and educators to 
realize the importance of this subject and to create the bureaus 
and societies to undertake and complete the work, we need not 
be idle. There is work in abundance to be done. Motion study 
must be applied to all the industries. Our trade schools and 
engineering colleges can: 

" 1. Observe the best work of the best workers. 

" 2. Photograph the methods used. 

" 3. Record the methods used. 

" 4. Record outputs. 

" 5. Record costs. 

" 6. Deduce laws. 

" 7. Establish laboratories 4 for trying out laws.' 
" 8. Embody laws in instructions. 
" 9. Publish bulletins. 

" 10. Cooperate to spread results and to train the rising gen- 

Mr. Gilbreth refers to motion-study of the industries that are 
producing material wealth, but his words may be applied to 
the industry of educating men and women, that is to the schools 
and colleges. 

The methods of reducing the cost per unit of product in 
industrial concerns have now been reduced to a science by the 
management experts, Taylor, Gantt, Emerson, Parkhurst and 
others. In educational circles only the merest beginning has 
been made. Bulletin No. 5 of the Carnegie Foundation for 
the Advancement of Teaching, a quarto pamphlet of 164 pages, 
entitled " Academic and Industrial Efficiency," contains a re- 
port by Morris Llewellyn Cooke of the investigation of the 
department of physics of eight different colleges or universities. 
Mr. Cooke has had several years' experience as expert on man- 
agement of industrial works, and is now Director of Public 



Works of the city of Philadelphia. His report is only a pre- 
liminary one, and covers little more than a statistical inves- 
tigation of the cost of instruction in physics per student- 
hour, and some observations on methods of administration, and 
on the economical use of buildings and of the time of the pro- 
fessors and instructors, in all of which he found great differ- 
ences. The total cost of physics per student-hour at Harvard 
was $1.08 and at Wisconsin $0.60. Of these totals the interest 
on plant and equipment and administrative expense account is 
$0.53 at Harvard, and $0.18 at Wisconsin. There are differ- 
ences in the colleges which are far more important, however, 
than those that can be expressed in dollars and cents. For 
example, Mr. Cooke found one in which the professors showed 
the heartiest interest in the progress of each individual student, 
and another in which " every time the students were mentioned, 
there were evidences that the teachers had in mind the students' 
scholarly inferiority and waywardness." 

The cost per student-hour for any subject may be obtained 
as in Mr. Cooke's investigation. It will be a far larger task 
to determine the efficiency of the student-hour — that is what 
return in valuable education the student gets for the expendi- 
ture of the thousands of student-hours that he spends in col- 
lege. We have as yet no standards of measurement by which 
educational efficiency can be satisfactorily measured, but it 
cannot be doubted that some day such standards will be found, 
when well-qualified experts are employed to find them. For 
a method of obtaining such a standard in English composition, 
see the writer's paper in Proceedings of the Society for the 
Promotion of Engineer'mg Education in 1907 on " An Experi- 
ment in Teaching English to Freshmen in a University." 

Efficiency, according to the engineers' definition, is the rela- 
tion of output to input, or the relation of the result to the 
effort and cost expended in achieving it. From the college 
student's standpoint, the input is four years of time and say 
$2,000 to $4,000 in money. The output is what he receives 



for that amount of time and money. Let us put what he re- 
ceives in tabular form under two heads, life and study. 





Social Activity. 





Moral Uplift. 





Foundations of 
Science and Art. 
Relating directly 
to life work. 
Non-useful or 

How many hours out of the twenty-four in a day are student- 
hours, and how many are devoted to so-called college life? Is 
his time properly divided between the activities of life and study ? 
Of the student-hours is there the proper balance between the 
cultural and the other branches? How and by whom is this 
balance determined? Which of the courses are prescribed and 
which are elective, and why? What text-books are used, and 
why? Are particular courses taught by the text-book and 
recitation method, by the lecture and note-book method, by the 
problem method, or by the laboratory method ? Is each teacher 
free to use his own method or is the method determined on 
by a department head or committee or by other authority? 
What experimental pedagogical work has been done to dis- 
cover the relative efficiency of different methods? What are 
the results of such experiments? Have they been reduced to 
statistical form and published? What is the administration 
doing to improve educational efficiency? Is there any method 
employed to measure the relative efficiency of different teach- 
ers, or of the same teacher in different years or when using 
different methods? How are the tenures of office, promotion, 
salary, etc., determined? How are poor teachers got rid of 
or transferred to other positions in which they may be more 
efficient? What is the organization of the college, and what 
are the efficiencies of the board of trustees, the president, and 



the heads of departments? If an investigator like Mr. Cooke, 
or preferably a commission of investigators, were to report to 
the Carnegie Foundation answers to these questions after a 
year's examination of a dozen or more institutions of learning, 
it is safe to say that an appalling lack of efficiency would be 
disclosed. The commission would find every grade of good- 
ness and of badness in the teaching staff, teachers generally 
overworked, underpaid and dissatisfied and on the lookout for 
positions elsewhere. It would find self-perpetuating boards of 
trustees responsible to nobody, individual trustees chosen not 
for any educational qualification, but solely because they are 
men of wealth and influence; presidents chosen through per- 
sonal or political favoritism, whose ideas of education are those 
of the middle ages, and whose methods of government are those 
of the tyrant. It would find the conditions mentioned by Presi- 
dent Benton, of the University of Vermont, in his inaugural ad- 
dress, 1911, namely, the election of new members of the faculty 
dependent entirely on the dictum of the president, " the admin- 
istrative office a veritable cesspool where unpleasant experiences 
are deposited," " a coterie of professors painfully sycophantic in 
the presence of their 4 lord and master ' and bitterly denun- 
ciatory of him when left to themselves," " reprehensible hypoc- 
risy by those who teach," etc. President Benton seems to be 
unaware of the fact that the sycophancy and hypocrisy which 
he thus bewails are the inevitable results of government by 
an ignorant despot, and that they can be done away with only 
by a radical change in the system of government. I do not 
wish to be understood as believing that the conditions thus 
described are universal. There are many institutions in which 
there is no autocratic government, and in which the govern- 
ment approaches in some respect to democratic ideals, where 
free speech is possible, where merit is recognized and rewarded, 
and where the teaching methods are constantly being improved. 
Here and there we find evidences of attempts to find the best 
methods, and of new experiments in education whose results are 



very promising, for example, Professor Franklin's improve- 
ment at Lehigh in the method of teaching laboratory physics ; 
the examination of the English teaching in different technical 
schools by Professor Earle, of Tufts College, the introduction 
of the preceptorial system at Princeton, Professor Schneider's 
cooperative system in Cincinnati, the university extension work 
at Wisconsin, the investigation by a committee of the Society of 
American Bacteriologists of the teaching of microbiology; and 
Dr. Rumley's experimental preparatory school at Interlaken, 

Mr. Harrington Emerson has written a book entitled " The 
Twelve Principles of Efficiency." He wrote it with especial 
reference to the efficiency of manufacturing establishments, 
but the principles may be applied to educational institutions. 
They are the following: (1) Clearly defined ideals. (2) Com- 
mon sense. (3) Competent counsel. (4) Discipline. (5) The 
fair deal. (6) Reliable, immediate and exact records. (7) 
Despatching. (8) Standards and schedules. (9) Standard- 
ized conditions. (10) Standardized operations. (11) Writ- 
ten standard practice instructions. (12) Efficiency reward. 
The investigating committee might use this list of twelve prin- 
ciples of efficiency in its examination of the colleges and find 
to what extent they are in operation. 

Suppose that the Carnegie Foundation were to have an in- 
vestigation made such as is here suggested, what good would 
it do? The same good that Mr. Cooke's investigation of the 
cost of the student-hour did, and something more. It would 
call public attention to the subject, and might lead some uni- 
versities to reform some of their methods. It would reveal 
how bad things are, which is the first step toward reform. 
The report would be denounced as Mr. Cooke's has been, by 
college presidents and by editorial writers of conservative 
ways of thinking, as utterly subversive of all the ancient edu- 
cational ideals, and involving " a gross and fundamental 
error." But it would set men thinking. It would show them 



that some universities and colleges and some educational 
methods are better than others, and give the public some 
knowledge which would enable them to select the best colleges, 
and some educators of a progressive turn of mind the infor- 
mation they are looking for in regard to methods. 

The best possible result of such a report, however, might be 
that it might induce some multi-millionaire to think that he 
had a duty to perform in helping to improve the efficiency of 
educational methods, by contributing the funds that would 
be required to carry on an educational experiment similar in 
extent to the experiments carried on by Mr. F. W. Taylor in 
the Midvale and Bethlehem Steel Works. It required more 
than twenty years of labor and the expenditure of some hun- 
dreds of thousands of dollars to carry on his experiments on 
tool steel, which have revolutionized machine-shop practice, 
and on scientific management, which bids fair to cause a far 
more important revolution in all our industrial systems. Mr. 
Taylor's system of management cannot be adopted without 
many modifications by an educational institution, but his 
system of experimentation can be. It is simply the careful 
collection of all the facts by an expert, their study by mathe- 
matical methods, the making of experiments to get more facts, 
their further study, and careful reasoning to arrive at cor- 
rect conclusions. It takes years of time, thousands of dollars 
of money, and can only be undertaken with any probability 
of reaching valuable results by a scientific expert who is en- 
tirely unhampered by old traditions. The motto of the con- 
servative is " whatever is, is right," that of the scientific expert 
is, " whatever is, is apt to be wrong ; I am going to test it and 
find out whether it is right or wrong." 

Here is the outline of an educational experiment to take 
ten years of time and cost half a million of dollars — less money 
by the way than one second-class university has spent on its 
equipment for athletics within a few years, and less than has 
been paid by BOme millionaires for a couple of paintings. 



Appoint a commission of five well-educated men who are 
not connected with any educational institution, say a minister, 
a doctor, a farmer, a merchant and an engineer, to secure a 
wide diversity in points of view. Pay them $5,000 a year 
each for the first year, and a smaller sum in succeeding years, 
when their time will not be fully occupied, and provide them 
with an office, stenographer and clerk, and funds for traveling 
expenses. Let them spend a preliminary year in investigating 
actual educational conditions in this country, collecting facts, 
statistics and expert opinions, on which they should prepare a 
report. They should also report their opinion on what should 
be the course of education of a boy between the ages of fourteen 
and sixteen, if he intends to go to work in the mechanical trades 
or in commerce at the age of sixteen, also what should be the 
course from fourteen to eighteen (1) if he intends to go to work 
at eighteen, (2) if he intends to enter a general college, (3) if 
he intends to enter a technical school. The second year the 
experiment is to be begun. Select a hundred boys who are 
ready to enter high school, of the majority of whom there is 
a reasonable probability that they will, if they prove fitted for 
it at eighteen, take a college course. Rent a preparatory 
school, or a portion of one, and have the boys taught, by 
selected teachers, in the courses laid down by the commission. 
Provide enough tutors or preceptors to insure that the edu- 
cation of the boys is properly supervised and that their time 
is not wasted. Continue their high school education, for as 
many of them as stay in school, for four years. During all 
their time the commissioners are to be studying methods of 
teaching, and methods of measuring the efficiency of teaching, 
preparing practical standards of examination, not merely to 
test the memory of the scholars, as in ordinary examinations, 
but to test their mental and bodily powers. Find out not only 
what the boys know, as a mere act of memory, but what and 
how they think, and what they can actually do. Test not only 
the hundred boys, or as many of them as remain, but also, boys 



in other high schools, by the same standards or by other stand- 
ards that may be proposed by the high school teachers. Cul- 
tivate the same spirit of emulation for success in scholarship 
that now exists for success in the athletic field, but give them 
also enough athletics and other recreation to develop their 
bodies as well as their minds. Train them also in hygiene, in 
morals and in manners, to make them not only scholars but 

During these four years the commissioners are also studying 
college administration, courses, methods of teaching, and effi- 
ciency, and determining standards of measurement of effi- 
ciency. When the boys are through their preparatory course 
of four years, send them to such colleges as have been selected 
for them, have them take the courses for which they are fitted, 
provide tutors for them, and watch their progress through 
the college, testing them by predetermined standards in com- 
parison with other college students. At the end of the four- 
year college courses, the commission is to report on the whole 
eight years' experiment. It will be found that many mis- 
takes have been made, but probably not so many as would be 
made in an ordinary eight-year course of high school and 
college. The success of the experiment is not to be judged 
by the success of these selected boys, but by the value of the 
information obtained and reported on by the commissioners 
as to the various methods of teaching and of college adminis- 
tration and by the acquirement of standards by which aca- 
demic efficiency may be measured in the future. 

During the whole of the eight years' experiment the boys 
should be required to keep a diary in which they record what 
seem to be the most important items concerning their educa- 
tion, and they should once a year present to the commissioners 
a written report of their progress, keeping a copy for their 
own future use. Four years after they have graduated from 
college, when their minds are sufficiently mature, they should 
bo asked to write critical reports of their educational career 



as it then appears to them. A study of these reports by the 
commission, which should be continued in existence for that 
purpose, would no doubt furnish fruitful ideas for further 
educational progress. 

Cecil Rhodes did a noble work in establishing the founda- 
tion of the Rhodes Scholarship in Oxford. Andrew Carnegie 
has done a grand work in establishing the Carnegie Institute 
for Scientific Research and for the Advancement of Teaching. 
Equally grand will be the work of him who shall establish a 
foundation for the application of the methods of scientific man- 
agement to the improvement of academic efficiency. 

This proposed plan is merely a suggestion. There may be a 
better plan, but whatever it may be it will take years of hard 
work and a large sum of money to accomplish the desired 
results. It might be undertaken by the Carnegie Foundation 
for the Advancement of Teaching, by the Russell Sage 
Foundation, or by the government, but the funds of these^ 
foundations are probably already fully employed, and judg- 
ing by the past non-activity of the government in educational 
matters it might take twenty years of agitation before Con- 
gress could be induced to make the necessary appropriation. 
The government has a Department of Agriculture which is 
making experiments for the farmer, to enable him to grow 
larger and better crops, a bureau of forestry which is trying 
to conserve our forests, a bureau of mines which is experi- 
menting on improving the methods of mining and on the 
prevention of accidents. It has also a bureau of education, 
which publishes statistics of schools and colleges and some 
interesting papers on educational subjects, but which has 
never investigated academic efficiency or carried on an edu- 
cational experiment. All educational reforms in this country 
have been originated by individual philanthropists or by indi- 
vidual universities. They do not come about by normal 
process of evolution in the educational world or by govern- 
mental action, with perhaps a single exception, the Morrill 



Land Grant Act of 1862, fifty years ago. We therefore 
must look for a millionaire philanthropist to begin the great 
educational experiment which will lead to improving the 
methods of training our future citizens. 

Our modern educational literature, addresses of college 
presidents and school superintendents, proceedings of soci- 
eties, etc., all show the prevailing consensus of opinion that 
there is something seriously wrong with our whole educational 
system, and that instead of getting better it is constantly 
tending to grow worse. There exists also a great amount of 
ultra-conservatism and of mental inertia relating to the sub- 
ject. It is high time that something practical be done in the 
way of reform. 





By Harold H. C. Lasher, M.E., '12 



■ ■ 

B ■ 

THE importance of street lighting was first realized dur- 
ing the mediaeval ages. With the infestation of the 
roads by thieves and highwaymen it became necessary 
to have a means of marking the way by night. The primitive 
method of accomplishing this end took the form of lanterns 
and torches. 

The dim and flickering lighting thus obtained was improved 
during the seventeenth century when public lighting concerns 
were given franchises to light the streets. It was not until the 
eighteenth century that street lighting was undertaken at pub- 
lic expense. 

The purpose of street lighting up to this time was to pre- 
vent crime. It was strictly a measure for public safety. As 
the legitimate use of streets by night increased, the necessity 
of more lights became apparent. The growth of cities made 
it essential to have illuminants of higher efficiency. 

With the introduction of the automobile during the nine- 
teenth century and the increasing establishment of business 
thoroughfares in large cities, street lighting at the present 
day is called upon to serve more purposes than one. It is not 
only an adjunct to the police force, but it must help prevent 
accidents, beautify the city, and also contribute toward in- 
creasing business. 

Electricity was first applied to street lighting during the 
early part of the nineteenth century. Sir Humphrey Davy 
invented the first voltaic arc in 1809. Although a crude affair, 

* This essay was awarded the Stillman Prize of Applied Technology. 



it marked the birth of the electric light. The electric arc was 
first introduced as a practical source of light in 1844 by 
Foucault and began then to be considered for street lighting. 
An incandescent lamp was invented by Grove in 1840. It was 
not until 1880 that this type was introduced into actual prac- 

The problem of efficient street lighting implies the produc- 
tion of satisfactory illumination at the least cost of operation. 
The many attempts which have been made to solve this prob- 
lem mark the development of various types of electric arc and 
incandescent lamps. 

The illumination of any light source is determined by a study 
of its intensity and distribution. 

The intensity of illumination is the relative amount of lumi- 
nous energy and is generally expressed in candle power. The 
candle power of a lamp is obtained by photometric means ; the 
values obtained at various angles in a vertical plane passing 
through the light source determine the " intensity " or " distri- 
bution curve " of the lamp. Such a curve is shown in Fig. 1. 

The distribution of the light over the surface of the street 
depends upon the height and spacing of the lamps. The dis- 
tribution is measured in foot candles, a foot candle being de- 
fined as " the normal illumination produced by one unit of candle 
power at a distance of one foot." 

If the intensity of the light source in candle power be I, 
the distance in feet between the light source and any point P 
on the street surface be S, the acute angle between the ray 
S and the vertical be A, the normal illumination at P in foot 
candles is 


In — g 2 ; 

the horizontal illumination at P is then 



The distribution should be made as uniform as possible ; when 
it is not uniform the change in intensity should not be too 
rapid, since the eye is then not able to distinguish objects 

Artificial illumination is primarily a physiological proposi- 
tion. It is therefore necessary to study the quality as well as 
the quantity of light. An important consideration is that of 

Glare is caused by the use of lamps having high intrinsic 
brilliancy. The undiffused light striking the retina of the eye 
produces much discomfort. The iris of the eye tends to keep 
the brilliancy of the light striking the retina at a constant 
value. Glare therefore has the effect of fatiguing the eye, the 
pupil becoming so contracted that the eye is strained trying 
to distinguish objects in the shadow. To avoid glare, the lamps 
should be kept out of the line of vision ; another remedy is to 
use diffusing globes or reflectors. 

The color of the light should be as nearly white as possible. 
The light should also be steady. 

The three factors entering into the cost of operation of street 
lamps are (a) fixed charges, (b) maintenance charges, and (c) 
energy charge. 

The fixed charges include interest (generally 6$) on capital 
invested, taxes, insurance, and depreciation. The depreciation 
charge is generally about 10$, which when placed in a sinking 
fund at 5$ will replace the equipment in eight or nine years. 
The replacement is due to obsolescence rather than physical 
decay. The depreciation charge is also governed by the life 
of the city ordinance. 

Maintenance charges include cost of renewals, breakage of 
glassware, repairs to the mechanism of the lamp, charge for 
labor in trimming, cleaning of glassware and reflectors, inspec- 
tion, and store room charges. 

Energy charge is based on the kilowatt hours consumed. 
For convenience of comparison the cost of energy is taken at 



the lamp terminals. The energy charge covers the cost of de- 
livering this power, including depreciation and maintenance of 
station equipment, poles, and wires. 

There are various methods of basing the cost of operation, 
these schemes being called schedules. The two schedules in 
common use are (a) the " all night and every night schedule " 
in which the lamp is assumed to burn 4,000 hours per year, 
and (b) " the moonlight schedule 99 in which the lamps do not 
burn on moonlight nights, this being equivalent to burning 
2,500 hours per year. The former scheme is used in large 
cities and the latter in small cities and suburban districts. 

The greater the number of hours that a lamp burns per year 
the less is the importance of the fixed charge. The shorter the 
schedule the more important is the fixed charge and the less 
important are the energy and maintenance charges. 

There are two systems of electrical distribution — the series 
and the multiple. Either direct or alternating current can be 
used on these systems. 

In the series system apparatus is provided at the station to 
keep the current constant for each circuit of lamps ; the voltage 
across the arc is kept constant by the feeding mechanism of the 
lamp which regulates the arc length. 

In the multiple system a standard voltage of 110 volts has 
been adopted, incandescent lamps generally being operated on 
this system. Since arc lamps require less voltage, resistance 
is used in series with the arc in multiple arc lamps to limit the 
current to the proper value. 

Alternating current arc lamps are not as efficient light pro- 
ducers as direct current arc lamps. The scheme now used quite 
extensively is to generate alternating current and to transmit 
it to the mercury arc rectifier. The latter converts the alter- 
nating current to direct current which passes to the direct 
current lamps. This is more economical than using direct cur- 
rent arc light generators. The rectifier makes it possible for 
any type of lamp to be operated with fair efficiency and con- 



tinuity of service from alternating current constant poten- 
tial generators. 

The series system is used more than the multiple on account 
of the larger and more expensive conductors required for the 
multiple system. " Current for each group of lamps may be 
carried over a rather small size of conductor without regard 
to the number of lamps in circuit if they are all connected in 

The " mean horizontal candle power 99 of a lamp is the aver- 
age intensity of light in a horizontal plane passing through 
the lamp. The "mean spherical candle power" (m.s.c.p.) is 
the average candle power taken over the surface of a sphere 
having its center at the light source. The " mean hemispher- 
ical candle power " (m.h.s.c.p.) is the average candle power 
taken over the surface of the lower hemisphere whose center is 
the light source. 

The total flux of light from a lamp is 4 tt times its mean 
spherical candle power; the unit of flux is the lumen. The 
efficiency of light production is the mean spherical candle power 
per watt (for incandescent lamps) of the mean hemispherical 
candle power per watt (for arc lamps). The specific consump- 
tion of a lamp is the reciprocal of the efficiency and is sometimes 
spoken of erroneously as the efficiency. 

The various arc lamps used for street lighting are types 
of the carbon arc and the flame or luminous arc. 

The two types of carbon arc lamps are (a) the open arc and 
(b) the enclosed arc. 

The open arc lamp was the most generally used arc light up 
to the late nineties. It is not employed extensively in this coun- 
try, but is abroad, where carbons of the highest grade and care- 
ful laborers may be cheaply had. 

There are two styles of open arc lamps. One operates at 
9.6 amperes and the other at 6.6 amperes, both using 50 volts 
at the arc. The power used by the lamps is 480 and 330 watts 



The 9.6 ampere lamp is called the " full arc " and has been 
classified as a " 2,000 candle power " lamp. This lamp gives 
a maximum candle power at an angle of 45 degrees, this value 
being 1,200 candle power; its mean hemispherical candle power 
is 600. 

The 6.6 ampere lamp is called the " half arc " and is classi- 
fied as a " 1,200 candle power " lamp. Its true maximum 
candle power is at an angle of 45 degrees and equals 700; its 
mean hemispherical candle power is 350. 

The open arc lamp can be operated on alternating or direct 
current. When alternating current is used, each carbon be- 
comes alternately positive and negative. The reversals of cur- 
rent must be sufficiently rapid so that the arc will not be extin- 
guished. This necessitates a frequency of at least 40 cycles 
per second, but 60 is generally used. 

The open arc in common use to-day operates at 9.6 amperes 
and 50 volts on direct current. The distribution curve of this 
lamp is shown in Fig. 1. 

The mean hemispherical candle power of this lamp is 600. 
Its efficiency is 1.25 m.h.s.c.p. per watt. The life of its elec- 
trodes is 17 hours and that of the outer globe is 1,000 hours. 
The cost of the lamp is $15.* 

The annual fixed charge is $2.40, the maintenance charge 
per 4,000 hours is $21.70 and the cost of energy per 4,000 
hours (at one cent per kilowatt hour) is $19.20. The total 
annual cost is therefore $43.30. 

The variation of light due to flickering and feeding is large 
in the open arc lamp. The electrodes are consumed rapidly ; 
this means trimming each day, entailing expense in labor and 

The light given off* by this lamp is bluish white in color. 
Although the efficiency of light production of this type is ex- 

* Cos\ data obtained from Bulletin No. 51, Engineering Experiment 
Station, University of Illinois. 



cellent, its distribution is not as good as that obtained with 
the enclosed type. The operating cost of the open arc is 
greater than that of the enclosed arc. The enclosed arc lamp 
has therefore superseded the open type in this country. 

In this type of arc lamp, the electrodes are enclosed in a 
refractory inner globe which is slightly opalescent. The arc is 
thus contained in a space which is nearly airtight. The elec- 
trodes are consumed very slowly, their life being as long as 100 
hours, or six times that of the open arc. Enclosing the elec- 
trodes also has the effect of improving the steadiness, but better 
electrodes are needed than for the open type. 

The direct current enclosed arc lamp takes from 3 to 7 am- 
peres. The usual sizes are 5 and 6.6 ampere lamps operating 
at 72 volts. The mean hemispherical candle power of the 6.6 
ampere lamp is 360. The power consumed is 475 watts, the 
efficiency being therefore 0.76 m.h.s.c.p. per watt. 

Poor results are obtained when low current density is used in 
the arc. The 5 ampere lamp gives only 239 m.h.s.c.p. at a 
wattage of 1.6 per candle power, the corresponding efficiency 
being 0.62 m.h.s.c.p. per watt. 

In the alternating current enclosed arc lamp the light flux 
is symmetrical about a horizontal plane. A reflector must 
therefore be used above the alternating current arc to turn the 
upward light down to the useful lower hemisphere. The maxi- 
mum light of such a lamp is nearer the horizontal than in the 
open arc or the direct current enclosed arc, its distribution is 
therefore excellent for great distances. 

The alternating current lamp is inferior to the direct cur- 
rent type in that the latter on account of the refractory inner 
globe gives a much better distribution of the light. 

The following table gives the relative costs of the 6.6 am- 
pere D. C, 7.5 ampere A. C, and the 6.6 ampere A. C. en- 
closed arc lamps. 



6.6 amp. D. C. 


amp. A. C. 

6.6 amp. A. C. 







" maintenance charge 




u energy charge 







The development during the past few years in street light- 
ing has been in the direction of securing more light from the 
arc stream of the carbon arc. This is accomplished by the 
flame arc (or the luminous arc). 

The flame arc is of three general types. One has mineral- 
ized carbons converging to an acute angle; another is known 
as the Blondel lamp and has vertical electrodes ; the third type 
has vertical electrodes, one of which is impregnated with metallic 
oxides, commonly oxides of iron and titanium. These three 
types give high candle power and are well adapted for large 

The inclined carbon type throws most of its light directly 
downward, and must therefore be placed specially high with 
respect to the spacing. It gives a steady arc and is a very 
satisfactory illuminant. The arc takes 10 amperes and oper- 
ates at about 55 volts. The mean hemispherical candle power 
is 1,785, the efficiency being 3.24 m.h.s.c.p. per watt, which is 
very high. 

The inclined carbon flame arc is used with both direct and 
alternating current. The life of the electrodes of this type is 
17 hours. The cost of the lamp is $60. 

The cost of operation is as follows: 

A. C. Lamp 

D. C. Lamp 

Annual fixed charge 

$ 9.60 

$ 9.60 

u maintenance charge 



" energy charge 



Total operating cost 





The vertical Blondel type of flame arc gives a wider distri- 
bution of the light than the inclined electrodes. This type is 
more efficient for street lighting than the inclined carbon type ; 
it takes 5.5 amperes at 43 volts. The specific consumption is 
as low as 0.26 watts per m.h.s.c.p. for the direct current type 
and 0.24 watts per m.h.s.c.p. for the alternating current type. 

This type is known as a long burning flame arc, the life of 
its electrodes being 70 hours for the direct current lamp and 
100 hours for the alternating current lamp. The cost of this 
lamp is $60. 

The cost of operation is as follows: 

A. C. Lamp 

D. C. Lamp 

$ 9.60 

$ 9.60 



u energy charge 





The present high cost of mineralized carbons and their rapid 
consumption has checked the progress of both the inclined and 
vertical electrode flame arcs. The color of the light is objec- 
tionable, being yellow. The intrinsic brilliancy is often too 
high in such lamps. 

The life of the electrodes in this flame arc may be increased 
by enclosing the arc. It is then known as the " regenerative 
arc." In this lamp the vapors from the impregnated elec- 
trodes are carried down and reintroduced into the arc cham- 
bers, increasing the luminous efficiency of the flame. 

The third class of flame arcs is known as the luminous arc. 
The best example of this class and the one extensively used 
is the magnetite lamp. 

Most of the light in this arc is produced by the oxide of 



titanium. The lower or negative electrode is an iron tube into 
which ground magnetite, titanium oxide and chromite are 
packed. The upper electrode is generally copper. The mag- 

Fig. 1. — Distribution Curves of Arc Lamps with Clear 
Outer Globes. 

A. 9.6 Amperes, D. C. Open Arc. 

B. 6.6 Amperes, D. C. Magnetite Arc. 

C. 4 Amperes, D. C. Magnetite Arc. 

netite melts, volatilizes, and carries with it the titanium; the 
function of the chromite is to absorb the fluid magnetite and 
steady the arc. 



The distinction which must be made between the flame arc 
and the luminous arc is that in the former the conductor of the 
current is not the light-giving material, whereas in the lumi- 
nous arc the light-giving material is the vapor conductor. 

The electrodes in ordinary flame arc lamps are consumed 
very rapidly. Long electrodes (14 to 18 inches) in these lamps 
do not last more than 10 to 17 hours. The magnetite elec- 
trodes, however, last from 85 to 200 hours. 

The light distribution of the magnetite lamp makes it an ex- 
cellent lamp for street lighting. The intensity is low directly 
beneath the lamp and high at angles a little below the hori- 

There are two types of magnetite lamps operating on 6.6 
amperes and 4 amperes respectively, at a voltage of 80. The 
mean hemispherical candle power of the former is 1,170 and 
that of the latter 457. The 6.6 ampere lamp has an efficiency 
of 2.22 m.h.s.c.p. per watt and the 4 ampere lamp has an effi- 
ciency of 1.43 m.h.s.c.p. per watt. Fig. 1 gives the " distribu- 
tion curve " for this lamp. 

The magnetite arc can easily be substituted for the carbon 
arc lamp, since it is operated with the same generators. The 
same amount of power is supplied but more than double the 
total illumination is produced by means of magnetite lamps. 

The cost of the magnetite lamp is $60. 

The operating cost is as follows : 

6.6. Ampere 
D. C. 

4 Ampere 
D. C. 

$ 6.40 

$ 6.40 



" energy charge 



Total annual cost of operation 





A comparison of the efficiencies and total costs of operation 
of the various arc lamps is given in the following table: 

9.6 ampere open arc, D. C 

6 .6 " enclosed arc, D. C 

7.5 8 enclosed arc, A. C 

6.6 " enclosed arc, A. C 

10.0 " flame arc (inclined), D. C 

10.0 « " " " A. C 

5.5 " " " (vertical), D. C 

5 .5 " « " " A. C 
4.0 " magnetite, D. C 

6 .6 ■ « D. C 

m. h. s. c. p. 
per Watt 


Cost of 


Fig. 2 shows the relation of the horizontal distribution of 
the various types of arc lamps. 

In the incandescent lamp, the light is produced by a fine 
filament heated to incandescence by a current of electricity. 
The filament is in a vacuum to prevent rapid oxidation and con- 
duction. The efficiency of the incandescent lamp depends on 
the temperature of the filament; its life, however, is decreased 
by rise of temperature. 

As a result of quite recent improvements, filaments of more 
refractory material are now used in incandescent lamps. These 
can be worked at higher temperatures and consequently higher 
efficiencies without materially sacrificing the life of the lamp. 

The distribution of light from an incandescent lamp depends 
on the form of the filament; other things being equal, the total 
light flux remains constant. 

The common incandescent lamps for street lighting are (a) 
the carbon filament lamp, (b) the metallized filament or " Gem n 
lamp, (c) the tantalum lamp, and (d) the tungsten lamp. 

The earliest incandescent lamp was the carbon filament type. 



Fig. 2. — Comparison of Horizontal Distribution at Street 
Surface by Different Lamps. 



It required 5 to 6 watts per candle ; improvements in the manu- 
facture of the filament resulted in a lamp having specific con- 
sumption of 3.1 watts per candle power. 

The common 16 candle power carbon filament lamp gives 
a mean spherical candle power of 13.2. It operates on 110 
volts taking a current of 0.45 amperes: It consumes a power 
of 50 watts. The efficiency of this lamp is 0.264 m.s.c.p. per 
watt. Its life is 450 to 500 hours. 

The annual energy charge (for 4,000 hours) for the carbon 
filament lamp, at one cent per kilowatt hour, is $5.60. The 
annual maintenance charge is $1.97. The fixed charge is 
about $1, so that the total cost of operation is $8.57.* 

The metallizing or graphitizing process for treating carbon 
filaments was developed about 1905. The type of lamp em- 
ploying this filament is called the " Gem " lamp. It can be 
operated at a higher efficiency than the ordinary carbon fila- 
ment lamp. The specific consumption of this lamp is 2.5 watts 
per candle; its life is the same as the 3.1 watt per candle carbon 

The " Gem 99 lamp, especially in small units, has given good 
results in series street lighting circuits. The ordinary sizes 
take 1.75, 3.0, 3.5, and 5.5 amperes; they give a horizontal 
candle power of from 20 to 50. 

The 20 candle power " Gem " lamp gives a mean spherical 
candle power of 16.5. It takes 0.45 amperes at 110 volts and 
has an efficiency of 0.33 m.s.c.p. per watt. The life of this 
lamp is about 450 hours. 

The annual energy cost of this lamp (at one cent per kilo- 
watt hour) is $4.32. The annual maintenance charge is $2.21. 
Fixed charge being $1 ; the total operating cost of this lamp 
is $7.53.* 

* Municipal Engineering, April, 1910. 



The tantalum lamp employs as its filament a metal resem- 
bling antimony having a melting point higher than that of 
platinum. The life of this type of lamp is about 900 hours 
on direct current and 500 hours on alternating current circuits. 

The 20 candle power tantalum lamp gives a mean hemi- 
spherical candle power of 16. It takes 0.36 amperes at 110 
volts and gives an efficiency of 0.4 m.s.c.p. per watt. 

The maintenance cost per 4,000 hours for the direct current 
lamp is $2.20 and for the alternating current lamp $4.* The 
direct current type is much more efficient and economical. 

The tungsten lamp was produced in 1905. The filament is 
made of a metal resembling chromium. 

This type is well adapted for high current, low voltage series 
lamp for use on constant current circuits for street lighting. It 
operates successfully on direct and alternating current. 

The tungsten lamp is the most efficient metal filament lamp. 
Its color is white and its intrinsic brilliancy high. The lamp 
should hang vertically so as to give a better distribution ; a longer 
life is also effected by this position of the lamp. Owing to the 
high intrinsic brilliancy the lamp should be enclosed by a bowl 
type reflector; the part of the lamp which projects below should 
be frosted. 

Both the tungsten and the tantalum lamp show less variation 
in candle power with fluctuations in voltage than the carbon fila- 
ment lamp. 

Tungsten lamps with horizontal candle power ranging from 
32 to 350 are used for street lighting. They all have a specific 
consumption of 1.18 watts per mean horizontal candle power 
and a life of 1,350 hours. 

Fig. 3 gives the " distribution curves 99 for a 200 candle 
power tungsten lamp. 

Municipal Engineering, April, 1910. 




The following table * gives the cost and operating character- 
istics of tungsten lamps suspended at the side of the street. 











Watts per mean horizontal candle 






Mean hemispherical candle power 






Watts per m. h. s. c. p 






Maximum candle power 











Maintanance charge 
















A comparison of the operating costs of the incandescent 
lamps considered shows that the saving in favor of the 32 
candle power tungsten over the carbon filament lamp is $2.13 
per year; the saving over the " Gem" lamp is $1.09. 

The specific consumption of the tungsten lamp is 1.18 watts 
per mean horizontal candle power as against 3.1 for the carbon 
lamp and 2.4 for the " Gem " lamp. 

The intensity and distribution of illumination for the tungsten 
lamp far exceeds that of other incandescent lamps. The effi- 
ciency of the various tungsten lamps is very high. 

The purposes which street lighting must serve depends largely 
upon the location of the lamp. 

Urban streets may be divided into three classes : (a) principal 
streets, (b) important cross streets and boulevards, and (c) 
residential streets. 

The illumination of business streets must be brilliant. It 
should be uniform and of sufficient intensity (at least 0.25 to 1 
foot candle) to enable a person to read ordinary size print. 

In European cities the inclined carbon flame arc is used to 
some extent for this purpose. The lamps are suspended over 
the center of the street at a height of about 40 feet and are 
spaced at about 200 feet. The effect produced is pleasant and 

* Bulletin No. 51. Engineering Experiment Station, University of Illinois. 



the street is brightly illuminated. With the reflection from the 
buildings the illumination averages about 2 foot candles. 

In this country much interest is being taken by the mer- 
chants in the illumination of business streets. In many cities, 
" downtown lighting associations " have been formed by the 
merchants to assist the city in meeting the cost of main- 
tenance; they are successfully bringing about more effective 
and artistic street lighting. 

As a result of the interest manifested by the merchants many 
of the large cities of this country are installing large units, 
consisting either of magnetite lamps or of four and five-lamp 
clusters of tungsten lights on ornamental poles. 

A prominent example of ornamental and efficient lighting of 
business streets is that of New Haven, Connecticut. The type of 
unit used is a single magnetite lamp mounted on a beautiful iron 
pole. The lamp is 14.5 feet above the sidewalk; the poles are 
placed on both sides of the street and staggered so as to be 
alternately spaced at 44 feet. The average illumination in the 
center of the street is 2.05 foot candles. The illumination is 
much more efficient than where 500 watt tungstens are used. 
The illumination from the magnetite lamp at 65 feet is equal to 
that of a 5 lamp tungsten cluster at 35 feet. The cost to the 
merchant of this lighting system is 11 cents per foot store front 
per month.* 

A five 100 watt tungsten cluster produces 400 candle power 
per column, while a magnetite lamp consuming the same power 
(500 watts) produces 1,000 candle power. 

The magnetite arc used in New Haven is enclosed by an opal 
globe which corrects the glare. The lamp mechanism is con- 
tained within the pole, the casing being part of the ornamental 

The illumination on boulevards and cross streets need not be 
very brilliant. The type of lighting required on cross streets 
depends on whether the street has shade trees or not. When 
' Electrical World, April 20, 1912. 


the street is shaded, the light should be suspended low unless 
the streets are very wide. Where there are no, shade trees, 
high intensity lamps suspended high or low intensity lamps 
hung low and spaced closely should be used. 

Boulevards are generally shaded. The lamps should there- 
fore be suspended at the sides of the street instead of over the 
center, so that the drivers of rapidly moving vehicles should 
not be blinded. The intensity of illumination should be from 
0.1 to 0.5 foot candles. For this class of street, tungstens and 
enclosed arc lamps are used. 

The chief requirement for residential streets is that a lamp 
should be placed at each street crossing for the safety of vehicles 
and pedestrians. 

Since this class of streets is generally shaded by trees, the 
lamps should not be more than 85 feet above the street sur- 
face. The character and color of the street surface affects the 
lighting of such streets. A snow-covered street, for example, 
appears much better lighted than one with no snow on it. Ma- 
cadamized or asphalt pavement needs more illumination than 
one paved with light bricks. 

The illumination in the immediate neighborhood of most arc 
lamps is higher than necessary for this class of street. The 
type of lamp which seems best adapted to residential streets 
is the incandescent lamp. 

The tungsten lamp giving a white and brilliant light and 
high intensity, placed high and far apart, has rapidly replaced 
the dim and closely spaced carbon filament lamp for this pur- 

The intensity of illumination of suburban streets need not 
be high. The lower candle-power tungsten lamps find efficient 
application to this class of street lighting. Such lamps should 
be spaced closely, and supported low so as not to be obstructed 
by foliage. 

Arc lights having a low cost of operation are also used. It 
is often the case that a community cannot afford to have an arc 



light at each street intersection in a suburban district. Tung- 
stens are then used to advantage. 

An aspect which presents itself in suburban street lighting 
is the effect of silhouetting. This is a method of discernment 
of an object by the contrast between the dark object and a 
light background. 

An arc light of high intensity is placed at distant intervals 
and illuminates only a portion of the street on account of the 
shading trees. A vehicle passing through the street is not seen 
by means of incident light, but the form of the vehicle is seen 
against the light background furnished by the light at the other 
end of the street. The lighter the background, the better the 
effect. Sometimes the lamps are situated at intervals as great as 
one quarter of a mile. The distance of the street surface back- 
ground from the observer is immaterial, provided the illumi- 
nation is substantially bright. 

In this case, the intensity of the illumination is the criterion ; 
the distribution is of little moment. 

A pedestrian whose clothing reflects the same light as that 
reflected by the street surface can be discerned much better 
by this silhouette effect than by means of incident light from 
the lamp. The amount of illumination required varies in ac- 
cordance with the locality. To determine the most desirable 
method of illumination, therefore, the local conditions must be 
taken into consideration. 

The arc lamp finds its application chiefly in urban streets 
where a high degree of illumination is required. The tendency 
in urban street lighting now is to do away with the enclosed 
arc lamp of relatively small candle power and low efficiency 
and to substitute the arc lamps of higher candle power, such 
as the magnetite lamp. 

In suburban districts, where the amount of light required 
is not so high, the series incandescent lamp proves very satis- 
factory. The tungsten lamp is the type which gives the best 
results in this field of illumination. 





lltlllllllllllllllllttllllt illlllllltllllllllllllltlllllllllllllllllll^iift n»i ■< mini ■ ii«%t%tini 



STEVEXS lost one of her most notable Alumni in the 
death of Maunsel White, who died at the home of his 
brother-in-law, Edwin W. Rodd, in New Orleans on Oc- 
tober 22, 1912. Mr. White was 56 years old. He had been 
troubled by ill health, so that he gave up work in the North 
some eight years ago. 

He was born on his father's plantation, Deer Range, situ- 
ated in Plaquemines Parish on the Mississippi River about 
forty miles below the city of New Orleans, on March 15, 1856. 
He was a nephew of Chief Justice White of the United States 
Supreme Court, and his maternal grandmother was the sister 
of Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States. 

After receiving his early education from private tutors at 
his father's home, he entered Georgetown University. Deciding 
upon an engineering career, he entered the School of Technol- 
ogy, at Worcester, Mass., and after graduation there entered 
the workshops of the Lehigh Valley Railroad, at Weatherby, 
Pa. Realizing the need for higher technical education after 
the practical knowledge of mechanics thus gained, he entered 
Stevens Institute of Technology, and graduated in the Class 
of 1876 with honors, being valedictorian of the class. 

He was then engaged by the Bethlehem Iron & Steel Com- 
pany, where his ability soon won him high rank. Probably his 
best known work was the development, with Frederick W. Tay- 
lor, of the Taylor-White process for hardening tool steel, 
which was revolutionary in character, in many cases doubling 
and trebling the output of metal cutting machines. 

Mr. White was in charge of the Bethlehem Company's exhibit 
at tlx- World's Fair in Chicago in 1893, and also at the Paris 




Exposition in 1900. He was personally presented with a bronze 
medal of merit by the administration of the Paris Fair for the 
excellence of the exhibition he had planned. As representative 
of his company, he frequently visited Europe, negotiating the 
sale of armor-plate to foreign governments, particularly that 
of Russia. He was a life member of the American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers, and a member of the Iron and Steel In- 
stitute (British), and the .American Institute of Mining Engi- 

5 8 



Chester Edmonds Bradley was born on January 9, 1883, 
at Jersey City, N. J. He was educated in the public schools 
of that city until his thirteenth year, when he entered the 
Stevens School, at Hoboken, graduating there in 1899. He 
entered the freshman class at Stevens in the autumn of that 
year and graduated in 1903. 

During his college course he stood well in his class, was a 
member of the Mu Chapter of the Chi Phi Fraternity and 
was prominent in all activities connected with the college. He 
played on his class lacrosse team in his freshman and sopho- 
more years, acting as captain in his sophomore year, and 
played on his class football team in the same years. He played 
on the varsity football team in his freshman year, but after 
that gave more of his attention to lacrosse, playing on the 
varsity lacrosse team in his sophomore, junior and senior 

He graduated well up in his class and took a position with 
the Astoria Light, Heat & Power Company, at Astoria, L. I., 
remaining with this company until he left to accept a posi- 
tion with the Standard Oil Company at the Bayonne Works. 
Here he remained until 1908, when he took a post-graduate 
course in mining engineering at the Columbia School of Mines. 
He completed two years' work in one year, but in so doing suf- 
fered a breakdown in health from which he never fully recov- 
ered. After completing the course he traveled over the United 
States for some months, and then took a position with the 
Public Service Corporation in Jersey City, but was obliged 
to leave this position on account of ill health, and after a pro- 
longed illness at his home in Jersey City died there on Octo- 
ber 29, 1912. 

During his college course he was universally popular, and 
his loss will be keenly felt by all who have had the privilege 
of knowing him. 



The following resolutions have been adopted by the Class 
of 1903: 

Whereas, It has pleased the Almighty God to take unto him- 
self our friend and classmate, Chester Edmonds Bradley; and 

Whereas, We of the Class of Nineteen Hundred and Three 
have lost in him a classmate whose noble and lovable character 
won for him our respect and sincerest friendship, and whose 
death has caused us deep sorrow; be it therefore 

Resolved, That these resolutions which shall be preserved in 
the Annals of the Class, and a copy of which shall be placed 
in The Stevens Indicator, express our deep grief at his loss ; 
and be it also 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be tendered his 
bereaved family as a token of our sincere sympathy for them 
in this time of their sorrow. 

J. V. B. Duer, 
W. J. Bray, 
F. Rabbe, Jr., 



Samuel Tenney Mudge, '06, died of diabetes at his home 
in South Manchester, Connecticut, on September 8, 1912. It 
was only devotion to his little family, and keen interest in his 
business to the end, that enabled him to fight powerfully against 
his growing weakness the last year, and to live as long as he did. 

Mr. Mudge was born on February 22, 1884, in Brooklyn, 
the son of Alfred Eugene and Mary Gilbert Ten Broeck Mudge. 
His father was a prominent lawyer who was at one time Cor- 
poration Counsel for the old City of Brooklyn. He received 
his early education at the Polytechnic Preparatory School, 
and the Boys' High School of Brooklyn, where he attended for 



four years. He then entered Stevens Institute and was grad- 
uated in 1906. While at the Institute he took an active part 
in athletics, playing on the 'varsity football team for three 
years. He was also very much interested in photography and 
took a large number of pictures of classes, athletic teams, 
etc., especially during his last two years at the Institute. 

Upon graduation Mr. Mudge entered the service of the Amer- 
ican Sugar Refining Company in Jersey City. After two years 
with that company, he went to the University of Michigan and 
taught machine designing for two years. He then accepted a 
position as General Manager and Superintendent of the two 
mills of the Rogers Paper Manufacturing Company, South 
Manchester, Connecticut. In two years, mainly by his energy 
and ability, the output of the plant was more than doubled and 
the floor area increased seventy per cent. 

He was a Junior Member of the American Society of Me- 
chanical Engineers and formerly a member of the University 
Club of Brooklyn. 

In September, 1907, Mr. Mudge married Marion W. Cud- 
lipp, a sister of Charles W. Cudlipp, '06. 

Besides his widow, he leaves a son, Robert S. Mudge. He is 
also survived by a brother, Alfred E., and two sisters, Isadore 
G. and Clara D. Mudge. 

The Class of 1906, through a committee, have sent a letter 
to Mrs. Mudge, expressing the deep sorrow felt at the loss of 
a sincere friend, who by his genial, manly and unselfish char- 
acter endeared himself to every man in the class. 









Stevens Alumni and their friends to the number of a thou- 
sand thronged the boxes, orchestra and first balcony at the 
New Amsterdam Theatre on the evening of December 6, 1912, 
on the occasion of the first annual theatre party of the Stevens 
Alumni Association. The affair was planned as a benefit to 
swell the somewhat depleted funds of the Association's treasury, 
and more than $900 was realized, in addition to the flood of 
pleasant memories that the audience carried away from the 
theatre at the close of the performance. 

The attraction was " The Count of Luxembourg," one of 
the reigning successes of the musical comedy variety of the 
New York season. The company was capable, the lines bright, 
and the music catching. The Cardinal and Gray of Stevens 
and the national colors were blended effectively in special deco- 
rations of the theatre, while from the boxes hung the banners 
of many of the classes. 

In the fifteen-minute intermission between the acts, Presi- 
dent E. H. Peabody, '90, made a graceful speech before the cur- 
tain, in which he thanked those who by their support had made 
the evening such a success, both socially and financially. He 
pointed out many of the notable Alumni occupying boxes or or- 
chestra chairs, and called for a Stevens cheer for President 
Humphreys, which was given with a will. B. Franklin Hart, 
Jr., '87, chairman of the committee, then led the audience in 
singing " A Song for Old Stevens " and " Alma Mater," to the 
accompaniment of the full orchestra of the theatre. 

When the curtain had been rung down after the last encore, 
the audience dispersed to nearby dispensaries of nourishment 
and good cheer. No advance announcement had been made of 
any particular meeting point. 



The evening was such an unqualified success that it will be 
made an annual fixture, the social end rather than the financial 
being emphasized in the future, and the seat prices fixed corre- 
spondingly. It has been suggested that this year the gallery 
be chartered also, and the undergraduates given an opportunity 
to attend in a body at cost. 

The committee in charge consisted of B. Franklin Hart, Jr., 
chairman; W. D. Hoxie, A. Siegele, Jr., Thomas C. Stephens 
and E. 0. Heyworth. 


Stevens Indicator 






Gerald E. Terwilliger, '09 


Waldemar G. Nichols, '13 Rorert L. Wellman, '13 

H. N. Dix, Jr., '14 Adolf W. Keuffel, '14 

Stanley T. Held, '15 John O. Wiley, '15 

Subscription Price, $1.50 per Year. Single Copies, 50 Cents 


The tenth anniversary of Dr. Humphreys' administration as 
President of Stevens marks one of the most important decades 
in the life of the college. It has been a period 
Development °^ cons t r uctive advance and betterment, in real- 
ity of transition. Justifiable expansion along 
lines carefully planned with an eye to future growth has taken 
place, and no one connected with Stevens has been more urgent 
of the necessity for such expansion or more keen to take advan- 
tage of opportunities for it than President Humphreys. 

Among the incidents of his administration which stand out 
most boldly may be mentioned the erection of the Morton Me- 
morial Laboratory of Chemistry, the acquisition of Castle Point 
Field and surrounding ground for campus purposes, and, most 
important of all, the saving of Castle Stevens to the college for 
all time. These are material advances, but perhaps more sig- 
nificant are the intangible betterments to be found in the spirit 
of cooperation between undergraduates and Faculty, crystalliz- 



ing in the self-government system by which engineering students 
are for the first time given large control over discipline in and 
out of examination time, and the growth of a truer college 
spirit and alumni spirit. Of course there have been other con- 
tributing causes, but Dr. Humphreys has stood behind it all 
with wise direction, and has overcome financial obstacles and 
some still harder to conquer raised by a misinformed public 

At their annual dinner the Alumni will give some evidence 
of their appreciation of his work and will endeavor to reinforce 
his oft-expressed view, that no college president is backed by a 
more loyal body of graduates. 

With this issue the Indicator comes under new management. 
For a proportion of the Alumni which is unfortunately large 

because of geographical reasons, the quarterly 
S^even^Al^ni * s ^ ne P rmc ip a l source of news of Stevens and 

its graduates. The men who are able to reach 
New York for the annual dinners or Castle Point Field for 
Alumni Day learn much by direct contact with other Alumni, 
but there are hundreds for whom this pilgrimage must be in- 
frequent. To them the Indicator hopes to carry adequate 
news of the college, the Alumni Association, and their fellow 
Alumni, but it can do so only with the best of cooperation. No 
one editor or board of editors can hope to canvass the entire 
Alumni field. The Indicator must therefore rely largely upon 
the Alumni themselves to send to it that news of Stevens men 
and their achievements which one best likes to read of his old 

There is a very definite publicity campaign in progress, which 
must be based on facts to be successful. If every graduate will 
feel it his personal duty to send to the Indicator news con- 
cerning himself or his Stevens friends, trivial though it may 
seem to him, he will be forming the basis for a quarterly of 
more interest to himself and for a better knowledge of Stevens 



among others who should be intimate with the college and its 

The Indicator belongs to the Alumni, and in the same de- 
gree that they cooperate in its management will it be successful. 



President Ernest H. Peabody, '90 

First Vice-President J. H. Cuntz, '87 

Second Vice-President J. Alfred Dixon, '91 

Secretary Thomas C. Stephens, '00 

Treasurer Loins A. Martin, Jr., '00 

Directors: Term Expires 1913 — R. H. Rice, '85; W. D. Hoxie, '89; F. A. 

Muschenheim, '91; W. E. S. Strong, '92. Term Expires 1914 — F. J. 

Gubelman, '89; H. E. Griswold, '93; R. C. Post, '98; R. W. Pryor, 

Jr., '02. 

Trustees: Hosea Webster, '82; E. H. Peabody, '90; J. Alfred Dixon, '91; 

Walter Kidde, '97; R. W. Pryor, Jr., '02. 
Alumni Trustees: Hosea Webster, '82; Walter Kidde, '97; John W. Lieb, 

Jr., '80. 

Stevens Institute Alumni Association (European Branch) — Lafayette D. 
Carroll, '84, Acting Secretary. 

Stevens Club of Newark — W. R. Halliday, '02, Secretary. 

Stevens Club of Brooklyn — William E. Paulson, '04, Secretary. 

Southern Alumni Club — A. M. Morris, '07, Secretary. 

Stevens Club of Philadelphia — J. B. Klumpp, '94, Secretary-Treasurer. 

Stevens Club of Schenectady — Richard H. Marvin, '03, Secretary- 

Wisconsin Stevens Club — Cornelius T. Myers, '00, Secretary. 
Western Stevens Club — A. K. Hamilton, '95, Secretary. 
Stevens Club of Pittsburgh — E. A. Condit, Jr., '02, Secretary-Treasurer. 
New England Stevens Club — F. M. Gibson, '01, President. 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 II 1 1 III 1 1 1 1 111 1 1 1 It llllllllllll II 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 lllll III llllt 11 1 1 1 1 1 1^ 1 1 1 1 II II 1 1111 1 11 II 



■ a 

■ a 

H Ml U M M 1 1 Ml M M 1 Ml 1 M Mil 1 M MM 1 1 \ M 1^1 Ml V M i M U 11 VU 1 1 MM II U M 1 U UNI 1 1 1 1 11 


'73.-JT. A. Henderson, 120 North 19th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
'74. — H. W. Post, Box 415, Mountain Lakes, Boonton, N. J. 
'75. — S. D. Graydon, Stevens Institute, Hoboken, N. J. 
'76. — A. Riesenberger, Stevens Institute, Hoboken, N. J. 
'77. — F. E. Idell, 50 Church St., New York City. 
'78.— W. R. Baird, 271 Broadway, New York City. 
'79. — John S. Cooke, 364 Broadway, Paterson, N. J. 
'80. — J. W. Lieb, Jr., 55 Duane St., New York City. 
'81— R. M. Dixon, 2 Rector St., New York City. 
'82.— Hosea Webster, 85 Liberty St., New York City. 
'83.— F. C. Fraentzel, 804 Broad St., Newark, N. J. 
'84.— W. L. Lyall, 439 Aycrigg Ave., Passaic, N. J. 
'85.— A. W. Burchard, 30 Church St., New York City. 
'86.— F. A. LaPointe, 63 Eighth St., Hoboken, N. J. 
'87. — J. D. Flack, " Orienta," 302 West 79th St., New York City. 
'88.— Richard Beyer, 902 Hudson St., Hoboken, N. J. 
'89.— F. J. Gubelman, 47 West 34th St., New York City. 
'90.— E. H. Peabody, 85 Liberty St., New York City. 
'91.— C. G. Atwater, 17 Battery Place, New York City. 
'92.— W. O. Ludlow, 12 West 31st St., New York City. 
'93. — E. D. Lewis, 185 Madison Ave., New York City. 
'94. — G. B. Fielder, Cartaret Trust Co., Sip Ave., Jersey City, N. J. 
'95. — A. F. Ganz, Stevens Institute, Hoboken, N J. 
'96.— W. H. MacGregor, 165 Broadway, New York City. 
'97.— J. M. Towne, 54 Walnut St., East Orange, N. J. 
'98. — Robert Boettger, United Piece Dye Works, Lodi, Bergen Co., N. J. 
'99.— J. S. Henry, Safety Car Htg. & Ltg. Co., 2 Rector St., New York 

'00. — H. L. Underhill, Consolidated Gas Co., 501 East 21st St., New 
York City. 

'01. — A. Siegele, Jr., 167 Lenox Road, Flatbush, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
'02. — L. K. Lydecker, 2 Rector St., New York City. 
'03. — S. H. Lott, Stevens Institute, Hoboken, N. J. 
'04. — C. E. Hedden, Stevens Institute, Hoboken, N. J. 
'05. — I. R. Lewis, c/o Walter Kidde, 140 Cedar St., New York City. 
'06. — L. A. Hazeltine, Stevens Institute, Hoboken, N. J. 
'07. — Peter Minck, Kilbourne & Jacobs Mfg. Co., 25 Broad St., New 
York City. 

'08.— G. D. Thayer, 24 Monticello Ave., Jersey City, N. J. 

'09.— G. E. Terwilliger, 1 Liberty St., New York City. 

'10. — Nelson Ogden, New London Ship & Engine Co., Groton, Conn. 

'11.— S. J. Bell, Babcock & Wilcox Co., Bayonne, N. J. 






■ a 




R. M. Dixon has been appointed to succeed John Aspinwall as Class 


Frank A. Magee died on January 2, 1913. A more extended notice will 
appear in a later issue. 


John A. Bensel was reelected State Engineer and Surveyor of New 
York at the general election in November. His plurality exceeded 188,000 
votes. Mr. Bensel ran on the Democratic ticket. 

The Scientific American of December 14-, 1912, contains an illustrated 
article upon the gasoline motor-driven automatic cream separator manu- 
factured by the Standard Separator Company, of Milwaukee, Wis., of 
which Alvin P. Kletzsch is treasurer and director. It is asserted that 
this separator can skim faster than ten men can milk, having a capacity 
of more than 700 pounds an hour. 


Stevens men appear to be in demand when the commonwealth wishes to 
get a particularly intelligent jury. Henry Morton Brinckerhoff was a 
member of the jury which recently convicted Charles Hazen Hyde, former 
Chamberlain of New York City. C. T. Cooley, '01, it will be remembered, 
served on the jury that convicted Police Lieutenant Charles Becker. 

Ernest H. Peabody will deliver a lecture on " Developments in Oil 
Burning" before the post-graduate students at the United States Naval 
Academy, at Annapolis, on February 11, 1913. 


Edward L. Jones, Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Lehigh 
University, South Bethlehem, Pa., died on October 18, 1912. 


Since the reorganization of the Standard Oil Company, following the 
decision of the United States Supreme Court in the Government's suit 
against the corporation, Douglas S. Bushnell has been made president of 
the New York Transit Company, with headquarters at 26 Broadway, New 
York City. 




While crossing Thirty-second Street, near Broadway, New York, on 
December 7, 1912, Joseph M. Towne was struck by an automobile, suffer- 
ing a fractured skull. He was on his way to meet his fianc6, Miss J. Louise 
Dodd, at the Imperial Hotel. W. O. Ludlow, '92, fortunately happened 
to be passing by. He accompanied Mr. Towne to the New York Hospital, 
where the latter, in spite of his serious injury, so rapidly convalesced, that 
he was later removed to his home. 

Running on an independent ticket for Mayor of Montclair, N. J., Walter 
Kidde was defeated at the November election by the regular Republican 
candidate, who was unopposed by any candidate of the Democratic Party. 
Mr. Kidde has for some time been serving as a Councilman in Montclair. 


Millidge Penderell Walker was married to Miss Eleanor Mary Landis, 
daughter of the Rev. and Mrs. Henry Mohr Landis, at Trinity Cathedral, 
Tokyo, on December 26, 1912. Mr. Walker is professor of mathematics 
at St. John's University, Shanghai, China. 


Prof. Louis A. Martin, Jr., has been elected a member of the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers. 

C. K. Brackett is now with the Western Electric Company, 463 West 
Street, New York City. 

R. D. Brooks is connected with the H. R. Worthington Company, 115 
Broadway, New York City. 


F. L Reese is with the Trion Manufacturing Company, Trion, Ga. 


Charles J. Roeser is Division Engineer with the Public Service Gas 
Company, at Hackensack, N. J. 

Henry W. Johnson has left the Providence Engineering Works and is 
now Mechanical Superintendent of the Bullard Machine Tool Company, 
Bridgeport, Conn. 

F. Rabbe, Jr., is now with Joseph Garry & Son, Contractors, New York 
City. His address for mail is 3476 Broadway, New York City. 

Edward A. Quigg, who has been in the estimating works of the Illinois 
Steel Company, at Chicago, is now designing structural work with the Hay 
Foundry and Iron Works, Newark, N. J. 


H. B. Gaylord is with Taylor- Wharton Iron and Steel Company, 100 
Broadway, New York City. 



H. Irwin Westervelt, who was formerly with the Indiana Pipe Line 
Company, is now in the employ of the Erie Railroad, at 30 Church Street, 
New York City. 


Richard A. Schaaf and Miss Vivian H. Zauner, of New Rochelle, N. Y., 
were married on November 26, 1912. 


R. F. Cruickshank's address is now Big Indian, Ulster Co., N. Y. 

Herman Helms is with the Aluminum Company of America, North 
American Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Erwin C. Meyer has accepted the position of Engineer at the Detroit 
Plant of the Parish Manufacturing Company, manufacturers of pressed 
steel parts and automobile frames. His address for mail is Parish Manu- 
facturing Company, 1666 Mt. Elliott Avenue, Detroit, Mich. 


Charles C. Phelps, '08, has accepted a position with the Edison Storage 
Battery Company, Orange, N. J. His new work will be in connection with 
the publicity matters of this concern. The engagement of Mr. Phelps to 
Miss Louise Noble, of Weehawken, N. J., was recently announced. 

On October 29, 1912, Charles W. A. Steinmetz was married to Miss 
Kathrine F. Martin, of Hoboken. 

Floyd R. Stewart was married to Miss Florence Bates, of Meadville, 
Pa., on October 26, 1912. Mr. Stewart occupies the position of Assistant 
General Foreman of the Erie Railroad in Jersey City. 

J. L. Moss, Jr., is in the Engineering Department of the Simplex Auto- 
mobile Company, New Brunswick, N. J. 

C. W. A. Steinmetz is in the Heating and Ventilating Department, 
F. M. Andrews & Co., 1 Madison Avenue, New York. His home address 
is 48 Hauxhurst Avenue, Weehawken, N. J. 

Arthur V. Farr and Miss Edna Elizabeth Martin, of Hoboken, were 
married on October 30. 


The engagement of John H. Peper, Jr., to Miss Mabel Brauckmuller, 
of Brooklyn, was recently announced. 

E. R. Carter, Jr., is in the Engineering Department of the New York 
Telephone Company, 25 Church Street, New York City. 

Bertram A. Appleton is Sales Engineer for the Hemming Manufactur- 
ing Company, manufacturers of heat resisting insulation, Garfield, N. J. 

K. a. Ukhk.mann's address is Hudson Court, corner Grant Avenue and 
Boulevard, Jersey City, N. J. 

Henry Landesmann is located with the Concealed Transom Lift Com- 
pany, 437 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 



J. G. Drinkwater is in the U. S. Reclamation Service, with head- 
quarters at Helena, Mont. His address is The Montana Club, Helena, 

Percy L. Cobb has changed his address to 444 Ross Avenue, Wilkins- 
burg, Pa. 

Charles F. Beckwith is with Paul Beardsley & Co., Bankers, 141 Broad- 
way, New York City. His present home address is 35 Mt, Vernon Avenue, 
Orange, N. J. 

Edward Fortmann is Engineer with the New York Transit Company, 
and is located at Binghamton, N. Y. 

Winthrop Otis Hearsey was married to Miss Louise Capen, daughter 
of Mrs. Nelly Capen Taylor, at Los Angeles, on September 17, 1912. Mr. 
and Mrs. Hearsey are now living at 1739 West Twenty-fifth Street, Los 

The engagement is announced of Charles A. Stewart, Jr., to Miss 
Marjorie Hawkins, of Brooklyn, N. Y. 

A. F. Wright is assistant superintendent of the American Button Com- 
pany and the Wright Manufacturing Company, at 70 Morris Avenue, 
Newark, N. J. 

Seth X. Metzger, «a?-'09, is assistant superintendent of the steel works 
of the Crucible Steel Company of America, at Harrison, N. J. 

John A. Kreitler was married to Miss Leonora Katherine Smith on 
October 14, 1912, at the home of the parents of the bride, Mr. and Mrs. 
Leonard M. Smith, 48 Camp Street, Newark, N. J. Mr. and Mrs. Kreitler 
are now residing at 8 Shanley Avenue, Newark. 

A. A. Williamson, formerly with the American Telephone and Telegraph 
Company, in New York City, has been transferred to a more responsible 
position in the New Haven, Conn., offices of the same company. 


J. C. Robertson, Jr., is with the Robbins Conveying Belt Company, 
Park Row Building, New York City. His home address is 36 South 
Maple Avenue, East Orange, N. J. 

E. T. P. Greenidge is Engineer with the Indiana Pipe Line Company, 
with headquarters at Huntington, Ind. 

Arthur P. Roscoe has been appointed to the position of Junior Engi- 
neer with the Public Service Commission for the First District, New York. 
He is located with the 6th Division, Part II, at 565 Fifth Avenue, Brooklyn, 
the work at present consisting of the Fourth Avenue Subway extension 
from 40th Street to 90th Street. 


J. L. Myers is in the Production Department of the Northway Motor 
and Manufacturing Company, Detroit, Mich. His mailing address is Box 
708, Y. M. C. A. Building, Detroit, Mich. 



C. W. MacMullen is with the International Motor Company, in their 
Mack Works at Allentown, Pa. 

Charles G. Macdonald is in the Taylor Stoker Department of the Amer- 
ican Engineering Company, at Philadelphia, Pa. His mailing address is 
Delta Tau Delta House, Castle Point, Hoboken, N. J. 

A. R. Lawrence recently won the 6| mile cross-country run held by the 
Yonkers Y. M. C. A., to select men for the Metropolitan Cross-Country 
Team. He started with a handicap of three and one-half minutes and 
made an actual time of 26 minutes 26 seconds; the time of the nearest 
competitor was 33 minutes 19 seconds. 

Eugene S. Quackenbush has changed his address to 157 West 105th 
Street, New York City. 

W. H. Koch has accepted a position with the A. & F. Brown Company, 
Elizabethport, N. J. 

Armin S. Hoffman has accepted a position with the Lowell Gas Light 
Company, of Lowell, Mass. 


Harold C. Noe is now in the employ of the Packard Motor Car Com- 
pany as a motor erector. His address for mail is 1449 Mt. Elliott Avenue, 
Detroit, Mich. 

S. F. Bonnet is a cadet engineer in the Construction Department of the 
United Gas Improvement Company, Broad and Arch Streets, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

G. H. Fullerton is with Rice, Barton & Fales M. & I. Company, 
Worcester, Mass., in their engineering department. 

W. E. Marshall has changed his address to Grand Street, Maspeth, L. L 

Walter F. Dombrowsky has left Post & McCord, and is now with the 
Babcock & Wilcox Company, of Bayonne, N. J. 

Roy C. Whitall has accepted a position with the Mexican Eagle Oil 
Company, Tampico, Mexico. 

Harry W. Stortz has accepted a position with the Western Electric 
Company, 463 West Street, New York City. 

George L. Clouser is in the Motive Power Department of the Chicago, St. 
Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha Railway, at Minneapolis, Minn. 



■ ■ 





Following the resignation of Charles C. Phelps, '08, as Secretary of the 
Alumni Association, Manager of Castle Stevens, and Editor of the Indi- 
cator, three new appointments have been made to fill the vacancies. As 
announced in the last issue of the Indicator, Mr. Phelps found the com- 
bined burden too severe for one man to carry, and withdrew after more 
than a year of efficient service. 

The Executive Committee of the Alumni Association appointed Thomas 
C. Stephens, '00, Secretary for the unexpired portion of Mr. Phelps's 
term. Mr. Stephens generously offered to take up the somewhat onerous 
routine work of the Association, waiving the salary that has been paid in 
the past, and has entered enthusiastically into his new duties. 

To manage the Castle, the college authorities named S. H. Lott, '03, 
instructor in the Department of Descriptive Geometry and Mechanical 
Drawing. Mr. Lott has taken up his residence at the Castle, and will 
combine the supervision of its affairs with his duties upon the Faculty. 

As Managing Editor of the Indicator, the Executive Committee of the 
Alumni Association selected Gerald E. Terwilliger, '09, who was editor- 
in-chief of The Link and of The Stute while an undergraduate, and who 
has had other journalistic experience. 


A meeting of the Executive Committee of the Stevens Alumni Associa- 
tion was held at the University Club, New York City, on Wednesday, 
November 13, 1912. The meeting was called to order at 12.30 p.m. by 
President E. H. Pearody. The other members present were: R. H. Rice, 


Griswold, Walter Kidde, R. C. Post, L. A. Martin, Jr., R. W. Pryor, 
Jr., and C. C. Phelps. The following past presidents attended: Dr. A. C. 
Humphreys, William Kent, R. S. Kursheedt, and C. J. Field. T. C. 
Stephens, '00, and G. E. Terwilliger, '09, were also present by invitation. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 

F. J. Gurelman reported for the Publicity Committee and J. A. Dixon 
for the Committee on Increase of Membership. F. A. Muschenheim 
reported for the Auditing Committee. R. C. Post rendered the Alumni 
Day Report, which was accepted with the thanks of the Executive Com- 



On behalf of the Theatre Party Committee it was reported that the 
show would occur on Friday, December 6, and the play would be " The 
Count of Luxembourg " at the New Amsterdam Theatre. The entire house, 
excepting top gallery, was contracted for, making 1,244 seats in all to 
be sold. 

Mr. Peabody brought up the matter of the resignations of C. C. Phelps 
as Editor of The Indicator and Secretary of the Alumni Association, and 
announced that G. E. Terwilliger, '09, was considering the editorship of 
The Indicator, and that T. C. Stephens, '00, was willing to accept the 
secretaryship for the remainder of the unexpired term, without salary. 

The title of the Alumni Editor of The Indicator was changed to 
"Managing Editor." 

H. E. Griswold moved that the resignations of C. C. Phelps, as Secre- 
tary and Editor, be accepted with regret and with the thanks of the Execu- 
tive Committee for the good work he has done for the Association. Mr. 
Cuntz seconded the motion and it was carried unanimously. 

H. E. Griswold moved the appointment of G. E. Terwilliger as Man- 
aging Editor of The Indicator. This was seconded by J. A. Dixon and 

H. E. Griswold moved the appointment of T. C. Stephens to serve as 
Secretary of the Aluiani Association, without salary, until the expiration 
of the unexpired term. After being seconded by R. C. Post it was carried. 

A meeting of the Executive Committee of the Alumni Association of 
Stevens Institute of Technology was held at Castle Stevens, Hoboken, on 
Tuesday, December 10, 1912. The meeting was called to order at 8.15 p.m. 
by President E. H. Peabody. The other members present were: J. H. 
Cuntz, F. J. Gtjbelman, J. A. Dixon, Walter Kidde, Prof. L. A. Martin, 
Jr., and T. C. Stephens. Dr. Alexander C. Humphreys, R. S. Kursheedt 
and George Dinkel, past presidents of the association, and G. E. Ter- 
williger, managing editor of the Indicator, also attended. 

The minutes of the previous meeting of November 13, 1912, were read 
and approved. J. A. Dixon reported for the Committee on Increase of 
Membership and presented the names of the following men for reinstate- 
ment to active membership: 

Frank A. LaPointe, '86 R. Hartley Cranmer, '08 

It was moved to present at the Mid-Winter Meeting of the Association 
for election to associate membership the names of the following men: 

W. O. Barnes, '84 
Charles W. Thomas, '84 
F. H. Sawyer, '97 
Thomas R. Parker, '01 
Edward C. Sofio, '98 

A. P. Hager, '02 
William E. Paulson, '04 
Charles P. Hidden, '97 
C. E. Baldwin, '06 
N. S. Hill, Jr., '92 

Alexander T. Mooiie, '82 

Charles T. Zieoler, '91 



Reporting for the Publicity Committee, Mr. Gubelman suggested that 
the various clubs secretaries, besides sending in news, should also see that 
the same be published in the papers of their respective localities. He made 
other recommendations for the acquisition and dissemination of news relat- 
ing to Stevens, as did also Dr. Humphreys, Mr. Kidde and Mr. Terwilliger. 

Mr. Peabody announced that Mr. Hart, chairman of the Theatre Party 
Committee, had informed him that the net proceeds of Stevens Night 
amounted to between $900 and $1,000, the complete report not being ready. 
A vote of thanks was unanimously extended to Mr. Hart for his valued 
services in this regard. 

It was ordered that the Association should pay, for the office of the 
Secretary, $125 toward the services of a stenographer, to be shared by the 
Castle Management, the Editor of the Indicator and the Secretary. 


At a meeting of the Trustees of the Alumni Association, held December 
10, 1912, at Castle Stevens, at which were present E. H. Peabody, J. A. 
Dixon and Walter Kidde, the proceedings of the Executive Committee 
meetings held April 3, 1912, May 24, 1912, July 2, 1912, September 11, 
1912, October 9, 1912, and November 13, 1912, and the Annual Meeting of 
the Alumni Association of May 31, 1912, were ratified. 

At a dinner of the Stevens Club of Brooklyn at the University Club of 
Brooklyn on November 23, 1912, David C. Johnson, '06, was reelected 
president, and W. E. Paulson, '04, was elected secretary. The following 
Stevens men were present: 

The Class of 1910 held a class reunion and banquet at Castle Stevens on 
the evening of Friday, November 22, 1912. About twenty members of the 
class were in attendance. 


Dr. Alexander C. Humphreys, '81 


Frank W. Foster, '84 
Frederic R. Harris, '96 
P. A. Hubert, '04 
William E. Hussey, '98 
F. E. Idell, '77 
David C. Johnson, '06 
Lowell C. Lanolotz, '12 
George A. Evans, '06 
Raymond P. Loughlin, '12 
A. G. Lundgren, '08 

H. E. McGowan, '94 
Walter C. McEvoy, '12 
Charles F. Meyerherm, '11 
W. E. Paulson, '04 
Duffield Prince, '98 
Oscar C. Roesen, '12 
Francis M. Sanborn, '91 
August Siegele, '01 
S. P. Snyder, '06 
J. H. Peper, '09 
Jerome Strauss, '13 
C. A. Stewart, '09 








■ ■ 


The Stevens Dramatic Society will present an original musical comedy, 
entitled " The Blazer Girl," at the college auditorium on Thursday evening, 
February 6. The book was written by Trewin, '13, and Kay, '14, and the 
music by Russ, '13, Silbert, '13, Cawley, '14, and Milligan, '15. The cast 
is an exceptionally good one. 

The first act is staged in a room in a dormitory, while the second act 
takes place in a hotel in the Catskills, and the third act shows the hotel 

B. Franklin Hart, Jr., '87, will coach the cast. 


S. H. Lott, '03, is now Manager of the Castle, having succeeded Charles 
H. Phelps, '08. 

A new combination pool and billiard table has been placed in the music 
room on the main floor. The table is reserved for the use of the Faculty 
at noontime, but is available to the students at all other times. 

Mrs. Alexander has presented to the Castle a very fine mahogany 
boudoir desk. 

A sago palm has been presented to the Castle by Miss Mary B. P. 
Garnett. This palm has an interesting history, which is related by Miss 
Garnett in a letter to the Manager of the Castle, in part as follows : " It 
was raised in the old Castle Point greenhouse (under the hill, at the flower 
garden) and was sent to my mother by Mrs. M. B. Stevens twenty-five or 
thirty years ago. There used to be two palms like it in the old green- 
house, and they were so very large and old that they were sent to Wash- 
ington as curiosities when the greenhouse was torn down. This one was, 
I think, a shoot from those." 


The 1912 football season was hardly as successful as the Alumni had 
come to hope for from preliminary reports. The crushing defeat adminis- 
tered by Rutgers in the final game of the year was its climax. The team 
fought gamely, and compelled the admiration of the large crowd that 
thronged Castle Point Field on November 23, but the fact remained, after 
it was all over, that the victors were the better team by a large margin. 
No adverse wind, no overwhelming prowess of a single opponent could be 
invoked to explain the 26 points by Rutgers against the 6 of Stevens. 



In considering the season as a whole, it is illuminating to refer to an 
editorial which appeared shortly after the game in The Stute, the college 
weekly, which said in part: 

" We are the victims of an idea. Our whole football season is based on 
the theory that we must win the Rutgers game. The other games don't 
count. And if we do beat Rutgers, what does it mean? With all due 
respect, Rutgers is barely on the football map. Certainly they are more 
so than Stevens, but that does not command much attention. And the 
fame of Stevens as a college of engineering goes far beyond New Jersey. 
A winning football team is not a team that defeats Rutgers. It is a team 
that holds Army to a small score and defeats R. P. L, Union, and every 
other like team that we play." 

There is much food for reflection in this comment, particularly in view 
of the fact that Stevens won a single game on its schedule, that with 
Johns-Hopkins. The season's record follows: 

September 28, at Princeton Princeton 65 — Stevens 0 

October 5, at West Point Army 27 — Stevens 0 

October 12, at Haverford Haverford 9 — Stevens 0 

October 19, at Castle Point Rensselaer 7 — Stevens 0 

October 26, at Chester, Pa Penn. Military 13 — Stevens 6 

November 2, at Baltimore Stevens 13 — Johns Hopkins 12 

November 5, at New York Fordham 13 — Stevens 12 

November 9, at Castle Point Union 14 — Stevens 6 

November 16, at Castle Point Fordham 14 — Stevens 13 

November 23, at Castle Point Rutgers 26 — Stevens 6 

At a meeting of the United States Intercollegiate Lacrosse League on 
October 19, 1912, Stevens was shifted from the Southern to the Northern 
Division of the League, and will now meet Cornell, Harvard and Hobart 
in championship matches, instead of Swarthmore, Johns-Hopkins and 
Lehigh. The lacrosse management announces, however, that these teams 
will remain upon the schedule, and will be joined by Carlisle. The 1913 
schedule should therefore be the most interesting in many years. 

Stevens was defeated in two practice lacrosse matchs on the fall schedule. 
On October 26, 1912, the Bronx Lacrosse Club, with five Stevens men in 
its depleted line-up, won, 5 to 3. On November 2, the Red and Gray put 
up a stiff fight against the Crescents, losing, 3 to 1. 


The freshmen were unusually successful in the interclass contests last 
fall. For the first time in many years they won the cane rush. At the 
call of time the upperclass committee found ten freshmen and nine sopho- 
more hands grasping the cane. The Class of 1916 won all three canes in 
the cane sprees. Jones, '16, defeated Beck, '15. Hoinkis, '16, won from 



Crane, '15, and Savale, '16, was too quick for Riggins, '15. The fresh- 
men likewise defeated their traditional enemies in the annual football game. 
They tallied 13 points, while the sophomores were blanked. The entering 
class added to its laurels by winning the interclass track meet, 59 points 
to 40 for 1915. 


The Department of Shop Practice has recently received from the Gold- 
schmidt Thermit Company, of New York, a complete set of apparatus 
used in making thermit welds for both solid work and for pipes. 

Besides W. C. Ctjntz, '92, Treasurer and General Manager, the Gold- 
schmidt Company has on its operating force the following Stevens men: 
H. B. Atkins, '92, Controller; F. W. Cohen, '92, Engineer; J. H. Dep- 
peler, '06, Superintendent. 


"Applied Statics," being Volume IV of Professor Martin's "Text-Book 
of Mechanics," was issued by John Wiley and Sons on December 4. 

This volume of the series deals with the applications of the principles 
of statics to both structures and machines. 

Engineering problems involving the applications of the principles of 
kinetics will be discussed in another volume of this text-book. 


1 N 1 1 1 i 1 H 1 1 M H 1 1 1 ! 1 1 1 1 i II M 1 1 1 1 1 M 1 ! 1 1 ! 1 1 1 1 1 M 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ! 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 II 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 H 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 U 1 1 }• ■ 

Stevens Indicator 


Vol. XXX APRIL, 1913 No. 2 


By Professor Albert F. Ganz, M.E., '95 

■ B 




r I ^HE Niagara River with its world-famed waterfall con- 
nects Lake Erie and Lake Ontario; it is 36 miles in 
length, 22 miles from Lake Erie to the Falls, and 14 miles 
from the Falls to Lake Ontario. Its sources are the four 
great upper lakes. 

The descent of the Niagara River, from lake to lake, is 
approximately 336 feet, distributed as follows: 

From Lake Erie to the beginning of the Upper Rapids (22.5 

miles), 15 feet. 

In the Upper Rapids above the Falls (0.5 mile) 55 " 

In the Falls, 161 " 

In the Lower Rapids from the Falls to Lewiston (7.6 miles), 98 " 

From Lewiston to Lake Ontario (6.4 miles), 7 " 

336 " 

It is estimated that about 275,000 cubic feet of water 
pass over the Falls every second with Lake Erie at a mean 
level of 573 feet; with a drop of 161 feet in the Falls, this 
is equivalent to about 4,000,000 mechanical horse-power 
which is going to waste in the Falls proper; this could be con- 
verted into about 3,000,000 horse-power of available power 
by suitable machinery, assuming 75% for the efficiency of 
conversion. It will be seen from the above table that there 


M«p of Niagara Falls, showing location of power stations. 


is nearly as much drop in level in the Upper and Lower 
Rapids as in the Falls proper, so that in these rapids there 
is an additional waste of about 4,000,000 horse-power. 

The present power plants at Niagara Falls take water 
from some point at or above the Upper Rapids and dis- 
charge it into the river below the Falls, thus obtaining 
an available head of from 135 to 212 feet. These power 
houses have a present total installation of approximately 
580,000 horse-power. The amount of water which may 
be taken for power purposes is limited by a treaty between 
the United States and Canadian governments. The con- 
templated ultimate capacity of the present power houses 
based on the amount of water granted to the various power 
companies is about 700,000 horse-power. The water used 
by these power houses is diverted from the Falls, this amount 
at present being about 17% of the total water passing over 
the Falls. 

It has been proposed to utilize the head lost in the Lower 
Rapids between the base of the Falls and Lewiston for 
producing power without diverting any water from the 
Falls. One of these proposed plans contemplated the exca- 
vation of a surface canal from a point nearly beneath the 
Grand Trunk Railway bridge, at the head of the Whirlpool 
Rapids, to an indenture known as the Devil's Hole, on the 
American bank, about 10,000 feet down stream, and affording 
an available head of about 73 feet. This plan has, however, 
been abandoned at present. 

The locations of the five principal power developments 
at present in operation at Niagara Falls are shown on the 
accompanying map. An approximate summarized state- 
ment of the present and contemplated capacity of these 
power stations is given in the following table : 




Total Horse-Power 
At Contemplated 

American Side: 

Niagara Falls Power Co. : 

Power House No. 1, 

Power House No. 2, 
Hydraulic Power Co. : 

Power House No. 1 (abandoned), 

Power House No. 2, 

Power House No. 3, 

Canadian Side: 

Canadian Niagara Power Co., 
Ontario Power Co. of Niagara Falls, 
Electrical Development Company of Ontario, 











Total, 578,500 696,500 

The special features of each of the above power plants 
will be briefly described in the following: 

Niagara Falls Power Company 

The Niagara Falls Power Company was the first of the 
very large electric power developments at Niagara Falls. 
The charter for this development was obtained in 1886. 
An international committee of engineers was selected to 
decide upon the methods to be adopted for developing 
and transmitting the power to be derived from the waters 
of the Falls. This committee decided upon the plan briefly 
outlined in the following, and work upon the first power 
house, known as Power House No. 1, was begun in 1890; 
1 liis power house was completed in 1900. A second power 



house, known as Power House No. 2, was completed in 
1904. The general plan of construction for these power 
houses is as follows: A short surface canal is excavated 
at a point about one mile above the Falls on the American 
side of the river in a direction approximately at right angles 
to the river. (See map.) On each side of this canal a 
wheelpit is excavated, each one about 450 feet in length, 
18 feet in width and 180 feet in depth. Water turbines 
are located at the bottom of these wheelpits, and the water 
for these turbines is supplied from the canal by means of 
steel penstocks, one penstock supplying each turbine-unit. 
After passing through the turbines the water is discharged 
into a tunnel about 21 feet in diameter, which carries it 
off under the City of Niagara Falls to the Lower Niagara 
River, a distance of approximately 7,000 feet. This tunnel 
has an average grade of 6 feet in 1,000 feet, making a total 
loss of head in this discharge tunnel of about 42 feet. Each 
turbine is connected through a hollow vertical shaft to an 
alternating current generator installed above the ground 

Power House No. 1 is situated on the down-stream side 
of the intake canal. In this power house were originally 
installed ten Fourneyron inverted outward-flow twin-tur- 
bines without draft tubes, each of 5,000 horse-power capacity 
at a speed of 250 revolutions per minute, and located about 
140 feet below the power house floor. The available head 
of water is 136 feet. Each turbine is coupled to a 5,000 
horse-power, 2-phase, 25-cycle, 2,200-volt, alternating-cur- 
rent generator through a hollow steel shaft 38 inches in 
diameter. Operation of this power house was begun in 
1895, with three generating units installed, and the entire 
original installation of ten units was completed in 1900. 

Power House No. 2 is located on the up-stream side of 
the canal. This contains eleven Francis single inward- 
flow turbines, each of 5,500 horse-power capacity at a speed 



of 250 revolutions per minute, and located about 134 feet 
below the power house floor. These turbines are equipped 
with draft tubes increasing the effective head of water 
supplied to the turbines to about 141 feet. The turbines 
are governed by means of hydraulic governors operated by 
means of oil under pressure. These turbines are also con- 
nected to alternating-current generators placed above the 
ground level by means of hollow steel shafts. Six of these 
generators are similar to those installed in Power House No. 
1 and have externally revolving fields. The remaining five, 
which were the last installed, have outside stationary arma- 
tures and inwardly revolving field structures. 

During the period from 1910 to 1912, the ten outward 
flow turbines without draft tubes in Power House No. 1 
were replaced by 5,500 horse-power Francis inward flow 
turbines with draft tubes, similar to those installed in Power 
House No. 2, giving 10% increased capacity for the same 
quantity of water. 

The two power houses have an aggregate capacity of 
115,500 horse-power, and at present utilize all of the water 
granted to the company by the treaty between the United 
States and Canada. Normally the units in both stations 
operate in parallel. Part of this power is distributed locally 
at 2,200 volts and at 11,000 volts for use in electrochemical 
works. The remainder is raised to 22,000 volts and is 
transmitted to Buffalo and to intermediate points. There 
are two separate pole lines going by different routes carrying 
3-phase transmission lines to Buffalo. Two of these lines 
consist of copper cables, and the third line consists of alumi- 
num cables. These transmission lines end on the outskirts 
of Buffalo in transformer stations where the voltage is 
reduced to 11,000 volts for transmission to sub-stations 
in Buffalo by means of underground cables. The approx- 
imate distance from the power house in Niagara Falls to 
the transformer stations in Buffalo is 22 miles. 



Canadian Niagara Power Company 

The Canadian Niagara Power Company is an allied 
company of the American Niagara Falls Power Company. 
In general the hydraulic developments of the Canadian 
Niagara Power Company are similar to those of the Amer- 
ican plants of the Niagara Falls Power Company. There 
is one power house and this is situated in Queen Victoria 
Niagara Falls Park, about one-half mile above the Horse- 
shoe Falls. The water is taken in from the river through 
a short intake canal and forebay, delivered through steel 
penstocks into turbines at the bottom of a wheelpit, and 
carried away to the Lower Niagara River through a tunnel 
about 2,000 feet in length. 

When this power house was planned in 1899, the com- 
pany expected to install 20 units of 5,000 horse-power each, 
aggregating 100,000 horse-power. Up to that time units 
of a capacity larger than 5,000 horse-power had not been 
constructed. In 1901, when the actual design of the tur- 
bine and generator equipment was undertaken, larger units 
had been developed, and units of 10,000 horse-power were 
accordingly adopted. 

Six turbine units are at present installed in this power 
house having an aggregate capacity of 62,500 horse-power. 
The first five installed have a capacity of 10,000 horse- 
power each; the last one installed has a capacity of 12,500 
horse-power. The turbines are of the Francis twin-balanced 
inward flow type, and operate at a speed of 250 revolutions 
per minute. The turbines are supplied from penstocks 
10 feet in diameter and discharge into two cast-iron draft 
tubes 5 feet in diameter. Each turbine is connected to 
an alternating-current generator developing 11,000-volt, 25- 
cycle, 3-phase current. These generators have internally 
revolving fields. This power house also contains three tur- 
bine-driven exciter units consisting of 200 kilowatt 125-volt, 



direct-current generators, driven at 600 revolutions per min- 
ute by means of vertical shafts from Francis inward-flow 
turbines. A seventh unit of 12,500 horse-power capacity 
similar to unit No. 6 is in course of erection and will be 
ready for service early in 1913, bringing the total installed 
capacity of this station up to 75,000 horse-power. The in- 
take canal and discharge tunnel provide for a total capacity 
of 125,000 horse-power. 

A part of the alternating current generated in this power 
house is transmitted by means of cables in underground 
conduits to a transformer station located on the bluff above 
the power station where it is raised to 22,000 volts and 
transmitted to Buffalo. Part is transmitted at 11,000 
volts to the power station of the American Niagara Falls 
Power Company, from where it is distributed in parallel 
with the power generated in the American power station. 
This means that some of the generators in the Canadian 
power house operate in parallel with the generators in the 
American power houses. 

One of the great difficulties which was encountered in 
the operation of the first power house on the American 
side of the Falls was the accumulation of ice in the intake 
canal. Special arrangements were therefore made to over- 
come this difficulty in the construction of the later Canadian 
plant by providing a separate ice sluiceway leading from 
one side of the forebay into the Niagara River at a point 
about 500 feet below the intake canal. 

Hydraulic Power Company 

The company of which the Hydraulic Power Company 
is the outcome was incorporated in 1853. Work on a power 
development was begun in 1861, when a surface canal, 
3G feet wide and about 8 feet deep, was built extending from 
the Upper Niagara River to a point on the Lower Niagara 
River jus! below the present upper steel arch bridge, the 



difference in level between the water in the canal and in 
the lower river being about 220 feet. (See map.) Between 
1870 and 1880 a number of small mills utilizing the water 
from this canal were built along the edge of the Lower 
Niagara River below the canal. The water wheels as 
constructed at that time could not, however, utilize the 
entire available head, but only a head of from 25 to 75 
feet, and the remaining head was allowed to go to waste. 

In 1877 the Niagara Falls Hydraulic Power & Manufac- 
turing Co. was organized, and this company acquired all 
of this canal property. In 1910 the name of this company 
was changed to the Llydraulic Power Company. In 1881 
this company established its first electric power station to 
supply electricity for commercial purposes. This station 
was known as Power House No. 1, and was located in the 
building which is now occupied by the Cliff Paper Mill. In 
this station were installed arc light dynamos driven by belts 
from the mill shaft; these were used to furnish street and 
store lighting. From this station electricity was in fact 
first publicly distributed at Niagara Falls. This station 
is now abandoned. 

In 1896 a new power house was built just below Power 
House No. 1 known as Power House No. 2. In this power 
house the 210-foot head available is utilized, and there 
are installed a number of horizontal turbines driving electric 
generators of a variety of types. The station contains in 
all sixteen turbine-units and the total output is about 
34,000 horse-power. A number of the electric generators 
are direct-current machines generating 125 to 300 volts, and 
of large current capacity, the direct current being conveyed 
by heavy aluminum bars and cables to electro-chemical 
works situated on the bluff immediately above the power 
house. There are also a number of 600-volt direct-current 
railway generators, and two 11,000-volt, 3-phase alternating- 
current generators for transmitting power to distant points. 
2 87 


The construction of Power House No. 3 was begun in 
1905. It is situated on the river level several hundred 
feet below Power House No. 2. The turbines and gener- 
ators are of the horizontal type. The turbines are placed 
in a room separated from the generator room by a concrete 
wall, and water is delivered from the canal to the turbines 
through one penstock for each turbine. These penstocks 
enter the casing of the turbine from the top. The turbines 
are of the mixed flow type, the water entering from around 
the entire circumference and flowing inwardly and then 
discharging horizontally to the right and to the left through 
draft tubes which are so arranged as to balance the hori- 
zontal thrust. The two draft tubes from each side of a 
turbine are connected to each other by pipes about one 
foot in diameter for the purpose of equalizing the horizontal 
pressure. Five direct-current and seven alternating-current 
units are installed at present. Each direct -current unit 
consists of one 10,000 horse-power turbine coupled to two 
direct-current generators provided with double commu- 
tators. Each generator is rated at 3,500 kilowatts at 650 
volts, and delivers 5,430 amperes. The direct-current is 
used in the new works of the Aluminum Company of Amer- 
ica located in a large concrete building with conspicuous 
concrete ventilators on the bluff above the power house. 
Each alternating current unit consists of one 10,000 horse- 
power turbine coupled to a three-phase, 12,000-volt, 25-cycle 
alternator. Two 1,000-horse-power turbine-driven exciter 
units are also installed. The hydraulic arrangements pro- 
vide for one more turbine-unit, which will give an ultimate 
capacity of 130,000 horse-power. 

Ontario Power Company of Niagara Falls 

The power house of the Ontario Power Company is located 
on the level of the Lower Niagara River on the Canadian 
side of the river just below the Horseshoe Falls. (See map.) 



Owing to its location it was necessary to make this power 
house as narrow as possible. Its width is 76 feet, and when 
completed its length will be about 1,000 feet. The trans- 
former and distributing station is located on the bluff above 
the power house. 

Water for this power house is taken in at Dufferin Island 
just above the Upper Rapids so as to obtain the advantage 
of the head lost in the Upper Rapids. This water is con- 
veyed to the power station by means of two conduits about 
one mile in length laid just beneath the surface of the street 
level, each conduit being 18 feet in diameter. One conduit 
is a steel tube embedded in concrete, and the second conduit 
is a reinforced concrete structure. One more conduit will 
be required when the ultimate capacity of the station is 
reached. From these conduits water is delivered to the 
power house below through steel penstocks nine feet in 
diameter, each penstock supplying one pair of turbines. 

The turbines and generators are of the horizontal type. 
Each unit consists of two Francis mixed-flow turbines 
discharging from the inside at the center so as to balance 
the horizontal thrust. These turbines operate at 187.5 
revolutions per minute under an effective head of 175 feet, 
of which 20 feet is obtained from the draft tubes; the 
turbines were thus placed high above the level of the river 
in order to provide for the excessive variations of the level 
of the water in the river at this point. Each pair of turbines 
is coupled to a horizontal shaft to which is also coupled 
one 25-cycle, 12,000-volt, 3-phase, alternating-current gen- 
erator. The first three units installed have a capacity of 
10,000 horse-power each, the next seven units installed 
have a capacity of 12,000 horse-power each, and the last 
two units installed have a capacity of 13,000 horse-power. 
The twelve units installed at present have an aggregate 
capacity of 140,000 horse-power. Work is in progress for 
the installation of two additional units of 13,000 horse-power 



each, which will bring the total capacity of this station up 
to 166,000 horse-power. 

The electrical power at 12,000 volts is delivered to a 
transformer and distributing station situated on the bluff 
above the power house by means of cables in underground 
conduits. For local distribution the 12,000-volt power is 
distributed directly. For distant transmission the voltage 
is raised in this transformer station to 60,000 volts and is 
transmitted to and beyond Syracuse, a distance of over 
160 miles. 

Electric power at 12,000 volts is also delivered from this 
station through underground conduits to a transformer 
and distributing station of the Hydro-Electric Commission 
of Ontario, located about one-half mile fron the trans- 
former station of the Ontario Power Company. At the 
station of the Hydro-Electric Commission the voltage is 
raised to 110,000 volts, and this is transmitted in various 
directions through Canada, and as far as St. Thomas and 
Toronto. This transformer station contains groups of 
3,000 kilowatt water-cooled oil-transformers. Each group 
of three transformers has its primaries connected in delta 
to the 12,000-volt supply, and the secondaries connected 
in Y to the line wires, delivering 110,000 volts to the line 
wires. The neutral point of the secondary of each trans- 
former group is connected to a neutral bus-bar, and this 
is grounded through a water resistance. The power is sup- 
plied from the supply cables to the transformer primaries 
through oil switches and auxiliary bus-bars, so arranged 
with selector switches, that any tranformer group can be 
supplied from any supply cable, or all may be operated 
in parallel. The 110,000- volt power is delivered from the 
transformer secondaries through single-pole oil switches to 
bus-bars, and from these this power is supplied through 
single-pole oil switches to the transmission lines. The 
12, 000- volt distribution and switching apparatus is located 



in a basement, and the transformers in one room on the 
ground floor extend the length of the building, and the 11, 000- 
volt distribution and switching apparatus is located in an 
adjoining room. The controlling switchboard is in a gallery 
overlooking the room containing the switches. The entire 
arrangement gives the impression of great simplicity. Two 
transmission lines are installed at present, each consisting 
of three No. 0000 aluminum stranded cables, supported 
from one set of steel towers by suspended type insulators, 
with double strain insulators at suitable intervals and at 
all road crossings. There are ten towers per mile on an 
average. From Niagara the two lines extend to Dundas; 
from here two lines go to Toronto, and one line makes a 
loop passing through Guelph, Preston, Berlin, Stratford, St. 
Marys, London and Woodstock, with a branch line from 
London to St. Thomas. The total length of transmission 
lines installed at present is about 300 miles. 

Electrical Development Company of Ontario, Limited 

This power development was planned in 1902 by Toronto 
interests for the purpose of carrying Niagara power to the 
city of Toronto by electrical transmission. The name of 
the original company was the Toronto and Niagara Power 
Company. This development was later taken over by the 
Electrical Development Company of Ontario, Ltd., and in 
1908 it was leased by the Toronto Power Company which 
operates this development at present. 

The power station is located on the Upper Niagara River 
on the Canadian side at a point corresponding to about the 
middle of the Upper Rapids. (See map.) The general plan 
of this power house is the same as that of the Canadian and 
American Niagara Falls Power Company's plants, that is, it 
consists of a deep wheelpit with turbines located at the bottom 
and with generators located above the surface of the ground. 

The water from the turbines discharges into two tunnels, 



one on each side of the wheelpit, which two tunnels unite 
into one large tunnel, and this is carried under the Niagara 
River to about the center of Horseshoe Falls, and there 
discharges into the Lower Niagara River under the Horse- 
shoe Falls. This location of the discharge tunnel has made 
it possible to use a comparatively short tunnel. (See map.) 

Seven turbine units have been installed, four of a capacity 
of 12,000 horse-power each, and three of a capacity of 15,000 
horse-power each, making a total present installed capacity 
of 93,000 horse-power. 

The turbines operate under an effective head of 143 feet. 
Each turbine is connected to an alternating-current gen- 
erator by means of a hollow vertical shaft 115 feet long 
supported by three intermediate step bearings. Each gen- 
erator delivers 3-phase, 25-cycle, 12,000-volt current. The 
machinery of this power house is controlled from a switch- 
board gallery located in the generator room. There are two 
motor-driven exciter units on the generator floor, and also 
two turbine-driven exciter units on the turbine floor. 

The wheelpit and other hydraulic arrangements are com- 
plete for four additional penstocks and turbine units. When 
sufficient additional units have been installed so that all of 
the water granted by the present treaty between the United 
States and Canada is utilized, this station will have a total 
capacity of 125,000 horse-power. 

The transformer and distributing station for this power 
house is located on the bluff above the power house. The 
current is raised to 60,000 volts potential and is transmitted 
to Toronto, which is 85 miles distant, over a transmission 
line located on a private right-of-way. A new 85,000-volt 
transmission line is now in course of construction on the 
same right-of-way to Toronto to take care of the increased 
demand for power in Toronto. 


■ 8 

llllLullllllu./ i f / i i f i i / j ; t m n m m ' ;. iju_/jj_u.Liii/ j i * n m n ; i / h ? f / r n n n rvcrn rrnrrn 




■ a 

iff iiriiiiiitiiiitiiiiiiiiiifiiiiiiiif liiifiiif Jin it if ii i f if iniif iiifff if in iif in if iinif if in f ti 


a a 

The largest and most successful of Stevens Alumni Ban- 
quets was held in the grand ballroom of the Hotel Astor on 
Friday evening, February 14, 1918. The dinner was a tes- 
timonial to Dr. Alexander C. Humphreys in honor of his 
completion of ten years' service as President of Stevens. 
Nearly seven hundred alumni and guests were present. 
The boxes about the room were given over to the ladies, 
and their participation in a Stevens Alumni Banquet 
formed one of the innovations of the occasion. 

Printed seating lists, including the names of all present, 
were again used to direct the diners to their respective tables, 
and there was a minimum of confusion in the seating arrange- 

Grace was said by the Rev. Dr. William R. Jenvey, rector 
of St. Paul's Church, Hoboken, after which the "Alma 
Mater" was sung and the diners sat down to enjoy an excel- 
lent menu. Throughout the serving of the dinner there 
was music by an orchestra and the great organ which the 
ballroom boasts. 

The souvenir of the occasion was a neat booklet of pocket 
size, bound in red leather and bearing the seal of the college. 
The text was printed in red on gray paper, and each booklet 
was provided with an excellent likeness of Dr. Humphreys 
as an insert, and was autographed by him. A Stevens pos- 
tal card ready for mailing and a reproduction of the archi- 
tects' design for "Greater Stevens" were also enclosed in 
the case with the combined menu, song book and guest list. 



A feature of the dinner was the fact that with one or two 
unavoidable exceptions, every member of the Senior Class 
was present to do honor to President Humphreys on behalf 
of the student body. The list of invited guests present was 
remarkable, too, including men eminent in many walks of 
life who were eager to seize the opportunity to exhibit their 
appreciation of Dr. Humphreys' work at Stevens. 

The speakers included Palmer C. Ricketts, C.E., E.D., 
President of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; Walton 
Clark, M.E., Sc.D., Vice President of the United Gas Im- 
provement Company; Henry S. Pritchett, Ph.D., Sc.D., 
LL.D., President of the Carnegie Foundation for the Ad- 
vancement of Teaching; George Harvey, LL.D., Editor of 
Harper's Weekly and the North American Review; Charles F. 
Kroeh, Professor of Modern Languages and Secretary of 
the Faculty at Stevens; John H. Finley, LL.D., President 
of the College of the City of New York; Henry Torrance, 
M.E., Stevens, '90, Vice President of the Carbondale Ma- 
chine Company; George T. Wilson, A.M., Vice President of 
the Equitable Life Assurance Society; Albert F. Ganz, 
M.E., Stevens, '95, Professor of Electrical Engineering at 
Stevens; James E. Pinkney, M.E., Stevens, '06, assistant to 
Chief Engineer, Robert Hoe & Co., and J. H. Vander Veer, 
President of the Senior Class at Stevens. 

The committee in charge, whose unremitting efforts were 
largely responsible for the complete success of the affair, 
comprised John S. DeHart, Jr., '90, chairman; William A. 
Adriance, '85; William E. S. Strong, '92; Harold E. Gris- 
wold, '93; Percy C. Idell, '99, and David C. Johnson, '06. 
Louis A. Martin, Jr., '00, treasurer of the Alumni Associa- 
tion, and his assistant, G. G. Freygang, '09, cooperated in 
handling the finances, while a special sub-committee of the 
Alumni Publicity Committee, consisting of F. DeR. Fur- 
man, '93, chairman; Robert W. Pryor, '02, and G. E. Ter- 
williger, '09, prepared advanced material for the press and 



supplied information on the night of the dinner to the re- 
porters present. 

The Toastmaster, E. H. Peabody, '90, finally obtained 
order at 9.30 p. m. W. M. Kelly, '13, led the throng of 
diners in the locomotive yell, with three "Prexies" on the 
end, after which "The Mechanical Engineer" was sung. 

The Toastmaster: [trying to restore order after the 
song.] There is something — (Voices: Louder!) — there is 
something in that song — (Voices: Louder!) — there is some- 
thing in that song about closing up at midnight. We must 
remember that in this program. (Voices: Louder! — 

I want to announce that there are seven hundred Stevens 
men and their friends in this room to-night. (Great applause.) 
A great many of the branch alumni associations have sent 
delegates. Many of the classes are here in much stronger 
force than ever before. We haven't time to analyze it 
now, but it will make some interesting reading in the 

I have some announcements to make. Here is a long 
document, which presumably came over the telegraph wires, 
because it is on a telegram blank. 

" 1905 Publicity Bureau. — We think the engineers should 
have their salaries raised. (Great applause.) The Dinner 
Committee has helped to increase the cost of high living. 
The gang is getting nervous. Say something about that 
new electrical Lab. Will you allow that member of 1913 
to respond to the toast on the Faculty? We suggest that 
the victims of the weeding-out process attend the agricul- 
tural course at Cornell. (Laughter.) After looking the 
ground over, we would like to reserve some of the boxes for 
the banquet which was referred to at the alumni meeting. 
We wish to correct Dr. Humphreys' statement at the mid- 
winter meeting. It was 1905, not 1907, who had aeroplanes." 

Among the great number of letters received we have chosen 



at random just a few to read to-night, letters of regret from 
gentlemen who could not be present. It is unfortunate that 
we cannot read them all, but we haven't the time. Here is 
a letter from the Class of '73. It says: 

"While the Class of 1873 will, through ill health, be unable 
to attend the present annual banquet, yet it is with you in 
spirit and gives greeting, with every feeling of appreciation 
and good will. Very sincerely yours, J. A. Henderson, 
Class of '73. " (Applause.) 

Mr. Henderson bears the distinction of being the first grad- 
uate of Stevens. Here is a telegram from Col. Robert M. 
Thompson : 

"I sincerely regret that I cannot be with you to-night to 
express the respect and affection I have for Dr. Humphreys 
in the highest sense of the word. We cannot do him honor, 
but we can show our appreciation of the honor he has con- 
ferred upon us and the service he has rendered his school 
and his country." 

A telegram from J. E. Sague, of the Public Service Commis- 
sion, New York, and one of our alumni: 

"I regret that I cannot get to the dinner this evening. 
Earnest congratulations upon your splendid administration 
of the Institute." 

That is addressed to the Doctor. Here is a cablegram from 
Paris from G. A. Trube, '90, now manager of the French 
Westinghouse Company. 

Mr. Torrance: '90 there! Hurrah for '90 ! (Laughter 
and applause.) 

The Toastmaster (reading): "Congratulations Presi- 
dent Humphreys. All success to Stevens." 
A telegram from Nelson Ogden, '10, one of our graduates: 

" Whoop her up for Stevens and Prexy. Wish I were with 
you to help you do it." 

Just a brief word about these letters. One from Judge 
Gary in which lie says: 



"I regret exceedingly I cannot ... be present. I 
have an engagement for that evening. Every one present 
will honor themselves in their effort to honor Doctor Hum- 
phreys. Sincerely yours, E. H. Gary." (Applause.) 
A letter from A. Barton Hepburn: 

"I know Dr. Humphreys very well . . . and regret 
exceedingly my inability to join you upon this occasion. I 
shall be present in spirit and echo every good sentiment and 
every good word said of Dr. Humphreys." 
A letter from F. S. Witherbee, which ends: 

"Your Institute is most fortunate in having for its head 
a man of not only great technical ability, but of equal sagac- 
ity in business affairs — a rare combination in any one man. " 

Here is a letter from Woodrow Wilson. (Great applause.) 

"I wish sincerely that I might accept the invitation of the 
Stevens Institute graduates contained in your kind letter of 
January fifteenth, but I have made a solemn vow that I 
will decline all invitations, even those of capital importance, 
between now and the time when I shall feel myself settled in 
harness at Washington. 

"I am sure that the Committee will understand and I 
hope they will approve this decision on my part. 

"Cordially and sincerely yours, 

"Woodrow Wilson." (Great applause.) 
Isaac N. Seligman writes a letter in which he says : 

"Apart from his great scientific attainments and execu- 
tive ability, Doctor Humphreys is a notable example of 
what can be accomplished by one who, although immersed 
in business affairs, still finds time to devote to public affairs 
and to manifest a civic spirit in whatever he undertakes. In 
reviewing his life one cannot but feel that, whatever office 
he has graced, he has done well, done wisely, and done much. 
It affords me great pleasure to record my high appreciation 
of Doctor Humphreys." 



Because we are graduates of Stevens Institute of Tech- 
nology; because we prepared for our professional life at that 
college of engineering founded by our friend and benefactor, 
though we did not know him personally, the late E. A. 
Stevens ; because we spent four years getting polished at the 
Old Stone Mill and we found that that polish lasted; and 
because we are enthusiastic and loyal in the cause of our 
alma mater and the work that she is doing and will do, and 
because these, our distinguished guests whom we welcome 
to-night, are interested in Stevens men and in what Stevens 
is doing — we are assembled here to-night to honor, in this the 
beginning of his eleventh year as president of Stevens Insti- 
tute of Technology, our friend and fellow alumnus— Alexan- 
der Crombie Humphreys. (The diners all rise and cheer 
enthusiastically. Dr. Humphreys rises and bows his ac- 
knowledgment. Cheers are repeated, ending in "Prexy! 
Prexy! Prexy!") 

We like better to call him Prexy. You will hear more of 
Prexy during the evening and you will hear more of Prexy 
during the next ten years. (Applause.) This is an unusual 
occasion. We are doing unusual things and Prexy is an 
unusual man. We like to say it. It is unusual to count 
the term of the office of President of Stevens Institute of 
Technology by decades, but we are beginning to do that. 
It is unusual to have so able a Dinner Committee and it is 
unusual to give that committee a vote of thanks, but Johnny 
De Hart deserves, and I am going to ask you — it is in fact 
moved and seconded — J. A. Dixon moves and the Class of 
'07 seconds — a vote of thanks, to Johnny De Hart and his 
able committee. All those in favor say aye; opposed, no; 
carried! Stand up, Johnny; where are you? 

Mr. Torrance: Hooray for '90. (Laughter.) 

The Toastmaster: It is unusual to have our dinner in 
this large and elegant room with its unusual acoustic prop- 
erties. (Voices: Louder!) If you will all keep quiet, you 



will appreciate these acoustic properties. It is unusual to 
have such a galaxy of distinguished speakers as we have 
this evening, all pledged to confine their remarks to a limit 
of five minutes. (Voices: Hear! Hear! — Laughter.) 
Voices: The chairman, too. 

The Toastmaster : It is unusual to have our feast on 
St. Valentine's Day, and it is unusual to have the ladies with 

Ladies, we greet you here to-night 

We feel the charm your presence brings; 
We view with joy the unusual sight 

Of such unusual, lovely things. 
We are but men — yet were we kings 

We'd ask no other queens or shrines, 
While round the boxes' circle swings 

Our toast to you, — our Valentines. 

We ask no other joy so bright 

As that which from your smiling springs; 
Ambition soars to any height 

When men attempt unusual things. 
Speak not of vain imaginings, 

Nor break the faith that intertwines 
With hope to which each fondly clings — 

We pray you be our Valentines. 

And so, when onward in the flight 

Of future years, the inevitable wings 
Of Time shall lift us — happy quite, 

We'll face the task of unusual things — 
And while the player's vibrant strings 

Set merry measure to our lines, 
This be the song the chorus sings — 

"Stevens girls for our Valentines." 

Mrs. Humphreys — our offerings 

Are to him who does unusual things, 
Of you we ask, if your heart inclines — 

Bring us again our Valentines. 



(The whole audience rose and drank the health of the 
ladies in the boxes. This was followed by a Stevens cheer, 
ending with "Mrs. Prexy, Mrs. Prexy, Mrs. Prexy.") 

I spoke about the wonderful acoustic properties of this 
hall. If you can acquire the knack of throwing your voice 
in the right direction, you get a most unusual echo. I will 
give you an illustration. 

What is the next important event? 

Echo: Important event. 

The Toastmaster: The answer is Alumni Day. 
Echo: Answer is Alumni Day. 
The Toastmaster: Give the date of Alumni Day? 
Echo: June seventh. 

Toastmaster: Say it again so all can hear and make a 
note of it. 

Echo: Alumni Day, June 7th. (Great laughter.) 

The Toastmaster: Have you seen the last number of 
Harper s Weekly? 

Echo: I devoutly hope so. (Laughter.) 

Toastmaster : Say that again so that Colonel Harvey can 
hear it. 

Echo: I devoutly hope so. (Laughter.)* 

The Toastmaster : The first speaker on our list to-night 
is a gentleman known to you all by reputation. I asked him 
what points he desired me to bring out when introducing 
him and he said, "Why, just tell them who I am," and I 
believe that is all I need to do. But the relationship between 
the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and Stevens Institute 
of Technology is so unusual that I want to say one word about 
it. The Institute at Troy was the first college of engineering 
in this country. It started with civil engineering and for 
many years continued that course alone. Stevens was the 

The toastmaster addressed these remarks to various corners of the room, the 
"eeho" always answering from the corner addressed, with the exception of the 
last echo which came from a point directly over Col. Harvey's head. 



first college of mechanical engineering, and we still continue 
to teach that course only. Under the able leadership of its 
president, Troy has developed greatly and taken up other 
lines, and we need to be no great prophets to know that 
Stevens is going to develop also — though perhaps not along 
other lines as to courses. Dr. Ricketts is prominent not only 
as an educator, but as a civil engineer, and I will now call 
upon him to address you with a few brief remarks. 

Address of Palmer C. Ricketts: Mr. Chairman, Gradu- 
ates of Stevens, Ladies and Gentlemen — There are more 
reasons than one why I should be glad to take part in any 
celebration of Stevens, and particularly in any celebration 
which has to do with Dr. Humphreys' incumbency of the 
office of president. Ever since I have had an intelligent 
appreciation of the work of the engineering schools of this 
country, I have understood the fact that the Stevens Insti- 
tute of Technology has stood in the very front rank of such 
institutions, and I have known why it stood ther^. Not 
because of any large endowment, not because it has had the 
greatest number of students, but because from the beginning 
it has stood for earnest, thorough work of a high character. 
It has exacted such work from its students. It has been 
necessary for them to reach a high standard of scholarship 
before they could attain the honor of graduation, and the 
value of its methods has been shown by the great work of its 
alumni in your profession, a work not limited by the bounda- 
ries of any country, but which has had the world for its 

We do not have to go far to prove these opinions. Many 
men before me this evening afford such proof, and not the 
least among them is the man who as President of Stevens 
we are here to honor to-night. Standing in the front rank 
of his profession, the past president of one of the great 
professional societies, the president of one of the greatest of 
our schools of engineering, Dr. Humphreys is indeed a 



worthy example to show what graduates of Stevens have 
done for engineering. (Great applause.) 

He might be all this, however, and yet not hold the place 
he does in our affections and esteem, for above all else stands 
character, and it is on account of his character as a man that 
we are here to-night to congratulate Stevens because he is 
its President. (Applause.) More than one of the men be- 
fore me to-night has had occasion to know that when Dr. 
Humphreys thinks a thing is right, he will stand for it to the 
last without regard to his own convenience or his own inter- 
ests. (Applause.) 

He has already done a great work for Stevens and he has 
a great plan for its future development. I do not know that 
he will see his plan carried out in all its details, but I know 
this: I know that history teaches, from examples of the 
past, that whenever a country, a school or a man presses 
forward courageously, with high ideals, towards a goal the 
attainment of which is to make for a real benefit to mankind, 
a real advance for the race, failure has never resulted. And 
it will not result in this case. Let all friends of Stevens help 
hold up his hands, so that this plan for its future growth may 
be pushed forward to a successful completion. (Great 

The Toastmaster: Dr. Ricketts is an honorary alumnus 
of Stevens Institute of Technology and we are proud of him. 
"Cap" Hart will now sing "Over on the Jersey Side." 

B. Franklin Hart, Jr., '87, then came forward to the plat- 
form in front of the speakers' table and sang the song, amid 
much applause. 

The Toastmaster: When Dr. Humphreys took up his 
work as President of Stevens, he was succeeded as chief 
engineer of the United Gas Improvement Company by a man 
who now sits on my left. This gentleman is another honorary 
alumnus of Stevens and last year the University of Penn- 
sylvania made him a Doctor of Science. We have many 



doctors among the speakers this evening. Another thing 
which brings Mr. Walton Clark close to us is the fact that he 
is President of the Franklin Institute of Philadelphia, which 
we all think of in connection with the late Henry Morton and 
his work there. I have great pleasure in introducing Mr. 
Walton Clark, who will say a few words to you. (Great 

Address of Walton Clark: Mr. Toastmaster, Fellow 
Alumni and Ladies — Although I know that a certain meas- 
ure of odium always attaches to an apology, I am constrained 
to apologize to-night. My voice, never good, is to-night par- 
ticularly bad. I know nothing of the acoustics of this room, 
but let me say at the start that I want no Hoboken* ' bluffs" 
throwing my words back at me. I have been apprised of 
the five-minute rule. I have been told that I must tell what 
I know of Dr. Humphreys in five minutes. I have known 
him a long while and the man would talk fast who would 
tell what I know of Dr. Humphreys in five minutes. I 
couldn't do it in a week, and perhaps I wouldn't in his 
presence. (Laughter.) 

Since it seems almost impossible, and at any rate ill- 
advised, for me to attempt to discuss Dr. Humphreys, I am 
going to ask your indulgence while I go back in my own line 
of business to the prehistoric — I mean the pre-Hoboken — 
days and tell you a little of how we did it then. That was 
before Hoboken got into an evil profession, that of letting 
loose mechanical engineers on the theretofore fair face of 
nature. It was before Dr. Humphreys beguiled me out 
of the hospitable South with promise of much cash presently 
in hand and certainty of early preferment. I was a boy in 
the New Orleans Gas Works. We might not know much 
about engineering — probably we didn't; there wasn't a 
diploma within a mile of the works. Our consumers seemed 
fairly satisfied and our stockholders got twelve per cent. 

3 103 


We had also our aspirations and our endeavors after 
accuracy. We made conscientious efforts to do. our work 
well, to do what we were told to do well. As an instance 
I remember we were making some changes in the fittings 
of the condenser room, and that was a dirty job. The 
foreman of the fitters being at the pipe lathe, said to a man, 
his assistant, "Mike, go down to the condenser room and 
bring me a measure of the distance from that elbow I just 
put in to the inch-and-a-half hole in the condenser." Two 
minutes later, crossing the yard, I saw Mike conscientiously 
coming along this way (speaker holding his hands apart), 
and seeing me, he said: "Don't run agin' me; I got the 
measure. " (Laughter.) I had not intended that as a joke, 
but rather as an evidence of the conscientious effort of an 
uneducated man to do his duty. 

We do things somewhat differently now. Recently I 
had occasion to know the capacity of a certain hole in the 
electric light yard. It was a large hole. I said to Hoboken 
'12, — and that is not an automobile (laughter), it is a very 
highly educated young man — I said, "Hoboken, go down 
and measure that hole for me and tell me how much ashes 
it will take to fill it." 

He sorted out the tripod of his altitudinous theodolite 
from his lacrosse sticks in the corner of the room; he took 
his slide rule, known to the profession as a guessing-stick 
(tumultuous laughter); he took my steel tapeline, on 
which he had carefully theretofore determined the error 
due to changes in temperature, he took an assistant and 

The report that he brought back was so remarkable that 
I took a memorandum or two from it before I came over 
to-day, to tell you of it. He told me the capacity of the hole 
in cubic yards, cubic feet and cubic inches to the second 
decimal place. He told me the weight of ashes that it would 
take Lo fill it. He told me how long it would take us to 



accumulate those ashes in our plant, using the coal we were 
then using, with our then efficiency and with the load factor 
that the new business department told us to expect. He 
discussed the wisdom of tamping it as compared with setting 
it with water. He called my attention to the fact that, 
inasmuch as we might sometime want subsoil structures on 
that spot, it would be wise to fill the upper six feet with clay. 
He told me where I could get the clay and how much it would 
cost. He had a comparision of the cost of filling that hole 
with the ashes by wheelbarrow and by cart process. He 
drew my attention to the importance of studying the in- 
fluence of the hypothesis of the fourth dimension as useful 
in the solving of such problems. Finally he said — (at this 
point the lights in the room very gradually grew dim, causing 
great laughter.) 

Bad as my voice is, I can talk in the dark. (The lights 
come out again.) Why, don't they get some gas lights in 
here? (Great laughter.) 

In conclusion he respectfully called my attention to the 
fact that we could not probably get out bonds for this and 
that the whole cost must be charged to operating. It was 
really a beautiful report. 

I sent for him and said : " 1912, why did it occur to you to 
go to all this trouble to get me up a report covering every 
possible point and thought in connection with the matter, 
when all I said was that I wanted to know the contents of 
the hole?" 

He stiffened a little, squared his shoulders — he would have 
clicked his heels, I think he would have liked to have clicked 
them — he thought it wasn't respectful perhaps ; and he said : 
"Sir, Dr. Humphreys told us that when we do a thing, we are 
to do it accurately; that we are to prepare ourselves for 
anything that may happen in connection with the job we are 
then performing and to give our superiors any information 
that they may possibly ask, and, sir," he said, "no graduate 



of Stevens has ever had reason to doubt the wisdom of taking 
Dr. Humphreys' advice." (Great applause.) 

The Toastmaster: You know that thing (referring to 
the lights going down) is automatic. I feel like apologizing 
to Mr. Clark for it, but we can't help it. (Laughter.) 
The Banquet committee has carefully studied this question 
of scientific management, which originated with a Stevens 
man and has been pushed on by a few others, and the time 
for each speech to-night has been calculated to a nicety. 
This electric light is working accordingly. (Laughter.) I 
have to hurry myself. (Applause.) 

We are fortunate in having on the Board of Trustees of 
Stevens Institute of Technology one of the highest, if not 
the highest authority on education in this country, and 
particularly on technical education. Dr. Pritchett, now 
president of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement 
of Teaching, and formerly president of the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology, is, we are glad to say, one of 
our trustees and also one of our honorary degree men, and 
also another doctor. We are going to call on him for a few 
words this evening, and I will sit down at once so that he can 
begin and maybe gain a little bit on the electric light. 

Address of Henry S. Pritchett: Mr. Chairman and 
Fellow Alumni — I have wondered whether a man, omitting 
the customary joke, could, in five minutes, afford to talk 
seriously about the problems of our institution. I am going 
to try. 

If a man looks out of that window toward one street 
and another man out of this window toward another street, 
each man, however honest, will describe a different thing. 

Let us look at Stevens Institute for a moment out of the 
education window for these last ten years, and for another 
moment out of the trustee window. 

I remember llic beginning of I Ins ten years well. I 



was present when President Humphreys was inaugurated. 
Among other things I remember that on that occasion I 
met, almost for the first time, Mr. Andrew Carnegie, with 
whom I have had more or less business to do since. Look- 
ing at Stevens during these ten years from the educational 
side one sees a most splendid progress. Courses have been 
improved. New and strong men have been brought in; 
laboratories multiplied; a splendid site, fit for the noblest 
technical school in the world, in the midst of the greatest 
city in the world, has been secured. All along the direction 
of those things which make for better student life, for 
better studying, for better facilities, the progress has been 
magnificent, and this is the work of Alexander Humphreys. 

No college president whom I know — and I know a great 
many — has done a more sincere, a more effective, a more 
fruitful work in ten years than he. (Applause.) 

Let us look for two minutes out of the trustee window. 
During this great progress, while the numbers have nearly 
doubled, the facilities increased, the student body become 
stronger, better trained, better housed, better cultured, 
while the alumni with admirable devotion have added their 
help to the endowment and to the resources, the load has 
steadily grown out of all respect or relation to those funds 
which have been contributed, and this too in face of the 
fact that this splendid site in which our institution sits 
faces the greatest depository of money in the world; and 
not only that — a depository which every college president 
from the South or the North or the West seems able to tap. 

If these gentlemen who went down to the Pujo Committee 
from Wall Street the other day had had the courage of their 
convictions, they would have confessed that the real reason 
why they have to charge large commissions is that they 
have to finance every college in Dakota and Mississippi 
and North Carolina and Minnesota and California. The 



amount of money which goes out of New York to every 
college throughout the country is astounding. And yet 
we have been here at the very source of that flood and 
somehow, somehow, New York has overlooked us. 

Now, you alumni have done your duty admirably. You 
have shown great devotion. There is one thing yet besides 
devotion for you to bring to bear, and that is to connect in 
some way, ably, sympathetically, rationally, this great 
reservoir of money with the needs of your institution. 
You stand in the very eye of New York, though you are 
on the Jersey side. You are a part, really, of this great 
metropolitan community. Rensselaer has recently had a 
great gift, which is lifting it into larger usefulness and a 
greater work. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
has come within the last two years to a splendid endowment. 
I believe that the turn of Stevens is to come next and that 
in those ten years which now open, we shall see the educa- 
tional program and the trustee program ripen together. 
(Great applause.) 

The Toastmaster: Between two trustees we are going 
to have a canoe trip, an excerpt from "The Blazer Girl," 
Mr. Trewin and Mr. Kay, accompanied by Mr. Russ on 
the piano. 

(Parts of the 1913 Stevens Show were then given.) 

The Toastmaster: And Dr. Humphreys says he is 
going to make engineers of these fellows! (Great laughter.) 

The greatest gift in the world, perhaps the most important, 
is the ability to choose the right man for the right place. 
I may say the second greatest gift is that of being a prophet. 
We have a man who combines these two great qualities 
and he is a trustee of Stevens. He knows how to pick men. 
Five of them are sitting here; (pointing to one of the guest 
tables) another will be traveling to Washington in a few 
more days— the fourth of March. (Applause.) You will 
find <i brief sketch of this man in the Morion Memorial 



volume. It reads like a fairy tale. A colonel at twenty- 
one; managing editor of a New York daily at 25; (hesitating 
and looking at notes, amid laughter); a builder of railroads 
— It is a long list to choose from gentlemen — And another 
doctor. He needs no introduction, but I will be prophetic 
to this extent, to say that you will enjoy the next five 
minutes, for Colonel George Harvey will address you. 
(Great applause.) 

Address of Colonel Harvey: Mr. Chairman, Ladies 
and Gentlemen — If you will permit me, I wish first to make 
an announcement. I am authorized by the trustees to say 
that as a slight evidence of their recognition of this anniver- 
sary, they have commissioned the foremost portrait painter 
of America, Mr. John W. Alexander, to do a portrait of 
President Humphreys, to be presented to the Alumni 
Association, in the hope that they will hang it in Stevens 
Castle. (Great and long-continued applause.) I direct 
your attention particularly to the fact that that is an 
announcement. I have five minutes and I want them all. 
(Great laughter.) I wish it distinctly understood further 
that I am not responsible for this quoting the "Blue Book" 
on the part of your toastmaster. (Great laughter.) The 
lighting may be calculated to a nicety, but it seems to apply 
to all except to him. Now, sir, set your clock. (Great 

The Toastmaster: It is already set, sir. 

Colonel Harvey: What Alexander Humphreys has 
done for Stevens, he has done for engineering; what he has 
done for engineering, he has done for civilization; what 
he has done for civilization he has done for humanity, 
for all that makes life worth living. (Great applause.) 
He is a living examplar of the great truth that the way to 
render common service is to render specific service. 
(Applause.) It is not the indeterminate striving of the 
collective body, but it is the combining of the works of 



individuals that gets results, fulfils aspiration, realizes 
visions. You engineers design a great bridge; you glory- 
in your accomplishment as you should, but whence do 
you derive your greatest pleasure, your greatest satisfaction? 
From the honorarium, from the reputation you attain, 
from future advantages foreseen? No, the sentient thrill 
of your heart springs from seeing with your own eyes the 
gossamer threads of your own imagination translated into 
great cables and bands of steel. 

Back of the real is the ideal. The actuality is the mere 
physical expression of the creative longing that is sunk deep 
in your heart, in the best part of your nature and sings 
with the joy of a Beethoven upon its realization. That 
is why your profession is of the noblest, because it makes 
for a perfect blending of utility and beauty, of service to 
mankind, of tribute, if we may say so, to the God within 
ourselves. But while your unconscious aim is to the abstract, 
even the mystical, your doing is concrete, definite, precise. 
That is the science of it; that is the American of it; that is 
the Stevens of it; that is the Humphreys of it. (Great 

That is why we are here to-night, to celebrate the 
unselfish service of ten of the best years of his life. That 
is why he is here to see and hear — mostly hear — us cele- 
brate it. But it is our privilege and our pleasure upon 
such an occasion to show our appreciation of him and of 
what he stands for. 

Everything, after all, depends upon the man. We may 
and should urge the common cause, but it is contrary to 
all our beliefs, theological, political and personal, to assume 
that we can achieve the common good except through 
the exertions of the individual unit primarily for individual 
ends. It was not the mass, but the man whom God created 
in his image. It was not collective but personal responsi- 
bility thai was imposed upon the people by the Pilgrim 



Fathers. Not numbers, but brains, have triumphed in 
recent wars. It has been said, and probably is true, that 
any existing nation would be atrophied by the withdrawal 
of 10,000 of its best minds. Why? Because the vast 
majority of men still lead automatic lives and contribute 
only force, which serves no better than an idle engine 
unless directed. 

The notion of all members of the human race participating 
share and share alike in its total products is pleasing no 
doubt, but it is the theory of mediocrity which meets ability, 
reason and competition and invariably seeks undue advan- 
tage. (Applause.) That is why socialism is not an ideal 
state, but a morass of congealed inferiority (applause), a 
resting-place for sloth, a burial place for aspiration. What 
does the apparatus amount to until you turn on the current? 
It was not to the machines of destruction that Nelson 
sent his famous message, that Lawrence cried out in the 
agony of death, that Dewey gave his quiet order. It was 
to the man behind the gun. And so it is always. When 
we have done with formulating admirable theories, done 
with contemplating blissful visions of common service for 
a common good, we can but awake — awake sometimes 
with a start — to a realization that the one force we have 
to reckon with and the only force we have to rely upon is 
groping, faulty, perverse and selfish, but noble and divinely 
human, Man. (Applause.) 

We know only what we read of heaven. It may be all 
that it has been depicted or, as Mark Twain hopefully 
suggested, a mere haven of refuge from one's relations. 
(Laughter.) We know even less of the other place except as 
our observation indicates it is a congenial abode for those 
gregariously disposed. What we do know, what we do 
know — and I say this with peculiar gratification and with 
the image of Alexander Humphreys very vivid in the minds 
of us all — what we do know is this: The greatest thing in 



the world, sir (turning towards Dr. Humphreys), is a Man. 
It always has been; I guess it always will be. (Great 

The Toastmaster: On the third Wednesday of Sep- 
tember in 1871, a small band of men — I may say, im- 
mortal men — stood at the door of Stevens Institute of 
Technology to receive the first of her students. There 
were eight in that little party. Their names are: Henry 
Morton, President; Alfred Mayer, Robert H. Thurston, 
Col. H. A. Hascall, Charles W. MacCord, Albert R. Leeds, 
Edward Wall, and Charles Frederick Kroeh. That was 
the original Stevens faculty, and Professor Kroeh is here 
to-night to say a few words to us. Professor Kroeh. (Ap- 
plause and cheering greeted each name.) 

Address of Professor Charles F. Kroeh: Mr. Presi- 
dent, Mr. Toastmaster and Friends — On the 28th of Novem- 
ber last I announced to my family that I was going to 
celebrate the day. They objected, saying that it was not 
my birthday, but I said, " Oh, yes, it is, only it takes higher 
mathematics to recognize it, for on that day I shall celebrate 
my sixty-six and two-thirds birthday." (Laughter.) It 
isn't by any merit of mine that you still have me on your 
hands as a remnant of the original faculty, because I was 
the youngest member when we opened our doors in 1871. 
It was rare, that privilege that I had of coming into fellow- 
ship and association with men who had already won their 
spurs and getting into an atmosphere of culture, of original 
research, of mutual helpfulness and of high ideals. Now 
I am the only one left, and upon my feeble shoulders rests 
the burden of upholding their traditions. 

What floods of recollections well up in our hearts when 
we bear those names that have just been read to you: 
Henry Morton, Alfred Mayer, Robert Thurston, Albert 
Leeds, DeVolson Wood — for Professor Hascall was with 
us only a very sliorl lime. They have gone to (heir reward, 

1 \> 


and there are two members of the original faculty left 
besides myself, who are in retirement and enjoying their 
well-earned rest as well as the increasing infirmities of old 
age permit. I am proud to be the bearer of a message 
to you from them, and with your permission, Mr. Toast- 
master, and hoping that it will not be added to my five 
minutes, I want to read to you what they say. 

Professor Charles W. MacCord writes: "At the coming 
dinner I beg through you to congratulate Doctor Humph- 
reys upon the results of the first decade of his presidency, 
during which time the Stevens Institute of Technology 
has acquired a noble dormitory', refectory and athletic 
field, all of which are due to his efforts. May the next 
decade be equally abundant in good works." (Applause.) 

Professor Edward Wall writes: "I congratulate you all, 
for all have had their part in the growth and development 
of the Institute. By the inspiration of wise leadership 
and the cordial cooperation of undergraduates, professors, 
alumni and friends, a degree of accomplishment has been 
made in less than ten years, which would have been a credit- 
able achievement if made in fifty years. To the under- 
graduates I want to say: Some of you have begun to hear 
voices from the future. I am not so old, but I have for- 
gotten when I first heard those voices, and when my sons 
grew up and went out into the world, they also heard these 
voices from the future, and I, through sympathy with 
them, heard them also, and now in imagination I seem to 
hear the voices that are calling to you. All the voices are 
not the same, but the substance of their message is : achieve- 
ment, possession, success. To all of you I want to say, 
in the words of Emerson, ' Go forward boldly and take what 
you want, but pay the price; pay the price in industry, 
pay the price in integrity, pay the price in unselfish pur- 
pose to better the condition of those that you can influence, 
for, be assured, the permanent possession and enjoyment 



of what you desire are to be purchased at no lower price.'" 

Gentlemen, it is a good and pleasant thing for us to come 
together on this occasion to honor our dear president, 
who has given us the greater Stevens by his ten years of 
distinguished service; to cement the old friendships; to 
form new ones; to talk over your golden student days; to 
congratulate each other upon the share you have had in 
the amazing prosperity of this country. The human mind 
is staggered in trying to understand the meaning of the 
billions which measure the value of the fruits of the earth 
and of the products of industry, and in every department 
of human productive achievement you mechanical engi- 
neers have been an important, yea a necessary, factor. 

In the midst of all this prosperity I was going to ask 
you to look to-night for a moment beneath the surface at 
those sinister forces of evil which are endeavoring to 
wreck our civilization, but I am cautioned by the behavior 
of the light that it would go out upon me as I got into 
the midst of that very dark picture. So I will leave it 
out and you can read it in our Congressional Record, the 
Indicator, in full. (Laughter.) As a consistent optimist, 
I must believe that the forces which are arrayed in behalf 
of civilization will ultimately triumph and that this country 
of ours that we love so much will not go the way of many of 
the prosperous empires of the past. 

I was very much struck by a remark I read, which was 
made by your very able Assistant District Attorney of New 
York City, Mr. Frank Moss, in reviewing the recent trial 
of the so-called "gunmen," in which he lays a very large 
portion of the blame for their misdeeds upon the community 
itself, and lie adds that these men are graduates of high 
schools and colleges, and that every year a great number 
of just such men are let loose upon the world. It is a serious 
charge, and in reflecting upon il I was forced to admit to 



myself that whatever progress has been made in mental 
and physical education during my lifetime, there has been 
a retrogression in moral training. 

It was natural also to think in that connection of what 
we of the Stevens Institute are doing to place ourselves 
on the right side of these contending forces, and I was about 
to say, as I thought them over, that we had several agencies 
in the Stevens Institute of Technology that are worth 
mentioning in this connection. We have a student self- 
government system, by which the students are trained 
to consider the ethical value of their actions. They are 
trained to do this themselves. We have fair and square 
athletics at Stevens. We play a clean game, and I hold 
that when a student has arrived at the point where he would 
rather loose an event than gain it by unfair means, he has 
taken at least one step forward in righteousness. (Applause.) 
We have two non-professional departments in the curricu- 
lum of Stevens Institute in which it is possible to bring 
before the minds of the students the problems arising in 
the inner life of man, and we have the irreproachable char- 
acter of our president and professors and their fair and hu- 
mane conduct and their human sympathy in and out of 
the classroom as examples to all the students. Some day 
I think that the world in general will wake up to the 
fact that we are training not only for efficiency, but for 

You know what the greatest financier of modern times 
said when he was at the hearing of the Pujo Committee. 
It was found, in answer to the questions put to him, that 
he laid the greatest importance upon character, and I can 
imagine a scene like the following occurring in the near 
future : 

A man will present himself at the office of J. P. Morgan 
& Co. and will ask for a million dollars. The question will 
be, naturally: "What do you want it for?" "Oh, to pipe 



the interior heat of the earth for the sake of supplying 
Manhattan with heat, light and power." "And what 
securities have you to deposit for the loan?" "I have 
none; I need none; I am a graduate of the Stevens Institute 
of Technology." (Laughter and applause.) 

"Ah!" I say will be the answer; "Davidson see that 
this man gets a check for a million dollars (laughter), and 
Davidson, while about it, have another check drawn for 
$2,000,000 and sent to President Humphreys, who has 
been doing splendid work for the last ten years over 
there in Hoboken." (Great laughter and applause.) 

The Toastmaster: In 1887 a young man graduated from 
Knox College in Illinois; went out into the world and re- 
turned five years later as president of that college. In 
that way he became the youngest college president of the 
United States. Three years he then spent at Princeton, 
where he was associated with Woodrow Wilson as professor 
of one of the courses. In 1903 he became president of the 
College of the City of New York. His name is John H. 
Finley. (Applause.) I think that is enough to make you 
want to hear him. 

Address of John H. Finley: Mr. Toastmaster, Mr. 
President, Ladies and Gentlemen — Reference was made by 
your toastmaster a few minutes ago to the last number of 
Harper's Weekly. I am devoutly sorry to hear that that 
is the last number; I hope that it was only the latest number 
(laughter), and that there will be at least one other number 
and that it will contain as an editorial or as a contribution 
the address that was made by Colonel Harvey. (Applause.) 
I envy a man who can invite or compel — I don't know which 
ii is — I wish he could compel something of that sort in me — 
can invite such an address as that, and I envy the man who 
is able to make it. If I don't use my five minutes, I hope 
he will have what is left. (Laughter.) 

Yon have been told I was once the youngest college presi- 

1 16 


dent in the land. That is the only distinction I ever en- 
joyed and I have lost that. I am now, sir, one of the oldest 
living members of the Society of Prexies. I have seen some 
of them come ; I have seen many of them go ; I have seen some 
of them both come and go. (Laughter.) Before Butler 
and Hadley and Lowell and Hibben were, was I. I was a 
contemporary of Eliot and Angell and Low and others who 
have gone on into that twilight zone of a larger disinterested 
unpaid public service. I was at one time a student of Wood- 
row Wilson and I was a president long before he was, but 
now, like Elijah, he has gone up in a chariot, and I stand 
looking up into the skies. (Laughter.) I was present at 
the birth of the American university and I witnessed the 
immaturities of the American college. I have observed a 
great many other things which I will not relate. 

And so I stand, like one of Priam's chiefs upon the walls 
of Troy, wise with time and garrulous with age, looking 
upon the exploits of these younger Achilles and Hectors and 
so on, and I may say, in the words of the psalmist, "I have 
been young and now am old, but I have never seen the 
righteous forsaken," nor have I seen a college president 
begging bread — that is, for himself. (Laughter.) I have 
seen him begging bread and almost everything else for other 
people, and I think the most unselfish, altruistic member 
of this noble order, which is unique in America, the most 
altruistic member is your president, Dr. Humphreys. 

I only hope that you are not going to make him work so 
hard in the next ten years. Some one was telling yesterday 
of an epitaph that was written over a man who worked too 
hard, going about from one place to another, one board to 
another. This was the epitaph: "He was committed to 
his grave." 

But, sir, if you come to that other world, about which 
Colonel Harvey seems to have some question — I mean as 



to the existence of it, not as to your getting there — if there 
is such a world, if you should get there and I should be within 
seeing distance (laughter), I am sure that I shall find that 
visage to which Colonel Harvey has referred, that visage of a 
man, I shall recognize your visage as upon or in the bosom of 
Abraham. I see that you do not understand the reference. 
You will find it in the 11th chapter of Luke, 25th verse. 

My time is nearly gone. I think that here we have an 
example (pointing to Dr. Humphreys), one of the finest 
examples of modern chivalry: a man of gentle urbanity, 
at home anywhere in the world, but a man with the fine 
domesticity of sub urbanity (laughter), and a man who has 
the simplicity, the rustic simplicity of one who lives in the 
country. I bring my tribute to him to-night. He is the 
first Alexander — you know the first Alexander conquered 
many worlds and sighed because there were no more — the 
man who made greater Greece. This man nearly twice the 
age of Alexander when he died is still longing for more 
worlds to conquer. This man has already conquered far 
more worlds than Alexander — worlds of the air and of the 
water and of the land. And he has performed one great 
service: he has annexed Hoboken to New York City. 
(Laughter.) Psychologically, it is now a part of New York; 
it does not belong on the Jersey Shore; it is only a geological 
accident that it is separated from us. He is the man who 
has carried those gossamer threads across the river, for, if 
our thoughts could be visualized, Colonel Harvey, we should 
be able to see a bridge over the Hudson River, a bridge over 
which our thoughts, the thoughts of us who love this man 
and who admire his work, travel day after day and week 
after week. There is a great Humphreys bridge across the 
Hudson River. At one time we thought of Hoboken simply 
as a place where our friends went when they wanted to 
embark for the other side of the ocean. Now Hoboken is a 



place to which we go over that bridge to disembark our 
thoughts in Stevens Institute. 

I will stop with the only mathematical figure that I am 
acquainted with, at least that I remember. I wish, sir, that 
you erect a perpendicular line upon a base. I don't know 
just how long the base is, but the perpendicular line is ten 
years high. I hope that the square described on the hypoth- 
enuse will be equal to the sum of the squares already de- 
scribed on the other two sides. (Great applause.) 

The Toastmaster: Dr. Finley — (here the lights are 
lowered.) — Here, what is the matter? Turn up those 
lights! (Great laughter. The lights are turned on again.) 
Dr. Finley, has reminded me of a little story I read not long 
ago about Alexander the Great. It seems that once when 
the general was seated outside his tent he was approached 
by the drummer boy of one of the cohorts. The drummer 
boy, with that characteristic directness of drummer boys, 
said: "Alexander (pointing to the neighboring height), 
yon castle must be took." (Laughter.) Alexander changed 
the location of the Hoyo de Monterey perfecto that he was 
smoking and said: "Boy, yon Castle has been took." 

We will now have just a few minutes respite from the 
scientific management. (Laughter.) That is the first real 
laugh I have got this evening (laughter), and when we rap 
for order please come promptly to order, because the scien- 
tific management of the committee requires very prompt 
action. Anybody seen De Hart? 

A Voice: Right here, sir. 

A Voice: Here he is. 

The Toastmaster: Well, hurry up, Johnny. 

(Mr. De Hart comes forward and mounts the platform 
in front of the speakers' table, holding in his hands a model 
of Castle Stevens under a glass case.) 

Mr. De Hart: Fellow Alumni — I have here a reproduc- 
tion of Castle Stevens. It won't hold the painting, but I 
4 119 


trust the Doctor will treasure it and keep it, and we are all 
presenting it to him here to-night (handing the model over 
to the Doctor). I hope the Toastmaster will give him five 
minutes extra. (Applause.) 

The Toastmaster: Now, we will make the welkin ring 
with the song "Dear Old Stevens Tech." 

(The song was then sung by all.) 

The Toastmaster: We saved about three minutes on 
that. Up in the wilds of New Jersey in a little town called 
Tenafly, the Luther Burbank of engineering started his 
existence more years ago than I think you would believe by 
looking at him. He entered Stevens in '86; won prizes right 
and left; was the anchor on the tug of war team; one of our 
prominent athletes and is still to-day; he has been president 
of this Association; alumni trustee, and now he has in hand 
the Graduate Fund, which some of you have read of or heard 
about. Henry Torrance, of the Class of '90 will speak to 
you for five minutes. (Applause.) 

Address of Henry Torrance: Mr. President, Guests, 
Fellow Alumni and Ladies — I have a short argument and 
hope you will listen and catch the moral. This intellectual 
assembly should be fully capable of grappling with all the 
public questions of this country. 

We are confronted with that perplexing problem, the 
enormous price of food! 

A farmer knows how to plow the prairie; James J. Hill 
knows how to build a railroad; Lloyd-George knows how 
to tax the people — he thinks he does; and R. T. Crane used 
to say that a hobo knows how to run a manufacturing es- 
tablishment. We Stevens men are supposed to be — excuse 
me, are able — to tackle it all, hence we must know all about 

We must <tudy the farming conditions of Kansas, the cost 
of pork on the hoof, the value of a ton of beef, the length of 
alfalfa root, the compressive strength of a spear of winter 



wheat as it forces its way upwards through the snow and ice, 
for Kansas wheat will grow through anything, and thus 
enable ourselves to figure accurately the cost, the intrinsic 
value of lobster a la Newburg. How much do the iniqui- 
tous hotel men charge us for it? 

Kansas largely controls the price of food. Kansas farm 
land in 1880 was $1 an acre, twenty years ago was $15 and 
now is $200, and the farmer will tell you it is because the 
season has changed; that there is more rain because the coun- 
try is populated. He will want to sell you cheap land in west- 
ern Kansas and promise rain when the country is settled. 
(Laughter.) Now, fellows, I have been there and they have 
all told me that. 

Does that sound reasonable? The Kansas prairies were 
the homes of the buffalo; covered with buffalo grass with a 
sod three inches thick, woven so closely that it was actually 
used to make hard bricks and to waterproof the roofs of 
houses like the thatched roofs of Japan. 

There was plenty of rain on the prairie, but it ran off 
to the ditches — didn't soak in. The air on this short 
parched grass in summer became as hot as that on a Hoboken 
tin roof with southern exposure. Who found it out? Why, 
a Stevens man who could not sight his transit because of 
the hazy heated air. Every year, in August, a trade wind 
would arise and three days in one direction was enough to 
drive the heated air from these vast prairies, scorch, burn up 
and devastate every crop it touched. Crane's hobo, who 
didn't know anything, said: "'Tis useless, my crop is ruined 
every year; I will let the eastern capitalist foreclose the 
mortgage," and that was twenty years ago, and the 
New York Sun tried to find out what was the matter 
with Kansas, but the Stevens man said, "I will plow up 
the prairie and stop that heating of the atmosphere," and 
he plowed it. 

When the Stevens man could not make his transit work he 



sat on a rock to think, and his name should be placed in the 
farmers' hall of fame alongside that of Sir Isaac Newton, 
who saw the apple fall. (Laughter.) Stevens men are 
taught to think by Dr. Humphreys. 

Ten years ago the farmers of Kansas were populists and 
Bryanites. They wanted "free silver" but were given free 
gold instead by the Stevens man. I could tell more about 
Kansas, but I haven't the time. 

The New York Sun said, " What's the matter with Kansas?" 
That's what William Allen White wanted to find out. The 
matter was they had a gold mine right under that buffalo 
grass sod and never knew it; and we have a gold mine 
under our Stevens education, and it cost more than we paid 
for it. 

In 1870 Henry Morton and S. Bayard Dod planned this 
school of engineering, the first in the country, and the 
scheme of the first catalogue of 1871 has never been changed, 
though much enlarged by Dr. Humphreys. 

We were taught patience. We had to turn a steel bar 
down in the middle to the size of a knitting needle without 
breaking — something like that (holding up a thin wire) ; that 
is what we had to do (laughter) ; and if our vigilance relaxed, 
it was zip! "busted"! and we had to make another. My 
partner, Buck Lawrence, broke our bar and I was the 
"goat." (Laughter.) 

We turned Hawkridge's iron; the price was figured by the 
pound, but being full of blow-holes, he charged us by the 
piece. (Laughter.) 

We took the temper out of chisels on the wood lathe. I 
did. A freshman wanted to know why the end of the 
chisel got blue and Lackland said, "The heat of your 
enthusiasm did it." (Laughter.) That is the gospel truth, 

When we chiseled iron at the vise bench, Lackland said, 
"You must look at the iron and not at the chisel," and you 



ought to have seen us pound our thumbs. (Laughter.) 
Mine is sore still. 

We had to calculate the gears on a milling machine. De 
Volson Wood was giving us composition in English and 
Lackland wanted to give us problems in mathematics, and 
that stuck us. (Laughter.) 

In pipe fitting Louis Becker said: "You cut the threads; 
it is fun for you and damn hard work for me." (Laughter.) 
So we sweated at the pipe bench. 

Calculus taught us that a tomato can using the least tin 
had a diameter equal to its height. (Laughter.) Did you 
ever know before why the height was equal to the diameter? 

When we drew a line, Webb told us to look at the point we 
were aiming at and not at our hand. 

Fellows, we must keep our eye set on the goal we are 
aiming at. We must maintain this institution the best in 
the country, amply endowed and pass it to the next genera- 
tion even more than we have received. (Applause.) 

The first job we had in "Lab" was pasting new labels on 
bottles, and it was a tough-looking set that '89 passed on to 
'90. Professor Stillman gave me barium sulphate to ana- 
lyze, and I fussed three weeks dropping in the ammonia, 
but got no results; then he dumped in the bottle, it turned 
white and he laughed at me. (Laughter.) I did not add 
enough to counteract the acid. 

The predominating quality dominates the rest, and the 
good in the Stevens man will keep down the bad — in the other 

But the good old days are past. The sulphur fumes are 
taken off in the Morton "Lab" ventilating pipes and the 
Honor System is established, and I say that if Dr. Humphreys 
had done nothing whatever for this institution except estab- 
lish that Honor System, his ten years here would have been 
well spent. (Great applause.) 

Dr. Humphreys teaches principles, not details. 



Will Mike Murphy teach you to run? Yes. Will he 
teach you the science of it? No, he keeps that to himself, but 
Dr. Humphreys does not; he will tell you that your body is 
to advance horizontally, that the up and down motion wastes 
energy and loses speed. 

Spalding's book on how to bat says: "Keep your eye on 
the ball, keep your nerve and hit where the other fellow 
isn't." Does it tell you the science of the swing with your 
bat between your eye and the ball so you can see what you 
are doing? No, but Dr. Humphreys does. 

Across the river we see that land on Castle Stevens Point. 
The buffalo grass there still sheds the water and the hot sun 
and trade winds from the Hoboken tin roofs still form the 
devastating breezes. But we have about us philanthropic 
bankers who will surely lend us money without interest to 
buy this land. We will concentrate our Stevens intellect 
upon it, the sod will be turned under, the rain penetrate, 
the grass grow, the flowers blossom and lofty Stevens build- 
ings with colonnades and ivy vines will rise up as monuments 
to the second ten years of Dr. Humphreys' reign. (Great 

The Toastmaster: The next speaker, I understand, is 
not a doctor, but in recognition of his scholarly attainments 
Princeton University has conferred upon him the honorary 
degree of Master of Arts. He is the father of the Pilgrim 
Society, which does more perhaps to promote good feeling 
between this country and England than any other single 
force. He is second vice-president of the Equitable Life 
Assurance Society and a friend of our honored president. 
I take pleasure in introducing Mr. George T. Wilson. 

Address of George T. Wilson: Mr. Lightning-Change 
Artist of a Toastmaster, distinguished and beloved guests 
of honor and other guests more or less distinguished or ex- 
tinguished, like myself, who through I he very mysterious 



but most benign dispensation of providence, have been 
enabled to break into the bread line of the Stevens Institute 
to-night; angels that are bright and fair looking down upon 
us from up there (laughter), about whom a recent poet wrote: 
"Here's to woman, the power behind the throne; God save 
the king!" (great laughter); manufacturers of steel, iron, 
steam, gas and all the other commodities which go to make 
the high cost of loving — living of the present day (laughter) ; 
fellow citizens; graduates of Stevens; — I give you my cheer- 
iest greetings, express the hope that you are feeling just as 
good as you look, and thank you from my heart for your 
kindly reception, which comes to me very much like a re- 
freshing cock — tonic. (Great laughter.) 

I am reminded of the story of the little girl who was so 
tired one night and who asked her mother not to make her 
say her usual long prayer, but to let her off with the short 
prayer that nursie said every morning. "And what is the 
short prayer that nursie says every morning, my darling ?" 
"Oh, Lord, have I got to get up?" (Great laughter.) 
That is the swear — prayer that is chasseeing up and 
down and all around my spinal system as I rise to the 
"call of the wild," realizing my utter inability to rise to 
the occasion. 

In a city court the other day the judge sternly ejaculated: 
"The next man that interrupts the proceedings of the court 
will be ejected from the courtroom!" Whereupon the 
prisoner in the box arose and said: "Wow! Hooray! Hi! Hi! 
Now, judge, let me go." (Great laughter.) I have a 
fellow feeling for that prisoner, and I should just like to say: 
"Wow! Bully victuals! Dr. Humphreys, we love you. 
Now, let me go?" (Laughter.) 

If I had the felicity and the facility of speech of the other 
George — Harvey — I would rise to heights of eloquence per- 
haps that would rouse you to irresistible enthusiasm — maybe 
— but as I haven't his command of language and none of my 



own, and in view of the speed limit, the chief merit of my 
remarks will be their brevity. 

It has not been my good fortune to enjoy the acquaintance 
of Dr. Humphreys in that capacity which would enable me 
to address him as so many of you do so beautifully and 
harmoniously to-night, straight from your heart of hearts, 
as "Dear Old Prexy," but it has been my good fortune to 
associate with our guest of the evening as a business man and 
as a gentleman in the truest and sweetest and dearest sense 
of the term. (Great applause.) And, taking the liberty of 
speaking for his business associates, I would say that they 
think of him as the equipoised personality of wisdom, wit, 
gravity, gaiety, the harmony of conflicting emotions. And 
another nugget: the paradise of reason, temper, urbanity, 
all the virtues set off by all the graces. I have some other 
nuggets concealed about my person. (Great laughter.) 

I know this "glim" will be "doused" any minute on me, 
and I must hurry along. Students, graduates, friends, 
business associates, we all think of dear Dr. Humphreys as 
an old friend. And you remember what the Autocrat of the 
Breakfast Table sang long ago: 

There's no friend like the old friend 
Who has shared our morning days; 

No greeting like his welcome, 
No tribute like his praise. 

Fame is the scentless sunflower, 

With gaudy crown of gold, 
But friendship is the breathing rose 

With sweets in every fold. 

And so, Dr. Humphreys, we bring you to-night the rose of 
friendship, fragrant with the memories of the past, glowing in 
the doings of the day, bright and hopeful in the expectancy 
of the morrow and sweets in every fold. And as Mr. Shakes- 
peare once wrote about you: "His life was gentle and the 



elements so mixed in him that nature might stand up and 
say to all the world, This is a man." 

The other day a fellow tripped going down the Thirty- 
third Street entrance to the subway; on his downward flight 
he bumped into a girl, who landed on his chest and went down 
with him. (Laughter.) When he got to the bottom of the 
stairs, she made no motion of getting up, and he respectfully 
said: "Madam, this is as far as I go." (Great laughter and 

The Toastmaster : The light will always shine on George 
T. Wilson. In introducing the poetic vein, I certainly struck 
a popular vein as well as some other kinds of vanity. We will 
now have the second excerpt from the "Blazer Girl." The 
gentleman's name is actually Milligan; I can't tell you what 
it is on the stage, because I have forgotten it. 

(Further extracts from the "Blazer Girl" were then 

The Toastmaster: Eighteen years on the Faculty of 
Stevens, think of it! and a young man, too; five years in 
practical electrical work before he went to Stevens, but he 
got through the four years in three; that is, he did not 
take the first year. I am going to let him speak to you five 
minutes Albert F. Ganz. (Applause.) 

Address of Prof. Albert F. Ganz: Mr. Toastmaster, 
President Humphreys, Fellow Alumni and Guests — I deeply 
appreciate the honor of representing the Faculty on this 
important occasion, particularly as I have been asked to 
speak of President Humphreys' great work for Stevens. 

When ten years ago we lost our revered President, Dr. 
Henry Morton, who had so ably guided Stevens to its posi- 
tion of prominence among the colleges of mechanical engineer- 
ing, the name of Alexander Crombie Humphreys came at 
once to the minds of Trustees, of Faculty and of Alumni, 
as that of the one man eminently qualified to continue the 
work of Morton. Already imbued with the traditions and 



ideals of Stevens as the result of his close association with 
Dr. Morton and of his untiring and unselfish work for the 
welfare of Stevens — his own Alma Mater — he accepted the 
unanimous and urgent call and became our executive and 
leader, in the face of great personal sacrifice. 

He soon found that the extremely rapid growth of engi- 
neering in many directions, and the increase in the number 
of applicants for admission, made imperative more equip- 
ment, enlargement of space, extension of courses, and an 
increase in the instructing personnel, over what had sufficed 
in the early days of Stevens. How ably and how success- 
fully he has met these demands! The old buildings were 
reconstructed and extended, giving more adequate shops, 
a fine auditorium, greatly improved lecture rooms, and addi- 
tional recitation room; the Morton Laboratory of Chemistry 
was also added. Ten years ago the Faculty consisted of 
nineteen members while to-day there are thirty-one, seven 
of whom remain from the former nineteen. The additions 
to class rooms and Faculty have made possible greater sub- 
division of classes whereby the efficiency of instruction has 
been increased, and a closer contact between students and 
instructors has resulted. 

Himself a man who had attained eminence not only as 
an engineer, but also as a business executive and financier. 
President Humphreys recognized the necessity of giving 
training in business affairs to engineering students and to 
meet this demand introduced a course in Economics of 
Engineering under his direct personal charge, and thereby 
made Stevens the first college of mechanical engineering 
to require work in economics in its curriculum. 

Realizing the great importance of providing a suitable 
environment for improving the physical and the social wel- 
fare of our students, President Humphreys, against almost 
insurmountable difficulties, acquired the historic Castle and 
a large portion of the Castle Point grounds. 



His high ideals and his inspiring personality have impressed 
themselves upon all, and have developed a spirit of coopera- 
tion between Faculty and students which has resulted in 
the introduction of a most successful system of student 
self-government — a plan which fosters honesty, self-reliance, 
and manliness in our students. Incidentally the honor 
system, a part of the self-government plan, has relieved the 
members of the Faculty from the very unpleasant duty of 
keeping watch on students, especially during examinations, 
which are now conducted without any Faculty surveillance 

Influenced by this spirit of cooperation student organ- 
izations have greatly developed and most of these have 
become influential and important factors in the student 

President Humphreys' continued unselfish sacrifice of 
his time, his personal comforts, his resources, and even his 
health — all for the benefit of Stevens — have been a constant 
source of admiration and an inspiration to the members of 
the Faculty, who know that in President Humphreys they 
have a sympathetic executive who will give them all possible 
aid within his power to enable them to do their work with 
the greatest thoroughness. 

During the past ten years the development of all of the 
engineering branches has continued at a remarkable rate, 
as you all know, and correspondingly greater demands are 
made on colleges of engineering. To meet these increasing 
demands so that Stevens may hold its own in the future as it 
has in the past, we must have additions to our laboratories, 
equipment and resources. In Castle Point we have an abso- 
lutely ideal site for those extensions and we earnestly pray 
that President Humphreys may soon be successful in his 
efforts to secure the financial assistance which will enable 
him to provide the necessary extensions and to realize his 
plans for a greater and still more useful Stevens. 



President Humphreys : The members of your Faculty are 
not content to have their high appreciation and regard for 
you merely recited on this occasion, but have prepared 
a testimonial of their esteem in this permanent form which is 
signed by every one of its members. 

On behalf of the Faculty of Stevens Institute of Tech- 
nology, it gives me, Sir, the greatest pleasure to present to 
you this testimonial of their appreciation of your work. 
Pray believe that this testimonial is not a mere formality, 
but that every word recorded in it comes from the very 
bottom of our hearts. 

(Professor Ganz then read the testimonial.) 

Alexander Crombie Humphreys: 

On this occasion, the Tenth Anniversary of your Inaugu- 
ration as President of Stevens Institute of Technology, we 
the Faculty, desire to congratulate you on your successful 
administration and to formally express our appreciation of 
your valued services to your Alma Mater. 

You have brought about a hearty cooperation between the 
Faculty and the students which has led to a successful stu- 
dent self-government system. You have greatly increased 
the efficiency of the course of instruction by coordinating 
more completely the work of the different departments and 
by establishing, in anticipation of the demands of the times, 
a department of Economics of Engineering which under your 
charge has had the benefit of your wide experience in business 

Your activity and prominence in the educational and the 
engineering circles of the nation have greatly added to the 
prestige of Stevens. 

Your wise forethought and untiring efforts have enabled 
you to secure historic Castle Point, the possession of which 
hafl contributed to a fuller development of physical and social 
life, and baa made possible a Greater Stevens. 



Inspired by your personal sacrifice and your deeds we 
pledge to you our continued support and loyalty, and earn- 
estly pray that for many years to come we may enjoy the 
advantages of your leadership. 
Presented at the Annual Alumni Banquet 
Hotel Astor, New York, February 14, 1913. 

(Great applause.) 

The Toastmaster: The Class of 1906 bears the distinc- 
tion of having been the first class to graduate under Dr. 
Humphreys after four years under his teaching. The perma- 
nent president of that class is Mr. James E. Pinkney, the 
son of a former superintendent of the United Gas Improve- 
ment Company, a man who during his undergraduate work 
was active not only in athletics — he played three years on 
the Varsity football team and on the Varsity lacrosse 
team — but also in other undergraduate affairs, and particu- 
larly those relating to the establishment of the Honor System. 
You will be pleased, I am sure, to hear from Mr. Pinkney, 
who represents the younger graduates of Stevens Institute 
of Technology. (Applause.) 

Address of James E. Pinkney: Mr. Toastmaster, Mr. 
President, Fellow Alumni and Guests — As the Class of 1906 
entered the Institute at the time Dr. Humphreys accepted 
the responsibilities of President, we were the first class to 
take the entire four years of the course under his direction. 
It is as a representative of 1906 as well as of those classes 
that were graduated during the first four years of his presi- 
dency that I now have the honor of addressing you. And 
as I stand here to-night it doesn't seem one bit natural for 
me to feel really honored in representing 1905 and 1907. 
In the good old days of yore it was far from such, believe me. 
How about it, 1906? 

Those were the days when we would gather in groups in the 
true college manner, and after giving the class yell, we then 



most enthusiastically delegated those beloved names to that 
fiery place of eternal brimstone and sulphur. But those 
petty controversies of undergraduate days have long since 
been forgotten and we gather here to-night to do honor and 
pay homage to the man who has done so much for Stevens 
and our Alma Mater, the dear Old Stone Mill. 

The early days of Dr. Humphreys' administration were 
days of many little misunderstandings. I can well remember 
how the various fellows accepted Dr. Humphreys' remarks 
on what he expected of us, what we might do and what we 
must not do. Most of us believed part of what he said; 
part of us believed most of it; there might have been a few 
who believed all of it. But there was only a short time, a 
very, very short time before all of us, every blessed son of us, 
from the freshest freshman of my own class up to the sage 
of the senior class, realized without the shadow of a doubt 
that whatever Prexy said he meant and he meant every 
word of it, too. 

As underclassmen we respected Prexy for his great success 
and reputation in the engineering world, and as we continued 
in our course we came to know him better and learned to 
like him for himself alone, for the man that he was, the big, 
broad man that we all loved. 

It would require a man of more eloquence than I possess 
adequately to sing our praises of Prexy, but whatever has 
been said to-night, no matter how eloquently expressed, 
has not been spoken with any more sincerity and earnest- 
ness than that with which I am speaking. So let us all, 
from the last graduates of 1912 back through the ranks 
of the Old Guard, let us all get together and more loyally 
show our appreciation of what Prexy has done for us. AVe 
may not have much in money — few of us have — but we all 
have time and energy with which to support and encourage 
him. Prexy, good old Prexy, always was and is "from Mis- 
souri." Let us show him then that we arc with him to a 



man, heart, soul and body. (Great applause and cheers 
from the class of 1906.) 

The Toastmaster : We had a song scheduled for the 
next thing on the program, but the hour is getting late and 
we will omit it, and I will introduce the next speaker, Mr. 
J. H. Vander Veer, of the Class of 1913. This is another 
unusual thing we are doing to-night. The entire Senior 
Class is here, joining with the alumni in honoring Dr. 
Humphreys on this most important point in his career and 
in the career of Stevens, and Vander Veer, who is the presi- 
dent of the class, is perhaps particularly well fitted to speak 
for the undergraduates, because he is representative of the 
undergraduate activities. I know that you will be inter- 
ested to hear him. (Applause and cheers.) 

Address of J. H. Vander Veer: Mr. Toastmaster, 
President Humphreys, Alumni and Guests — On behalf of 
the Class of 1913, and in reply to the telegram which the 
Toastmaster has read to-night, I wish to state that the Faculty 
has failed to weed out a single member of the class at the 
recent examination. We have therefore no recruits for the 
Agricultural School. (Applause.) 

The undergraduates are perhaps in the best position to 
appreciate what President Humphreys has done and is 
doing for Stevens. To our minds the Morton Laboratory 
is the last word in chemical laboratories. It is hard for 
us to realize the difficulties which formerly prevented ath- 
letic practice, and those of us who have journeyed with the 
teams to other colleges know that there is no finer athletic 
field in the vicinity of New York than Castle Point. The 
greatest boon to the undergraduates is Castle Stevens. 
The facilities which this historic building offers as a center of 
student life are doing wonders towards strengthening that 
college spirit which has always been so prominent a charac- 
teristic of the Stevens graduate. It is our good fortune to 
have the personal instruction of President Humphreys in 



business engineering, accounting, depreciation and the eco- 
nomics of our profession; and while it is as yet hard for us to 
appreciate the full benefits of this instruction, the high stand- 
ing of President Humphreys in the business world indicates 
that it will be the most valuable part of our education. 

A feature that President Humphreys has done a lot towards 
is our student self-government. Student self-government at 
Stevens was first applied to the conduct of examinations, 
but the plan has worked so well that it has since been broad- 
ened until at present we are organizing a student self- 
government, to be composed of the officers of each class 
and the heads of the various student activities, which 
council shall have general supervision of all student interests 
at Stevens. All roster work is performed under an Honor 
System. '. Each student is placed upon his honor as a gentle- 
man in the performance of classroom, laboratory, exami- 
nations and home work. Examinations and written tests 
are conducted without Faculty surveillance of any kind, 
but each student is required to sign the following pledge: 
"I pledge my honor as a gentleman that I have not applied 
for help and that I have neither given nor received help 
during this examination." The rare infractions of this 
honor system are investigated by an Honor Board composed 
of representatives elected from the four classes, and the 
offenders are either acquitted or referred to the Faculty for 

The effect of placing the students upon their honor has 
been to almost entirely eliminate cribbing, and it is a source 
of great satisfaction to us to feel that we are respected and 
trusted to be gentlemen. I therefore wish to take this 
opportunity, on behalf of the undergraduates of Stevens 
Institute of Technology, to thank President Humphreys for 
all that he has done for us and to wish him continued success 
in carrying on the work which is so dear to him. (Great 
applause and cheers for Vander Veer from the Senior Class.) 



The Toastmaster: A perusal of the speakers' list and a 
little reflection will indicate to you the futility of the next 
duty which falls to the Toastmaster. I am to introduce to 
you Doctor Humphreys and I am at a loss as to how to do it. 
You know him well. Rather I think I will turn the thing 
about and try to introduce you to Doctor Humphreys. 
These men, Doctor, have come here to-night at this most 
remarkable point in the career of our alma mater to testify 
to their belief in you. They look to you as the leader of 
this movement for a Greater Stevens. They like to hear 
you tell them about it. They don't want you to tell them 
that you are a "poor beggar," because they don't believe it. 
I now ask you to address them, as the last speaker on this 
remarkable list. (Great applause as the whole assemblage 
rises and cheers for Dr. Humphreys.) 

Address of President Humphreys: Mr. Toastmaster, 
Alumni and Friends — There are many of you here to-night 
who know that speaking at any time is not an easy task for 
me, and I ask you to believe that it is almost impossible 
for me to speak to-night. I knew, of course, that this dinner 
was to be given in my honor, and I anticipated that, while 
it would have much of pleasure, it would have much of em- 
barrassment for me. For me the evening has been full of 
surprises. The announcement made by Colonel Harvey 
came to me most unexpectedly. This model I knew nothing 
about. The resolutions of the Faculty were a surprise. 

I have prepared for to-night at the solicitation of our 
Publicity Committee, an admirable speech. (Merriment 
among the audience.) It is in the hands of the press — to 
do with as they please, as they generally do. (Laughter.) 
But I am afraid that that speech would not be appropriate 
at the present moment. I can, I suppose, try to cover my 
embarrassment and try to keep down the feeling that is mov- 
ing me by referring to material things. You have all of 
you, I believe, before you the plan of what we hope is the 
5 135 


enlarged Stevens, prepared by our official architects. I 
find that in many cases this plan is not understood. Some, 
I believe, have even wondered how we were able to erect all 
these buildings. That you may not be carried away with 
the idea that we have any such plant as is shown, I would 
say that of the many buildings that you see on this plan, 
the following only are to be found at present, namely: 
1, which is known to you older men as the "Old Stone 
Mill"; 2, the Carnegie Laboratory of Mechanical Engineer- 
ing; 3, the High School Building, which now includes what 
it did not include in the time of the older graduates, lecture 
rooms also for the Institute, so much needed when I took 
hold; at that time there were eight professors who did not 
have lecture rooms and were kicked from pillar to post in 
their efforts to teach the boys. Then, the Morton Memorial 
Laboratory, which I do not hesitate to say is second to 
nothing of the kind in the United States, certainly for teach- 
ing its particular specialty. Then we have the Stevens 
Castle. Then you will find No. 29, which is the Delta Tau 
Delta Fraternity House, the only fraternity house so far on the 
grounds, though four sites have been sold to other fraternities 
under restrictions. And then we have the gate erected by the 
class of '97; with the grandstands which also have been 
erected, though not on the scale shown in the plan. 

It is not true, however, that we have the land even that 
you see on this plan. I believe that many of the alumni 
think that in acquiring the Stevens Castle, we acquired all 
the land surrounding it, including that lawn. The fact is 
that, if you take as a point to fix your attention upon, No. 
14, the prospective water tower, that stands upon the land 
of the Robert L. Stevens estate, upon which we hold an op- 
tion, and that land in the form of a triangle runs down to 
about 41. Then there is the land on which you find 6, 
7 and 4. We own and have owned since our twenty-fifth 
anniversary, the most northerly portion of this block, across 



River Street from the Institute. The balance of it is still 
owned by the Hoboken Land and Improvement Company, 
upon which we have a practical option. To purchase both 
of these pieces of land will require about $200,000. We 
still owe about $200,000 on the land that we hold deeds for. 
But I don't want to talk finances to-night, though I do hope 
that the means will be given to us to carry out the plans out- 
lined for I do honestly believe that we have a most unusual 
opportunity to enlarge our work and our service. The site 
that we have there is second to none in the country, and I 
almost question whether there is another site like it. A man 
whom I consider one of the greatest authorities in the 
United States on education, Dr. Pritchett, has examined it 
carefully and has unhesitatingly given that as his opinion. 
The question is, Can we carry out our plans? Not with the 
idea that all these buildings shall be erected in one year or 
two years or three years, but we feel that we should make a 
general plan in advance, so that as the means come to us 
we should not make the mistake of placing a building where 
afterwards it would be in the way of other buildings, and 
that the development of this magnificent site would go along 
well-ordered lines without interference as to the activities of 
the future. 

A good deal has been said with regard to the honor sys- 
tem and student self-government. I am a firm believer in 
the principle of honor government as applied to the student 
life, and I believe the man or the boy who is expected to do 
the right thing will be the more inclined to do it, if we give 
him the opportunity. There are, necessarily, in every col- 
lege men who will cheat, men who will not be true to the ideals 
which are set before them; but I do believe that many a 
man who would otherwise cheat will not cheat, if he is put 
upon his honor and is expected to do the right thing. That 
has been my experience. When I took hold of Stevens 
Institute of Technology, it wasn't for me to say that the 



students should start that self-government board or that 
they should introduce the honor system. It was necessary 
that the plan should come from them; but I did in my first 
address, in September of 1902 tell the undergraduates that 
I hoped the honor system would come; and if I recollect 
aright, it was the Class of 1906, which has been so ably 
represented to-night by Mr. Pinkney, who first had the 
opportunity and had the courage to come and ask me that 
they should in their senior year, when about to graduate, 
be given the privilege of trying it out; and we granted them 
that privilege. And then the system gradually spread. For 
some time it was thought by members of the Faculty that 
it would be a dangerous thing to apply to the freshmen, but 
I felt that it should be applied to every class. We have 
applied it to every class ; and while, of course, there will be 
times when we are disappointed in the men, the test is illus- 
trated in the following experience: In my earlier days as 
president, I was in the habit of asking some of the promi- 
nent men of each class as they were about to graduate, but 
after they had passed their final examinations, and therefore 
were at liberty to speak freely, to criticise our methods and 
especially to criticise my methods. I had five or six of 
these men before me, and I was asking them how they felt 
that the honor system was working. All except one spoke 
favorably; the last man said he did not believe in it. I 
asked him why. "Well," he says, "there is some cheating." 
I said, "Is there more cheating now than there was before?" 
"Oh, no," he says, "a great deal less, but," he says, "it is 
much harder to get high marks." (Laughter.) Well, I 
thought that answered the question the way I wanted it 
answered. I do not think that there has ever been a thought 
in the minds of any of our Faculty of going back to the old 
system, and there certainly never will be a movement in 
thai direction with my support as liong as I am President. 

I find, as we disCUSS mailers willi OUT student body, thai 



while, of course, there is dissatisfaction, at times there is 
criticism of the Faculty (there is some now), that when we 
take the matters up and discuss them candidly and honestly 
with the students, as a rule our troubles are straightened out. 
Of course, we take the ground that the highest power rests 
with the Faculty and the President, and that while we will 
make every effort to conform to their ideas, if we do not 
succeed in that direction, they will conform to ours. (Laugh- 

I have had two or three very delightful experiences in the 
last few weeks in the direction that I speak of, where, simply 
by taking up the questions that have arisen, taking them up 
frankly with the students, those troubles have certainly been 
minimized, if not entirely eliminated. I had a very delight- 
ful experience lately with the gentlemen now facing me at 
the back of the room. The undergraduates as represented 
by the Senior Class — and I am glad to hear from their presi- 
dent that none of them has been weeded out in the last 
examination — surprised me very much by asking me to 
take part in their final annual dinner as undergraduates. 
I told them that they would have a better time without the 
dampening influence of my presence, but they thought not, 
and I went there and I was delighted that I did go. There 
were some little questions, I think, amongst those men as to 
whether we were treating them right, and I hope — and I 
trust that the men I am facing now will agree with me when 
I say — that when that meeting broke up — which was pretty 
late — we had come to know each other better, and that some 
of the troubles had been eliminated. There was a delight- 
ful frankness in the expressions of opinion by those speakers 
that preceded me. I was first on the list of speakers accord- 
ing to the program, but the Toastmaster told me I might 
take my position at the end of the list, so that I could reply 
to the "roasts" that I was to hear (laughter), and I heard 
lots of them, but tactfully presented, and the last "roast" 



was for me, but it was not delivered, because the gentleman 
who spoke for or at the Faculty said that when he was 
invited to make his speech, he didn't know that Prexy was 
to be present, and therefore he would respectfully ask per- 
mission to omit that portion of his remarks. I advised him 
to print them. He said he expected to after he graduated. 

Now I wish that I could really say all that is in my mind 
and in my heart with regard to the reception you have given 
me to-night. I do want to say something that I think I 
have said at nearly every meeting of the Alumni since I 
have been President; I don't believe there is a college presi- 
dent in the United States who is more loyally supported 
than I am by our Alumni; and hard pressed as I have been 
to carry on the work of the Institute, with an increasing 
deficit year by year, which has now rolled up to some $125,000 
through five years, I haven't the slightest doubt that if the 
Alumni had the money, I never would have to ask a dollar 
outside, and as I have said to the management of the 
Alumni Association repeatedly lately, I deprecate any step 
that is taken towards asking from the Alumni another dollar 
until they have been given the opportunity to recover from 
the efforts they have already made to support me in my ad- 
ministration. So I will conclude by thanking you, the 
Alumni, and thanking you, the friends, that have come to 
take part in this, shall I say, tribute. But I won't con- 
clude till I say this : that I don't believe for one minute that 
I am worthy of all which has been said to-night, but I will 
say this, something that the District Attorney of New York 
County, Mr. Whitman, said at a dinner recently given 
to him and which I attended. He said: "I have not been 
able to do the things with which you credit me, but I will 
claim this credit; I have tried hard to do them." And that 
is what I have done. (Greal and long-continued applause 
mid cheering.) 

The assemblage then dispersed, at 12.05 a. m. 



Following is a list of alumni and invited guests who 

attended the dinnpr* 

riLii-XjK-ilAl\ TV. O. 



A r\ 1 \r a H A T>T> V TT 


XJllilUjlt, Xtll_±i ArtlJ 

Addicks, Walter R. 

Rt/~*T7"17*'DC2T1 * T ^ tt T? \ J Tt> 

J3ICK11.KS1A1 , i , XV. 1VX., t»K. 

-A<j.L-N 3, Xl-LiiBtK 1 lTXL»ltlXalli.K 


AHXvNKlii, XI. x. 

1 < T T T XT" VQ T 1 I'TTT" T Vl 

DlKJcUttiJNSlOL/rk., tl . iVX. 

A t n w T W 

.ALUlL-N , tl . IT. 

Rt a ttgt t? tp R 

\y 1 j a\ IvO 1 J l J 1 , XV. VJ . 

A T W A "VT.TT*D | TT l TIT Tr»a T < 

ri.UL.AAJ> DX.K, V. xl AKLihjO X>. 

Rt ttax T TV 

XXL. U M, tl . XV. 

A T VV A VTMTP V \ TT T T A \jf 

xVJ_.i.AAA DH.K, TTiliXilAM 

Rt vttxtt W F 

ijLllliL, TT . XJ. 

Amberg, Joseph John 

Boettger, Robert 

A vnrocnv T? A 1 
Ar» DlvKSO N , XV. 1VX. 

T?^\/-T L^TTTT T WF 

XJOU.ii.RT, J . VV . 

riADJbKSON, XV. X . 

IxOLiTON, XX. Xj. 


ArrkittL, XI. J. 

DU.INli.Lilj, XV. XV. 

A urwcnv T? 
/VxvUASUA, X. XV. 

X)UJNJNlli 1 1, XjUUIo X>. 

Aspixwall, John 

Bornemann, C H. 

Atwater, C. G. 

Boucher, William J. 


rVLSTlA, J. J\. 

Rr> i non a nr T T* 

XJRAINiii, JjANCKOil Vjr. 


XXAl ivh.K, Xj. XI. 

JJKABrllliAK, XJ It. tlUUIN t\. 

X) ACii. L B, XV. X\. 

\) r> i T TTT/^ A HT T TT 

X>KAU XKjrAJVl, tl . XX. 

l< * TV"DT5TT./" , T7' T li 

XX Al A rml JJljili, tl . VT . 

XXKHillHAUr^X, VjUaXAVlli 

DAK.LK, l^. VV . 

Brensinger, G. F. 

T^ A T Tl U7 I f 1 I 

DALDW1N, xj. 

Brinckerhoff, A. G. 

"Rat7 CI A 



RiPT /"iTxr T 
XXAxllAX VV , el . X . 

li tt TGTAT TT TT 
XXXvl&lvJXi, XX. XX. 

X> ASS till. VJ. Xj. 

Ti T) roTflT "VA; TT T T A TOT TT 

XJKlolUli, VVlLiLilAIVl XX. 

Bates, Charles J., Jr. 

XJROWN, ±j. o. D. 

TJ A ttpv T W r Td 
XJATTEN, Xj. VV ., t)K. 


XJRUEN, Vjr. x!i. 


Rttt t T T? 
DULL, J. Jli. 

I), VT na T r 1 
DA I LLb, XJ. V . 

"Rtttjt imp TT G. 



Hit at T T? 

JJf.Alj, X . XV. 




IxEDELL, xv. XX. 


Belding, L. A. 


Bft t ^ T 

RvT>/~i"vr Th 1 nw a t> ri 
DllvOiN, XL/LI W AltLI 

Bender, H. P. 

Benedict, Harding 

Cadt, C. I. 

Benjamin, Marcus 

Calisch, J. C. 

Bennett, C. W. 

Calkins, G. M. 

Bensel, J. A. 

Campbell, R. C. 

Bergen, Frank 

Carll, Benjamin W. 

Berger, J. G. 

Carlton, Newcomb 

Berghorn, C. W., Jr. 

Carroll, M. B. 



Carter, J. L. 

Dempwolf, C. J. M. 

Cawley, H. C. 

Denton, Waldo E. 

Chadwell, W. H. 

Dessar, Louis P. 

Chandler, A. D. 

Dickinson, J. A. 

Chapin, Warren W. 

Dickson, Charles H., Jr. 

Charavay, Marius A. 

Dickson, William B. 

Chastenay, Charles D. 

Dilworth, F. T. 

Clark, F. M. 

Dinkel, George 

Clark, H. D. 

Dixon, J. Alfred 

Clark, Walton 

Dixon, R. M. 

Cobb, P. L. 


Cobb, Willard H. 

Donaldson, S. A. 

Coffin, C. A. 

Dougherty, Paul 

Coggins, C. L. 

Draudt, Otto E. 

Cohen, F. W. 

Doying, W. A. E. 

Coker, J. L., Jr. 


Cole, C. E. 

Ducommun, Edward 

Coley, Clarence T. 

Duncka, F. A. 

Collins, John, Jr. 

Dunlop, Charles W. 


Dwight, Edmund 

Cook, W. H. 

Coster, M. 

Eastwood, James 

Cotjdert, Frederick R. 

Ebsen, W. A. 

Crane, F. L. 

Eggert, Louis H. 

Crichfield, Grant 

Ehrhardt, L. J. 

Crisfield, James P. 


Crisson, George 

Ellinger, E. 

l^ROSBY, r . Jj. 

JKiLLIOT, 1 . A. 

Cross, H. B. 

English, E. F. 

Crowell, H. W. 

Erlenkotter, Walter 

Cudlipp, Charles W. 

Ernst, A. F. 

Cunningham, C. F. 

Evans, George A. 

Cuntz, H. F. 

Evans, William T. 

Cuntz, J. H. 

Everett, C. J. 

Dale, 0. G. 

Faber, C. 0. 

Darbee, W. 

Fallerius, H. G. 

Darby, John 

Fallon, JonN J. 

Darke, F. S. 

Farr, Alfred A. 

Davey, Warren 

Farr, Arthur V. 

Day, W. A. 

Fielder, George B. 

Dear, William Y. 

Fieux, E. D. 

Dearth, Henry G. 

Finkensieper, B. W. 

DsHaBT, J. S., .Jr. 

Finley, John II. 

Dmifm* R. P. 

Fisk, Wilbur C. 

Delafield, Eugene L. 

Flack, J. Day 





Forbes, A., Jr. 

Harrington, H. G. 

Forbes, Robert T. 

Hart, B. Fraxklin, Jr. 

Forstall, A. E. 

Hart, Leox 0. 

Foster, E. H. 

Harvey, George 

Fraextzel, F. C. 

Harvey, D. C. 

Freeman, Joseph E. 

Hays, David 

Freltxghuysex, G. G. 

Hazeltixe, L. A. 

Freygaxg, Gustav G. 

Hebble, A. S. 

Freygaxg, Walter H. 

Heddex, C. E. 

Fruxdt, A. W. 

Heddex, V. J. 

Furmax, Franklin DeR. 

Hegemax, J. C. 

Heixixger, Hexry 

Gaffnet, A. T. 

Hemphill, Alexaxder J. 

Gammack, John W., Rev. 

Hexdrick, W. M. 

Gantt, H. L. 

Hexofer, Johx P. 

Ganz, Albert F. 

Hexry, J. S. 

Gause, F. T. 

Hexry, V. S. 

Gaylord, H. B. 

Hermaxxs, F. E. 

Genscher, F. C. 

Hess, R. G. 

George, E. D., Jr. 

Hewitt, George 

Gibbs, George 

Heyworth, E. 0. 

Gibson, F. M. 

Hickok, H. A. 

Gilmore, G. F. 

Hicksteix, E. 0. 

Gilson, H. W. 

Higley, H. R. 

Gleeson, J. A. 

Hill, N. S., Jr. 

Goldsmith, J. A. 

Hillas, Robert McKeax 

Goss, W. F. M. 

Hixkle, E. E. 

Graydon, S. D. 

Hock, F. W„ 

Gremmel, H. G. 

Hodge, Percy 

Griswold, H. E. 

Hoermaxx, W. 0. 

Gubelman, F. J. 


Guillaudeu, Emile 


Gunkel, F. H., Jr. 

Hollingsworth, S. 

Guxther, Charles 0. 

Horxe, H. F. 


Hortox, E. Q. 

Hortox, Th. A. 

Hagar, A. P. 

Howe, R. B. 

Hagstoz, A. T. 

Howell, J. W. 

Haight, R. S. 

Hubert, P. A. 

Haight, Thomas G. 

Humphreys, A. C. 

Hake, August R. 

Humphreys, R. G. 

Hall, A. H. 

Huxt, H. S. 

Halliday, William R. 

Hupfel, A. G. 

Hamilton, W. J. 

Hussey, C. W. 

Hammerschlag, E. M. 

Hussey, W. E. 

Haxmer, L. G. 

Hyatt, H. R. 



Idell, F. E. 

Landvoigt, T. E. 

Idell, P. C. 

Lang, Henry 

Iliff, W. L. 

Lange, W. C. 

Ingham, W. G. 

Langletz, C. L. 

Inglis, R. N. 

Lansdell, R. H. 

Irwin, F. K. 

Lantry, J. P. 

Larkin, John 

Jackson, W. W. 

Lasker, Harold H. C. 

Jacobus, D. S. 

Law, Frank E. 

Jacobus, R. F. 

Lawrence, A. R. 

Jalien, J. J. 

Lawrence, W. F. 

Jappe, K. W. 

Leigh, F. T. 

Jenkins, M. C. 

Leigh, Robert E. 

Jenkinson, R. C. 

Leisenring, F. S. 

Jenvet, William R. 

Lembeck, 0. A. 

Johansen, A. V. 

Le Page, Clifford B. 

Johnson, D. C. 

Lewis, E. D. 

Johnson, H. W. 

Lewis, I. R. 

Jones, A. E. 

Lieb, John W., Jr. 

Lienau, J. H. 

Karr, A. D. 

Litchfield, E. D. 

Kay, C. C. C. 

Loewenherz, Herman, 

Kelley, W. M. 

Logan, H. E. 

Kennedey, Herbert 

Loppin, Alexander J. 

Kent, William 

Lorsch, Edwin S. 

Ketchum, Sameul 

Lott, S. H. 

Keuffel, C. W. 

Loud, Henry S. 

Kidde, Walter 

Ludlow, William 0. 

Kieselbach, H. A. 

Lunger, J. B. 

Kingsbury, C. L. L. 

Luqueer, Robert 0. 

Kinsey, A. S. 

Lydecker, Frederick A. 

Kipper, F. C. 

Lydecker, Kenneth 

Kerkbride, F. B. 

Lydecker, L. K. 


KlRKUP, J. P. 

McBurney, E. L. 

Klein, A. C. 

McCorkle, Walter L. 

Klumpp, John B. 

McCullough, C. H. 

Knapp, E. R. 

McDonald, C. G. 

Koester, Herman 

McFadden, H. D. 

Krause, F. C. 

McFarland, Walter M. 

KiM.m.i.H, J. A. 

McGinness, J. L. 

Kroeh, Charles F. 

McGowan, H. E. 

Kupfer, 0., Jr. 

McIlvain, H. S. 


McKinnky, Robert C, 

McLean, Embury 

Ladd, James B. 

McLougiilin, T. J., Jr. 




McNaughton, Malcolm 

Morris, W. Cullen 

McQuaid, H. W. 

Morrison, George A., Jr. 

McQuiLLEN, C. 

Morton, F. N. 

MacDonald, J. V. 

Mosier, A. C. 

Mackenzie, W. P. 

Mosier, E. K. 

MacLehose, Feancis 

Moss, J. W. S. 

MacMaster, Ronald K. 

Mount, R. H. 

MacXabb, Arthub W. 

Mulry, H. 

Mact, Nelson 

Munn, Dr. James P. 

Mallalieu, W. E. 

Murphy, James J. 

Marburg, Edgar 

Murphy, John J. 

Marling, Alfred E. 

Murray, R. W. 

Marshall, William E. 


Martin, Louis A., Jr. 

Martin, Paul J. 

Xaef, A. H. 

Mathews, A. 

Nash, D. E. 

Mathews, Eugene H. 

Nash, Lewis H. 

Mathewson, Charles F, 

Nathan, Alfred 

Mathey, Henry C. 

Nauheim, S. A. 

Matzen, Harry B. 

Nestler, P. J. 

Mauger, D. N. 

Nicholls, A. H. 

Maxwell, Alexander 

Nichols, W. G. 

Mayer, Alfred G. 

Niese, Henry E. 

Meeker, H. E. 

Noe, H. C. 

Meeker, J. A. 

Norris, A. M. 

Meeks, H. V. 

Norris, R. 

Memory, N. H. 

Merritt, C. F. 

Oaks, 0. 0. 

Mertelmeyer, Gisbert 

Obrig, Adolph 

Mervine, A. E. 

O'Keeffe, J. G. 

Merwin, H. H. 

Oram, R. M. 

Messner, Manfred 

Orr, A. M., Jr. 

Michalis, C. G. 

Milburn, John G. 

Paine, L. G. 

Miller, A. S. 

Paine, William E. 

Miller, L. A. 

Palmer, M. W. 


Pappin, H. B. 


Parsell, V. A. 

Minck, Peter 

Parsons, H. DeB. 

Mitchell, G. L. 

Paulson, W. E. 

Moore, A. T. 

Peabody, Charles S. 

Moore, John Bassett 

Peabody, Earnest H. 

Morgan, A. M. 

Peabody, Stephen 

Morgan, J. J. 

Peck, Wallace F. 

Morley, C. N. 

Penfield, T. F. C. 

Morris, G. H. 

Pennoyer, R. P. 



Peper, J. H., Jr. 

Robertson, P. R. 

Percy, J. C. 

ROESEN, 0. C. 

Perry, J. V. 

Roesen, R. H. 

Phelps, C. C. 


Phillips, L. A. 


Philipps, R. H., Jr. 

Ross, C. C. 

Pinkney, James E. 

Rouse, S. 

Pond, F. J. 

Royle, V. E. 

Post, A. J. 

Ruprecht, Louis 

Post, H. W. 

Russ, W. C. 

Post, R. C. 



Pratt, A. G. 


Pratt, Frederick B. 


Pratt, H. A. 


Pratt, H. F. 

Schem, A. R. 

Preston, H. E. 


Price, Charles W. 


Price, Towson 


Prince, D. 


Prince, Charles W. 


Pringle, N. S. 

Schuetz, F. F. 

Pritchett, Henry S. 

Scott, A. D. 

Pryor, F. L. 

Scott, C. F. 

Pryor, R. W., Jr. 

Searle, R. E. 

Sellman, N. T. 


Sevenoak, F. L. 

Quimby, W. E. 

Sever, G. F. 

Sharp, C. H. 

Rabbe, F., Jr. 

Shera, G. W. 

Raetz, H. F. 

Shiebler, M. 

Ramsey, J. F. 

Shoudy, W. A. 

Ranger, H. W. 

Sickenberger, E. F., Jr. 

Raque, P. E. 

Siegell, A., Jr. 

Reed, H. D. 

Sievers, E. J. J. 

Reisinger, Hugo 


Reitmann, D. 

Skinner, H. N. 

Reitze, George 

Smith, A. DeT. 

Rice, R. H. 

Smith, C. R. 

Richardson, G. P. 

Smith, J. C. 


Smith, J. D. L. 

Ricketts, P. C. 

Smith, R. II. 


Smith, R. W. 


Spencer, Paul 

ROHH, I). W. 

Squibb, H. N. 

Robertson, J. C, Jr. 

Stagg, J. C. 





Stanley, R. C. 
Stanton, F. A. 
Steel, R. A. 
Steinmetz, C. W. A. 
Steins, C. K. 
Stenken, H. A. 
Stephens, T. C. 
Stetlee, H. A. 
Stevens, E. A. 
Stevens, E. A., Jr. 
Stieglitz, A. G. 
Stillman, T. B., Jr. 
Stortz, H. W. 
Stoughton, Bradley 
Strauss, Albert 
Strauss, Frederick 
Strauss, Jerome 
Strobell, J. D. 
Strong, W. E. S. 
Sturges, T. L., Jr. 
Sturgis, O. L. 
Suhr, Curt 
Sumner, A. C. 
Sutro, Lionel 

Taff, F. N., 
Tatham, E. 
Tennant, G. C. 
Terwilliger, G. E. 
Thomas, C. W. 
Thomas, H. W., Jr. 
Thomson, W. I. 
Todd, G. L. 
Torrance, H., Jr. 
Torrance, H., 
Torrance, K. 
Trautweix, A. P. 
Travell, I. W. 
Tbenob, A. D. 
Trench, J. J. D. 
Trewin, C. S. 
Tripp, G. E. 
Tucker, John, Jr. 

Uehling, E. A. 

Van Blarcom, W. 
Vander Veer, J. H. 
Van Derveer, T. W. 
Van Ingen, W. D. 
Van Satin, P. E. 
Van Winkle, Franklin 
Vennema, A. W. 

VlLLARD, 0. G. 

Voorhees, J. R. 

Wachter, C. L. 
Wagner, D. G. 
Wagoner, P. D. 
Waldeck, L. E. 
Walder, J. 
Walker, W. W. 
Wallace, J. B. 
Wandel, Carlton 
Warner, S. T. 
Waterbury, J. I. 
Weber, G. J. F. 
Webster, H. 
Weigele, T. W. 
Weissenborn, O. A. 
Wellman, R. L. 
Wells, T. B. 
Wendell, G. V. 
West, W. C. 
Weston, A. J. 
Weston, Edward 
Weston, Edward F. 
Weston, Walter 
Wetmore, E. V. 
Whitcomb, H. D. 
White, H. E. 
White, J. W. H. 
Whiting, R. A. 
Whitley, H. S. 
Whitney, A. R., Jr. 
Whitney, O. C. 
Wiles, E. L. 
Wiley, Louis 
Wiley, T. A. 
Wiley, W. H. 
Williams, R. D. 
Williams, R. H. 


Willis, C. M. 
Willis, C. A. 
Wilson, George T. 


Woodward, A. C. 
Woolson, C. G. 
Wreaks, H. T. 
Wright, A. F. 
Wright, Arthur 
Wright, D. A. 
Wright, W. P. 

Yates, J. T. 
Young, F. W. 
Young, George W. 

Zeiger, N. A. 


Zusi, N. E. 

List of Boxholders 

Mrs. C. B. Alexander 
Douglas Bushnell 
John S. DeHart 
George Dinkel 
Prof. Albert F. Ganz 
H. E. Griswold 
A. R. Whitney 
Wiilliam D. Hoxie 
Dr. A. C. Humphreys 
Walter Kidde 
Frank Law 
J. W. Lieb, Jr. 


A. J. Post 
H. A. Pratt 
H. Torrance, Jr. 
Class of '93 









To the Editor, Stevens Indicator : 

I am in receipt of a letter from a prominent alumnus 
calling my attention to the fact that the article in the last 
issue of the Indicator, entitled "Study of the Relative 
Merits of the Various Types of Electric Arc and Incandes- 
cent Lamps for Lighting Urban and Suburban Streets," 
contains cost figures which differ widely from actual costs 
found in practice. This is certainly a fact, and I am writing 
this letter for the purpose of pointing out that the cost figures 
for electrical energy given in the article referred to were not 
intended to be actual cost figures. 

The assumed figure of one cent per kw-hr. for electrical 
energy at the lamp terminals was taken from the University 
of Illinois Bulletin No. 51, and this is there used as a con- 
venient basic energy charge for the various types of lamps. 
The actual cost of electrical energy for any type of lamp is 
then obtained by multiplying this basic charge by the 
number of cents that energy costs per kw-hr., which varies 
within wide limits in different localities. In the bulletin 
referred to actual costs for energy are in fact based on one, 
two, three, four and five cents per kw-hr. at the lamp termi- 
nals. It is unfortunate that this was not pointed out in 
the article, and as this article was passed by me I feel that 
it is incumbent upon me to make this explanation. 

I also find that the $60 given as the price of the magnetite 
lamp is an error in copying, and that this should read $40. 

Yours very truly, 

Albert F. Ganz. 


■ ■ 

■ B 








Stephen Squires Palmer, a Trustee of Stevens, and a bene- 
factor of the college, died at Redlands, Cal., on January 29, 

Mr. Palmer was born in New York City, December 7, 
1853, son of David and Mary Catherine (Squires) Palmer; 
grandson of David and Sarah (Shay) Palmer, and great- 
grandson of John Palmer, a French Huguenot who came 
to America about 1700 and settled in Westchester County, 
N. Y. His father was for many years cashier of The Na- 
tional City Bank, and was its vice president at the time of his 
death in 1894. He prepared for college at Nazareth Hall, 
Nazareth, Pa., but on the day of his final examinations he 
was called home by the death of his only brother, thus 
giving up a college education. 

Entering the employ of Moses Taylor & Co., he was 
identified with these interests until his death, being a trustee 
of the Moses Taylor estate when he died. He was also 
identified with the following corporations as president, 
director or other officer: The New Jersey Zinc Company, 
The New Jersey Zinc Company (of Pennsylvania), Mineral 
Point Zinc Company, The Empire Zinc Company (of Colo- 
rado), Empire Zinc Company (of Missouri), The Bertha 
Mineral Company, The Palmer Land Company, Palmer 
Water Company, Prime Western Spelter Company, Harvey 
Steel Company, Delaware, Lackawanna & Western R. R. 
Co., Cayuga & Susquehanna R. R. Co., Green Bay & 
Western Railway Co., St. Louis & Hannibal R. R. Co., 
Kewaunee, Green Hay & Western R. R. Co., Iola & 



Northern Railway Co., Detroit, Hillsdale & Southwestern 
R. R. Co., Fort Wayne & Jackson R. R. Co., Ahnapee & 
Western R. R. Co., Valley Railroad Company, Lackawanna 
Steel Company, Birmingham Coal & Iron Co., Woodward 
Iron Company, The National City Bank of New York, 
The Farmers' Loan & Trust Co., Franklin Trust Com- 
pany, Princeton Bank, Princeton, N. J., Franklin Safe 
Deposit Company, Colonial Assurance Company, Consoli- 
dated Gas Company of New York, United Electric 
Light & Power Co., New York Mutual Gas Light Com- 
pany, New York Edison Company, and United States 
Realty & Improvement Co. 

Mr. Palmer was trustee of Princeton University as well 
as of Stevens Institute of Technology. He was the donor 
of the Palmer Physical Laboratory at Princeton which he 
built and equipped and turned over to the University in 
1911. Among his other benefactions were St. John's Church 
at Palmerton, Pa., the Angel Choir and the All Angels 
Parish House of All Angels Church in New York City. He 
was a member of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the 
American Museum of Natural History, the American Geo- 
graphical Society, the New York Botanical Gardens, New 
York Geological Society, and many clubs. 

Mr. Palmer was married September 24, 1879, to Susan 
Flanders Price, daughter of William Oliver Price, of Eliza- 
beth, N. J., and had one child, Edgar Palmer, who survives 





John Fritz, upon whom Stevens Institute of Technology 
conferred the honorary degree of Doctor of Science in 1907, 
died at his home in Bethlehem, Pa., on February 13, 1913, 
in the ninety-first year of his age. In the span of his life 
occurred nearly every great advance in the iron and steel 
industry, and much of this was due to his efforts. 

He was born on August 21, 1822, in Londonderry Town- 
ship, Chester County, Pa., and was the eldest of a family 
of seven children. His father was a millwright by trade, 
and lived on a small farm on which John worked until he 
was sixteen years of age. His early education was obtained 
under great difficulties. 

When he became sixteen he started to learn his trade as 
blacksmith and machinist, and in 1844 did his first important 
work, assisting in the erection of the Morristown Iron Works, 
at Morristown, Pa. Soon after its completion he was placed 
in charge of the works. 

In 1854 Mr. Fritz went to Johnstown, Pa., as general 
superintendent of the Cambria Iron Works. Here, after 
meeting strenuous opposition, he built a rail mill, with three- 
high rolls, direct -driven without gearing. Its success was 
all he had prophesied, and with this and other improve- 
ments the plant became the greatest of the time. 

Mr. Fritz became general superintendent and chief engi- 
neer of the Bethlehem Iron Company, at Bethlehem, Pa., 
in 1860. He designed and erected the company's plant and 
carried out many important developments until his retire- 

He received many signal honors, being president of the 
American Institute of Mining Engineers, in 1894, and of 



The American Society of Mechanical Engineers in 1896. 
He was an honorary member of this latter society, of the 
American Society of Civil Engineers, and of the Iron and 
Steel Institute of Great Britain, having received the Besse- 
mer Gold Medal. Besides Stevens, Columbia University, 
the University of Pennsylvania and Temple University con- 
ferred honorary degrees upon him. He was one of the orig- 
inal trustees of Lehigh University when it was founded in 
1868, and established the John Fritz engineering laboratory. 

Mr. Fritz is survived by two sisters, a niece and three 




Oscar Antz, Stevens '78, died in Newark, N. J., on Jan- 
uary 9, 19 IS. His home was in Dunkirk, N. Y. On Octo- 
ber 20, 1912, he went to Newark to visit his mother and a 
few days later was stricken with Brights disease and heart 
trouble, which caused his death. 

Mr. Antz had a full and successful career. Born Septem- 
ber 16, 1859, the son of Emma and the late Theobald Antz, 
he received his early education in the public and private 
schools of Newark. After passing examinations for the 
high school, he decided on a technical education and entered 
the Stevens Institute of Technology, being one of the young- 
est men to enter the Institute. He was graduated in 
1878 and at once became connected with the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, holding various positions up to assistant master 
mechanic. On December 1, 1900, he resigned this latter 
position to become master mechanic of the Central Railroad 
of Georgia, with headquarters at Savannah, but in April, 
1903, became associated with the New York Central Lines, 
holding several positions, being at the time of his death 
general inspector of all new equipment for the entire system. 
Mr. Antz was also a contributor to the American Journal, 
the Railroad Car Journal and other papers. 

On December 26, 1900, he married Miss Jennie L. Menagh 
at Newark, N. J. She survives him with two children, Joseph 
Lyndon and Mary Natalie. Mr. Antz also leaves his mother 
and one sister, Miss Natalie Antz, of the faculty of the Bar- 
ringer High School, of Newark. 


Stevens Indicator 







Gerald E. Terwilliger, '09 
One Liberty Street, New York City 

undergraduate editors 
Waldemar G. Nichols, '13 Robert L. Wellman, '13 

H. N. Dix, Jr., '14 Adolf W. Keuffel, '14 

Stanley T. Held, '15 John O. Wiley, '15 

Subscription Price, $1.50 per Year. Single Copies, 50 Cents 


At the suggestion of H. deB. Parsons, '84, a new Stevens 

activity is to be established. On certain days, which will 

A1 .be designated well in advance, luncheon 
Stevens Alumni .« , , . . . . 

j « will be served in a private room at some 

Luncheons ^ . __ 

accessible club or restaurant in JNew York 
to all Stevens men who attend. The luncheon is to be en- 
tirely devoid of formality and speechmaking, and is planned 
to bring together Stevens men who otherwise might not 
meet. The officials in charge want the alumni to feel that 
they have the privilege of "dropping in" without the ne- 
cessity of binding themselves far in advance. The luncheons 
will occupy no longer time than the usual noon hour, and 
may be attended without interfering with business activities. 

In the case of the first luncheon, held at the Whitehall 
club on Saturday, May 3, a slight departure from the general 
plan was necessary because the committee in charge had no 



means of forecasting the attendance. In the future, how- 
ever, no notice of intention to attend will be requisite. 

The plan has been tried with much success by Stevens 
clubs in various sections of the country, and should serve 
to bring together, at least once a month, the Stevens men 
living in the vicinity of New York, and thus lead to many 
enjoyable acquaintances and a further welding together of 
the alumni. 

The annual alumni dinner, the proceedings of which are 
given in full elsewhere in this issue of the Indicator, was 

^ notable for many things, but for nothing 

Co-operation u 
in the College more than the spirit 01 co-operation be- 
tween the college administration, the alumni 
and the undergraduates which was exhibited. Dr. Hum- 
phreys is fond of saying that no college president in the 
country is more heartily supported by his alumni, and there 
seems to be no reason why the undergraduates, too, should 
not be included in this statement. 

Differences of opinion will always exist between the gov- 
erning body and those governed, but in the case of the stu- 
dents at Stevens this condition has been minimized through 
a system of self-government by which the students in large 
measure control their own affairs. This does not mean 
that they are contented because they make their own regu- 
lations, but rather because they have an adequate opportu- 
nity to express their own side of the question and are 
provided with means for obtaining the faculty's viewpoint. 

How seriously these rights are cherished by the under- 
graduates is shown by their recent action in requesting and 
obtaining from the faculty permission to form a "Student 
Council" to control undergraduate affairs. When the Stu- 
dent Self-Government Board, an amplification of the Honor 
System Committee, was organized in 1909, it was the general 
understanding of the student body and faculty that the 



Board would have the powers of the committee which it 
superseded and substantially those of the present Council. 
For a year or two affairs were administered with that idea 
in view. More recently the Self-Government Board has 
concerned itself largely with the proper conduct of the Honor 
System as applied to all class-room, laboratory and exami- 
nation work in the college, and the students have therefore 
put into effect the new Student Council, composed of the 
heads of the undergraduate activities, to take care of that 
part of the work which does not concern the Honor System. 

The alumni may well be glad that such a condition of 
mutual trust and responsibility exists in the college. 

The request published in the January Indicator that 
Stevens men transmit to the Editor or to the head of the 
Getting News of ^ umin Publicity Committee news of inter- 
Stevens Men es ^ *° ^h° se wno nave ^ ne good of the col- 
lege and its graduates at heart has met 
with a ready response. An interesting fact is that the class 
representatives, who are supposed to be most closely in 
touch with the affairs of their respective classes, have not 
shown as much diligence as many alumni who are not class 
officials. There is a definite responsibility devolving on the 
representatives, and it is hoped that the response from them 
will be more general. 

In this connection it may be well to point out a matter 
that has caused no little confusion. When an alumnus 
changes his address he is earnestly requested to send word 
of the fact to the Indicator, to the Secretary of the Alumni 
Association, or to the Registrar of the college. If the infor- 
mation is transmitted to any one of these three it will get 
to all by a system of exchange in force. To send such in- 
formation to the President or to some other official can only 
result in extra trouble to the person addressed and the pos- 
sibility of delay in entering the change upon the records. 












President Ernest H. Peabody, '90 

First Vice-President J. H. Cuntz, '87 

Second Vice-President J. Alfred Dixon, '91 

Secretary Thomas C. Stephens, '00 

Treasurer Louis A. Martin, Jr., '00 

Directors: Term Expires 1913 — R. H. Rice, '85; W. D. Hoxie, '89; F. A. 
Muschenheim, '91; W. E. S. Strong, '92. Term Expires 1914 — 
F. J. Gubelman, '89; H. E. Griswold, '93; R. C. Post, '89; R. W. 
Pryor, Jr., '02. 

Trustees: Hosea Webster, '82; E. H. Peabody, '90; J. Alfred Dixon, 

'91; Walter Kidde, '97; R. W. Pryor, Jr., '02. 
Alumni Trustees: Hosea Webster, '82; Walter Kidde, '97; John W. 

Lieb, Jr., '80. 

Stevens Institute Alumni Association (European Branch) — Lafayette D. 
Carroll, '84, Acting Secretary. 

Stevens Club of Newark — W. R. Halliday, '02, Secretary. 

Stevens Club of Brooklyn — William E. Paulson, '04, Secretary. 

Southern Alumni Club — A. M. Morris, '07, Secretary. 

Stevens Club of Philadelphia — J. B. Klumpp, '94, Secretary-Treasurer. 

Stevens Club of Schenectady — Richard H. Marvin, '03, Secretary- 

Wisconsin Stevens Club — Cornelius T. Myers, '00, Secretary. 
Western Stevens Club — A. K. Hamilton, '95, Secretary. 
Stevens Club of Pittsburgh — E. A. Condit, Jr., '02, Secretary -Treasurer. 
New England Stevens Club — F. M. Gibson, '01, President. 


'73— J. A. Henderson, 120 North 19th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

'74. — H. W. Post, Box 415, Mountain Lakes, Boonton, N. J. 

'75. — S. D. Gbaydon, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N. J. 

'7(i. -A. RlBSENBBBOBB, Stevens Institute of Teelmology, Hoboken, N. J. 



'77.— F. E. Idell, 50 Church St., New York City. 
'78 —A. A. De Bonneville, 132 Nassau St., New York City. 
'79. — John S. Cooke, 364 Broadway, Paterson, N. J. 
'80. — J. W. Lieb, Jr., 55 Duane St., New York City. 
'81. — R. M. Dixon, 2 Rector St., New York City. 
'82. — Hosea Webster, 85 Liberty St., New York City. 
'83.— F. C. Fraentzel, 804 Broad St., Newark, N. J. 
'84. — W. L. Lyall, 439 Aycrigg Ave., Passaic, N. J. 
'85.— A. W. Btjrchard, 30 Church St., New York City. 
'86.— F. A. LaPointe, 63 Eighth St., Hoboken, N. J. 
'87.— J. D. Flack, "Orienta," 302 West 79th St., New York City. 
'88— Richard Beyer, 902 Hudson St., Hoboken, N. J. 
'89.— F. J. Gubelman, 47 West 34th St., New York City. 
'90.— E. H. Peabody, 85 Liberty St., New York City. 
'91— C. G. Atwater, 17 Battery Place, New York City. 
'92.— W. O. Ludlow, 12 West 31st St., New York City. 
'93— E. D. Lewis, 185 Madison Ave., New York City. 
'94. — G. B. Fielder, Cartaret Trust Co., Sip Ave., Jersey City, N. J. 
'95. — A. F. Ganz, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N. J. 
'96.— W. H. MacGregor, 165 Broadway, New York City. 
'97.— J. M. Towne, 54 Walnut St., East Orange, N. J. 
'98. — Robert Boettger, United Piece Dye Works, Lodi, Bergen Co., N. J. 
'99— J. S. Henry, Safety Car Htg. & Ltg. Co., 2 Rector St., New York 

'00.— H. L. Underhill, Consolidated Gas Co., 501 East 21st St., New 
York City. 

'01. — A. Siegele, Jr., 167 Lenox Road, Flatbush, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
'02— L. K. Lydecker, 2 Rector St., New York City. 
'03. — S. H. Lott, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N. J. 
'04. — C. E. Hedden, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N. J. 
'05— I. R. Lewis, care of Walter Kidde, 140 Cedar St., New York City. 
'06. — L. A. Hazeltine, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N. J. 
'07— Peter Minck, Kilbourne & Jacobs Mfg. Co., 25 Broad St., New 
York City. 

'08— G. D. Thayer, 24 Monticello Ave., Jersey City, N. J. 

'09— G. E. Terwilliger, 1 Liberty St., New York City. 

'10. — Nelson Ogden, New London Ship & Engine Co., Groton, Conn. 

'11.— S. J. Bell, Babcock & Wilcox Co., Bayonne, N. J. 

'12. — Russell G. Hess, 709 Billings Ave., Paulsboro, N. J. 



■ B 




■ ■ 


In the November and December issues of the Journal of the Franklin 
Institute, appeared a paper by I. N. Knapp on "Natural Gas, with Inci- 
dental Reference to other Bitumens." The paper is the result of wide 
experience and much research. It was delivered at a meeting of the 
Section of Mining and Metallurgy. 


Prof. A. Riesenberger sailed on March 29 on the Molkte for a sixteen- 
day cruise, touching at Havana, Porto Rico, Colon, Panama and Bermuda. 


J. W. Lieb, Jr., a vice-president and general manager of the New York 
Edison Company, went to Dayton at the time of the recent flood, to take 
charge of the work of restoring light and power. He was assisted by the 
heads of electrical plants from all parts of the country who had volunteered 
to help in getting the wheels to moving again. 

John A. Bensel, State Engineer of New York, gave an address in 
Washington, D. C, before the Washington Association of Engineers on 
February 4, on New York's $101,000,000 barge canal. The address was 
illustrated by moving pictures taken along the route of the canal. Accord- 
ing to press reports Mr. Bensel said in part: 

"It is interesting to note that while the total quantities of construction 
items on the barge canal are equal to about three-fourths of those on the 
Panama Canal, the barge canal, including terminals, is being built for 
little more than a third of the cost of the Panama Canal, and furthermore, 
that 9,000,000 citizens are paying for New York's canal while the cost of 
the Government canal is distributed among 90,000,000. 

"For the fame of the barge canal it is unfortunate perhaps that the 
two canals are being built at the same time, for we of the barge canal think 
our project is entitled to rival or possibly outrank the Panama Canal in 
many respects from an engineering standpoint. There are six pairs of 
locks along the Panama Canal, as against 350 to 400 structures on the 
barge canal; the Panama Canal is fifty miles along, the barge canal 540 




On January 25, 1913, J. H. Cuntz delivered a lecture before the Woman's 
Press Club of New York on "The Engineer and the World's Work." 

Mrs. Isaac Ingalls Stevens announces the marriage of her daughter, 
Kate Stevens Bingham to James H. S. Bates on February 14, 1913, at 
Crestlawn, Dorchester, Mass. 


Announcement was recently made of the engagement of Miss Mary 
Reddy, daughter of Mrs. James M. Reddy, of 3913 Grand Boulevard, 
Chicago, to Paul Doty, who is general manager of the St. Paul (Minn.) 
Gas Light Company. Miss Reddy is a daughter of the late James Reddy, 
of Chicago, and a niece of Edward Cudahy, of Chicago. 


Among the alumni unavoidably prevented from attending the annual 
banquet was W. D. Hoxie, who sailed for Europe on the Mauretania on 
February 12. Mr. Hoxie showed that his heart was with the diners by 
despatching the following wireless telegram: 

"Heartiest congratulations Dr. Humphreys' tenth anniversary; best 
wishes to alumni and guests. Will drink to-night to prosperity Stevens." 

Before the message was transmitted, Mr. Hoxie learned that J. A. 
Norcross, '91, was also a passenger on the Mauretania, and the despatch 
as finally received was signed "Norcross-Hoxie." Unfortunately there 
was some delay in transmission, and the message did not arrive at the 
Astor in time for the dinner, but reached President Humphreys the follow- 
ing day. 


On March 28 Ernest H. Peabody gave a lecture illustrated with 
lantern slides before the student body of the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology affiliated with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
Mr. Peabody's subject was "Oil Burning," and comprised an outline of 
the styles and character of oil burners, and oil furnaces including mechan- 
ical atomization, and showed the results of some recent remarkable tests 
made by the Navy Department on Babcock & Wilcox marine boilers 
equipped with Peabody mechanical atomizers at the Philadelphia Navy 
Yard. These tests set a new record for high forcing and corresponding 


Through W. S. Ackerman, the Indicator is in receipt of a menu of the 
"First Annual Dinner of the Alumni of Stevens Institute of Technology." 
The affair was held at the Hotel Manhattan, New York, on April 30, 1901, 



and the menu is a simple four-page affair in striking contrast to the 
elaborate souvenirs that have been a feature of more recent dinners. 
The speakers included President Henry Morton, A. W. Stohe, '76, S. 
Bayard Dod, William Kent, '76, Henry R. Towne, B. Frankliu Hart, Jr., 
'87, and Alten S. Miller, '88. 

C. G. Atwater has received a letter from his classmate, George L« 
Manning, who is now a Professor in Robert College, Constantinople* 
relating some of his thrilling experiences in Turkey. The letter in part is 
as follows : 

"December 20th, 1912. 

"Dear Atwater: — 

$ $ $ $ $ 

"Fortunately things are quiet again and we no longer fear the night as 
we did. Two weeks ago today we heard cannonading all day and in the 
evening our Vice-Consul came to me and explained the provisions taken 
for safety in case the troops were driven in from Chatalja. This was what 
we had to fear, for starving and desperate Moslem soldiers were expected 
to commit all sorts of violent acts before yielding their great imperial city 
to Christian victors. Uncle Sam, being as usual in such cases, slow to act, 
had left us to the care of England, for she had a fine cruiser promptly in 
our harbor. Three shots from one of the foreign naval vessels was to be 
the signal that trouble had broken out somewhere within the city limits 
and we should then expect to find a launch near our property to convey 
any of our number who wished to go on board a war vessel. None of us 
men thought for a moment of leaving the college, but the mothers and 
their children were expected to go on board. As you can imagine our 
ears were keen. Fortunately no signal came and our Turkish government 
really managed the city's order exceedingly well. I went several times to 
town, business men went every day, and Mrs. Manning went alone one 
day at this time. Our bags were packed, however, for immediate depart- 
ure to the college enclosure, and our valuables were safe in the college 
vaults. Every time I shaved it meant getting the tools out of the bag, 
and the bags as well as the revolver were on chairs by our bedside at night. 
For ten days or more we had at the college nine marines from the Scorpion, 
our United States stationaire, but they were not needed. We do feel, 
however, that if Holland and Roumania could send vessels to guard their 
subjects here, few in numbers as they are, it would have been well for the 
United States to be represented too and by a real fighting machine. In 
the Orient those powers who can show their power are respected. The 

founding of Robert College is a conspicuous example <>f the truth of this 




"We are quiet at present. What the future will bring no man knows. 
There are still very serious possibilities and that even without the most 
awful possibility; a general European war. But every day of peace we 
regard as so much gained; and when the cost of war is fairly faced it seems 
impossible for it to continue. 

"We have, I believe, just reason to feel thankful and proud of our boys; 
that they have stuck to their tasks every day throughout the war. Some 
of their fellows and one of their teachers were called away to fight, and 
we have had representatives from all sides among our students; yet peace 
has reigned among us — among our four hundred and fifty students many 
of whom had all their grown male relations in the armies." 


The firm of Ludlow & Peabody, of which William 0. Ludlow is a mem- 
ber, has recently been appointed architects for the most important group 
of college buildings in the South, the George Peabody College for Teachers 
at Nashville, Tenn. The layout will comprise a group of fifty-seven build- 
ings occupying a tract of sixty acres of ground overlooking the city of 
Nashville and designed for the education of the teachers for the normal 
schools of the South. 

William C. Cuntz returned on February 27 from a business trip 
abroad, during which he visited Essen, Berlin, Paris and London. 

Nicholas S. Hill, Jr., was recently retained by the New Jersey State 
Water Supply Commission as one of a committee of three experts to 
evaluate the property of the East Jersey and Elizabethtown Water Com- 
panies, in anticipation of the possible taking over of these properties by 
the State. Mr. Hill was also recently appointed by Bayonne as one of 
two experts to appraise the value of the water supply company's plant in 
that city. 

The Gurney Elevator Company, of which Howard F. Gurney is presi- 
dent, has completed the installation of 150 Gurney elevators in the Bush 
Terminal Company docks and a large number in the New York dock ter- 

Andrew J. Post, president of Post & McCord, Inc., is treasurer and a 
director of the Architects Offices Incorporated, in whose new building his 
firm will be situated after May 1. 

Henry C. Meyer, Jr., was consulting engineer for the electrical work 
on the new Guaranty Trust Company's building at Liberty Street and 
Broadway, New York, which was recently opened, and will act as con- 
sulting engineer for the heating and ventilating system of the new office 
building for J. P. Morgan & Company in New York. 



W. E. S. Strong has been retained to represent J. P. Morgan & Company 
directly as their consulting engineer in the construction of their new office 
building. Post & McCord, of which A. J. Post, '92, is president, and 
R. C. Post, '98, is secretary, will have charge of the steel construction 
work, and Henry C. Meyer, Jr., '92, will act as consulting engineer for 
the heating and ventilating. 


"Valves, Valve-Gears and Valve Diagrams," by Prof. F. De R. Fur- 
man, has been adopted as the standard text-book on this subject by the 
University of Minnesota. 


Prof. Albert F. Ganz has recently been appointed a member of a com- 
mittee on Street Lighting of the National Electric Light Association. 
The chairman of this committee is John W. Lieb, Jr., Stevens, '80, and 
the other members are Dr. Charles P. Steinmetz, Dr. Louis Bell and Pres- 
ton S. Millar. Prof. Ganz was elected a member of the Hoboken Board 
of Trade at the regular March meeting of the Board. 

F. K. Vreeland has changed his address to 31 Nassau Street, New 
York City. 

G. E. Bruen is superintendent of the Electrical Department of the 
Suburban Fire Insurance Exchange, 123 William Street, New York City. 


Edgar E. Burnet is assistant superintendent of the Judson Manu- 
facturing Company, Oakland, Cal. 

Frederick R. Harris, who is a civil engineer of the United States Navy, 
with headquarters at the Brooklyn Navy Yard, recently left on a trip to 
Honolulu to inspect drydock facilities there. 

Willard H. MacGregor, formerly with the Westinghouse Electric 
and Manufacturing Company, at 165 Broadway, New York, has taken a 
position with the Aladdin Company, at 90 Broadway. 


Joseph M. Towne and Miss Jessie Louise Dodd were married at East 
Orange, N. J., on February 1. 

Robert L. Messimer is assistant to general manager, Studebaker Cor- 
poration, Detroit, Mich. 


T. F. Dketfub is with the Brookliavcn Lumber & Manufacturing Co., 
Hatticsburg, Miss. 



H. R. Davis has left the employ of the Kansas Natural Gas Company, 
at Independence, Kansas, to take a position with the Hope Engineering 
and Supply Company of Pittsburgh, Pa. 


A. G. Sidman is Resident in charge of the construction of a large Power 
House and Transmission lines which the Lehigh Coal and Navigation 
Company are building in Pennsylvania. Current will be transmitted at 
a voltage of 110,000. 


A son was born to Mr. and Mrs. Clarence N. Durrie, November 10, 
1912. He has been named John Nicoll Durrie. 

Two huge brick smoke stacks, each 150 feet in height, which had stood 
for forty years, were undermined and toppled over without a mishap re- 
cently at the plant of the Eclipse Tanning Company, 119 Sussex 
Avenue, Newark, N. J. The stacks were hemmed in by buildings, but 
none of them was damaged. The task was in charge of J. C. Percy, me- 
chanical engineer of the company. Placing timber shoring around the 
base of the stacks, he cut partly through the masonry, near the bottom, 
and filled the cavities with wooden stays. These stays were thoroughly 
soaked with kerosene and then set afire. About twelve minutes later the 
supports had burned away under one stack and the great mass of masonry 
fell over. For half the distance to the ground the stack kept its form; 
then it crumbled and the impact with the ground reduced it to debris. 
Three minutes later the second stack followed its mate in precisely the 
same manner. 


C. B. Goode's address is now in care of Riegos y Fuerza del Ebro, Bar- 
celona, Spain. 

Arthur S. Lewis is the Eastern Representative of the Chicago-Cleve- 
land Car Roofing Company, 50 Church Street, New York City. His 
home address is 1070 Park Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 


William H. Taylor is now manager of the Omaha Gas Company, 1509 
Howard Street, Omaha, Neb. 

A. D. Smith has changed his address to 1329 Valley Place, Anacostia, 
D. C. 


R. H. Marvin is the author of an article appearing in the General Elec- 
tric Renew for March, dealing with the arcing ground suppressor and its 



uses. The article indicates the field of the suppressor, shows the differ- 
ence between its construction for different systems, and explains the cycle. 
It also discusses the advantages and limitations of the apparatus. 

Robert E. Burke is with the Standard Oil Company of New York in 
its Construction Department at Shanghi, China. 


Charles M. Willis is assistant gas engineer with the J. G. White Man- 
agement Corporation, 43 Exchange Place, New York City. His home 
address is 49 Oakview Avenue, Maplewood, N. J. Mr. Willis was mar- 
ried on June 11, 1912, to Miss Dorothy MacLeod Patterson, of Trenton, 
N. J. 

Harlan A. Pratt is now manager of the industrial and power divi- 
sion of the Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co., with offices at 165 Broad- 
way, New York. 


George A. Balz has changed his address to P. O. Box 327, Perth Am- 
boy, N. J. 


H. H. Davis is with the Crucible Steel Company of America, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., in their sales department. 

J. H. Deppeler is with the Goldschmidt Thermit Company, at their 
factory office, 92 Bishop Street, Jersey City, N. J. 


A. S. Harlow is assistant manager of the Bosch Magneto Company. 
His address is 1470 North Street, Springfield, Mass. Mr. Harlow's en- 
gagement to Miss Jeannette W. Sadlier of Walden, N. Y., daughter of 
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Sadlier has recently been announced. 

Charles C. Phelps has resigned his position with the Edison Storage 
Battery Company at Orange, N. J. 

Rudolf Pollak's present address is care of Buxton, Cassini & Cia, 
Calle Luipacha 602, Buenos Aires, Argentina, South America. 

The marriage is announced of Marie Robinson Woolston, daughter of 
Mr. and Mrs. Lemuel B. Woolston, to Edgar Dawson George, Jr., on 
Saturday, March 15, 1913, at Plainfield, N. J. Mr. and Mrs. George will 
be at home to their friends after May 1 at 214 Higli Street, Perth Amboy, 
N. J. 

J. L. Moss, Jb. is in the Engineering Department of the Simplex Auto- 
mobile Company, New Brunswick, N. J. 



C. W. A. Steinmetz is in the Heating and Ventilating Department 
F. M. Andrews & Co., 1 Madison Avenue, New York. His home address 
is 48 Hauxhurst Avenue, Weehawken, N. J. 


As the Indicator goes to press news is received of the death of 
Franklin Butler Crosby in an automobile accident on April 20. 

Thorn Birdseye's present address is 19 Southard Street, Trenton, N. J. 

Robert S. Pickett has accepted a position with the Griscom Russell 
Company, 90 West Street, New York City, in their sales department. 

William G. Mixer, permanent president of the Class of 1909, was one 
of several Stevens men connected with the 1913 Automobile Show in New 
York. He was stationed at the Grand Central Palace, having been sent 
from the Western factory to act as chief mechanical expert at the exhibit 
of the Case motor cars. 

Wallace M. Hendrick's home address is now 11 Clarkson Avenue, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. He is now connected with the New York Continental 
Jewell Filtration Company, makers of gravity and pressure filters. 

Ward Harrison, representing the Illuminating Engineering Society, 
presented a paper on "Industrial Lighting" at the meeting of the Ameri- 
can Society of Mechanical Engineers in New York on March 13, 1913. 

The home address of G. E. Terwilliger is now 850 Clinton Avenue, 
Newark, N. J. 


B. V. Pfeiffer is with the Nashville Gas & Heating Company, Nash- 
ville, Tennessee. 

Arthur P. Roscoe has been appointed to the position of Junior Engi- 
neer with the Public Service Commission for the First District, New York. 
He is located with the 6th Division, Part II at 565 Fifth Avenue, Brook- 
lyn, the work at present consisting of the Fourth Avenue Subway exten- 
sion from 40th Street to 90th Street. 


On Saturday, January 4, Raymond P. White was married to Miss 
Hazel G. Gilmore of Waterbury, Conn. Mr. White is now with the Hills 
Brothers Company of New York. His business address is Beach and 
Washington Streets, New York City. 

A. H. Harris, Jr. has accepted a position with the Providence Gas 
Company, Market Square, Providence, R. I. 

W. E. Blythe is with the Crocker- Wheeler Company of Ampere, N. J. 
7 167 


W. H. Koch has accepted a position with the A. and F. Brown Company 
Elizabethport, N. J. 

Armin S. Hoffman has accepted a position with the Lowell Gas Light 
Company of Lowell, Mass. 

C. W. MacMullen is with the International Motor Company, in their 
Mack Works at Allentown, Pa. 

Charles G. Macdonald is in the Taylor Stoker Department of the 
American Engineering Company at Philadelphia, Pa. His mail address 
is Delta Tau Delta House, Castle Point, Hoboken, N. J. 


H. W. Stortz is now in the Service Department of the Edison Storage 
Battery Company at Orange, N. J. 

Writing from Independence, Kansas, S. B. Crooks, says that he under- 
stands that all Stevens men in Kansas are affiliated with the Kansas Natu- 
ral Gas Company, having headquarters at Independence. 


Lawrence L. Stevens, ex-' 13, was married to Miss Anna Dingee Mal- 
pass of Philadelphia on April 2, 1913. 


■ ■ 




■ a 

■ ■ 





The annual midwinter meeting of the Alumni Association, held at 
Castle Stevens on the evening of Wednesday, January 15, commanded a 
good attendance. The meeting was preceded by an informal dinner 
at 6.30 served in the lunchroom by the Castle management, after which 
the alumni present adjourned to the rotunda on the first floor, which had 
been filled with chairs for the purpose. 

E. H. Peabody, '90, president of the Alumni Association, called the 
meeting to order, and introduced G. H. Caffrey, '06, who led the singing 
and cheering throughout the evening. President Peabody made a brief 
survey of the work of his administration, dwelling on the plans for wiping 
out the deficit of the Association's treasury. 

T. C. Stephens, '00, secretary of the Alumni Association, read the names 
of the following alumni who have died since the last annual meeting: 

Ralph P. Badeau, '09, 

Died July 20, 1912. 
Samuel Tenney Mudge, '06, 

Died September 8, 1912. 
Chester E. Bradley, '03, 

Died October 29, 1912. 
William J. Beers, '89, 

Died October 17, 1911. 

(Not previously announced.) 
Frank A. Magee, '83, 

Died January 2, 1913. 
J. Hurst Fulton, '05, 

Died August 19, 1912. 

The proposed amendment to the constitution of the Alumni Association 
concerning the admission of past presidents of the association as members 
of the executive committee, reported in full in the minutes of the meeting 
of the executive committee of January 15, 1913, was read in accordance 
with the constitution. 

Others who spoke were Dr. D. S. Jacobus, '84, reporting for the Denton 



Memorial Committee; F. J. Gubelman, '89, who spoke of the work of the 
Publicity Committee; Henry Torrance, Jr., '90, who told of the Graduate 
Fund; H. A. Pratt, '04, who described the workings of the new Athletic 
Council, and John S. DeHart, '90 who gave advance information concern- 
ing the testimonial dinner to Dr. Humphreys. 

After these reports had been received, President Humphreys took the 
floor and made an intimate talk to the alumni, speaking particularly of 
the increased cooperation between undergraduates, faculty and alumni 
which was apparent. Dr. Humphreys told how he had been a guest at 
the recent Senior Dinner, and how many things had been threshed out to 
the advantage of all concerned. 

Among others who made brief addresses were Walter Kidde, '97, and 
John W. Lieb, Jr., '80, alumni trustees, both of whom spoke in the highest 
terms of Dr. Humphreys' service to the college. 

At the conclusion of the formal exercises, the alumni present partook 
of the refreshments prepared by the committee in charge, and many 
embraced the opportunity of exploring the Castle, much to the astonish- 
ment of certain sleepy undergraduates who had retired for the night. 

The following alumni signed the roll: 

William Kent, '76 

Edward W. Robinson, '95 

Lewis H. Nash, '77 

C. G. Woolson, '96 


Walter Kidde, '97 

John W. Lieb, Jr., '80 

H. C. Mathey, '97 

D. S. Jacobus, '84 

F. L. Pryor, '97 

Charles W. Thomas, '84 

Rudolf V. Rose, '97 

Edward B. Mowton, '86 

G. Danforth Williamson, '97 

Alfred H. Adilesinger, '87 

H. T. Woolson, '97 

James H. S. Bates, '87 

W. E. Hussey, '98 

J. H. Cuntz, '87 

Herman Robinson, '98 

W. Everett Parsons, '87 

L. de L. Berg, '99 

George Dinkel, '88 

Percy C. Idell, '99 

Alten S. Miller, '88 

Robert O. Luqueer, '99 

James Eastwood, '89 

Louis A. Martin, Jr., '00 

W. F. Lawrence, '90 

Louis A. Phillips, '00 

E. H. Peabody, '90 

Thomas C. Stephens, '00 

G. L. Todd, '90 

Clarence T. Coley, '01 

Henry Torrence, Jr., '90 

Howard V. Meeker, '01 

J. A. Dixon, '91 

August Siegele, Jr., '01 

Andrew J. Post, '92 

R. T. Anderson, '02 

W. E. S. Strong, '92 

W. R. Halliday, '02 

O. C. Whitney, '92 

C. B. LePage, '02 

F. DeR. Fuiiman, '93 

Leigh K. Lydecker, '02 

Albert F. Ganz, '95 

Paul J. Martin, '02 



R. W. Prtor, Jr., '02 
V. E. Royle, '02 
S. H. Lott, '03 
F. Rabbe, Jr., '03 
Charles J. Roeser, '03 
Frederick F. Schuetz, '03 
Clarence Earle Hedden, '04 
R. F. Jacobus, '04 
Harlan A. Pratt, '04 
M. A. Charavay, '05 
Elias Q. Horton, '05 
P. Leserman, Jr., '05 
I. R. Lewis, '05 
Kenneth Lydecker, '05 
A. Obrig, '05 
C. E. Cole, '06 
George Crisson, '06 
George A. Evans, '06 

F. A. Gaylord, '06 
Louis H. Goldstein, '06 
L. A. Hazeltine, '06 

P. J. Howe, '06 
David C. Johnson, '06 
Joseph P. Kirkup, '06 
C. A. Niles, '06 
A. L. Duhart, '07 
J. P. Henofer, '07 
John A. Meeker, '07 
C. G. Michalis, '07 
Peter Minck, '07 
Walter Erlenkotter, '08 
Arthur V. Farr, '08 
Clinton Inglee, '08 
Charles C. Phelps, '08 
C. W. A. Steinmetz, '08 
C. A. Sturken, '08 
A. J. Carniaux, '09 

A. S. Clark, '09 
Franklin B. Crosby, '09 


G. G. Freygang, '09 
W. M. Hendrick, '09 

H. A. KlESELBACH, '09 

C. E. Mobius, '09 
John H. Peper, Jr., '09 
R. W. Smith, '09 
Gerald E. Terwilliger, '09 
Julius G. Berger, '10 
Fred H. Gunkel, '10 
C. G. Henkel, '10 
David N. Mauger, '10 
J. Murphy, Jr., '10 
Peter J. Nestler, '10 
J. R. Voorhees, '10 
Andrew C. Whyte, '10 
T. A. Wiley, '10 
J. F. Barlow, '11 
Stewart J. Bell, '11 
H. S. Burling, '11 
A. R. Elmendorf, '11 
E. O. Hickstein, '11 
H. S. McIlvain, '11 
C. G. Macdonald, '11 
George L. Mitchill, '13 
A. H. Nicholls, '11 


Arthur F. Requa, '11 
C. M. Stanley, '11 ] 
Arthur Wright, '11 

F. W. Young, '11 
L. A. Belding, '12 
E. Byron, '12 

C. Dempwolf, '12 

Walter F. Dombrowsky, '12 

L. H. Eggert, '12 

Walter H. Freygang, '12 

Alfred D. Karr, '12 

Walter C. Lange, '12 

C. L. Langlotz, '12 

H. H. C. Lasker, '12 

Raymond Loughlin, '12 

A. W. MacNabb, '12 

W. E. Marshall, '12 

Q. J. Schwarz, '12 

H. P. Smith, '12 

H. W. Stortz, '12 




The Stevens Club of Brooklyn, one of the most active of the organiza- 
tions allied with the Alumni Association, held a dinner at the University- 
Club of Brooklyn on the evening of March 25. Twenty-nine guests were 
present. President Humphreys and E. H. Peabody, '90, president of the 
Alumni Association, were the guests of honor. The club enforced its 
custom of requiring every man present to make a short impromptu speech, 
and many interesting facts and suggestions were developed in the course 
of the evening. 


Following are the names to be presented to the Alumni Association as 
the ticket for annual election: 


Vice President, 

2d Vice President, 




Alumni Trustee 

J. H. Cuntz, '87. 
J. A. Dixon, '91. 
William E. S. Strong, '92. 
G. G. Freygang, '09. 
L. A. Martin, Jr., '00. 
(Four positions to be filled.) 
John S. DeHart, Jr., '90. 
F. A. Muschenheim, '91. 

C. H. McCullough, Jr., '91. 
F. W. Cohen, '92. 

Frank E. Law, '92. 
Thomas C. Stephens, '00. 

D. C. Johnson, '06. 
(One to be elected.) 

E. H. Peabody, '90. 
Richard H. Rice, '85. 
R. S. Kursheedt, '80. 


The Michigan Stevens Club was brought into existence at an organiza- 
tion banquet held at the Hotel Cadillac, Detroit, on Friday evening, 
March 28. The banquet was well attended and every one present 
thoroughly enjoyed the informal evenings entertainment and the pleasure 
of discussing old times. 



During the course of the banquet, telegrams of congratulation were 
received from President Humphreys and the secretaries of all the other 
alumni clubs. Furthermore, several letters from professors at Stevens 
and one from Professor Pryor giving a detailed account of the growth and 
improvement made in recent years at the college added interest to this 
event, especially for the men who have not had the time or opportunity to 
visit the college for a long period. 

There are at the present time fifteen graduates residing in the city of 
Detroit and six in other cities of Michigan. 

The club's plans include quarterly meetings commencing with March 
28 as the first meeting; an annual meeting to be held on the last Friday 
of March, and in addition to these, regular meetings of th^ "Monday 
Boosters." Arrangements have been made to have as many of the men 
as can conveniently do so, meet informally each Monday at luncheon at 
the Hotel Cadillac, Detroit. 

At the banquet the following officers were elected for the ensuing year: 
President, E. T. Birdsall, '86; Vice President, W. B. Wreaks, '89 ; Treasurer, 
R. S. Lane, '08; Secretary, L. J. Schneider, '11. Publicity Committee, 
C. T. Myers and L. J. Schneider. The Executive Committee includes 
all officers. 


The Class of 1893 held a well-attended dinner at the Engineers' Club 
in New York on March 14. Plans were considered for the celebration of 
the twentieth anniversary of the class in appropriate style at Alumni Day 
in June, and other matters of class interest were discussed. 

Among those present were Prof. Franklin DeR. Furman, H. H. Adams, 
B. G. Braine, H. F. Cuntz, William Y. Dear, J. A. Goldsmith, A. G. 
Hupfel, E. D. Lewis, R. Rieger, Clinton MacKenzie, Wessels Van Blar- 
com and Lewis C. Bayles. 


The annual dinner of the Stevens Club of Schenectady was held at the 
Mohawk Golf Club on March 14, 1913. The dinner was held at this 
time so that Professor Ganz and the Senior Class, who were in Schenec- 
tady on the inspection trip, could attend, and their presence added 
greatly to the enjoyment and enthusiasm of the evening. 

The guests of the club were President Alexander C. Humphreys, Prof. 
Albert F. Ganz, L. A. Hazeltine, G. L. Mitchill, from the Institute; Dr. 



Palmer C. Ricketts, President of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and 
Langdon Gibson, production manager of the General Electric Works. 

A most enjoyable evening was spent by all. An excellent menu was 
served. Between the courses all joined in singing the familiar Stevens 
songs. This was followed by some excellent speeches, President H. H. 
Mapelsden acting as toastmaster. 

President Ricketts was the first speaker, and spoke in a humorous 
manner on the difficulties of a college president. Langdon Gibson then 
related some interesting reminiscences of his trip to the north coast of 
Greenland on one of the Peary expeditions. 

Henry Torrance, past president of the Stevens Alumni Association, gave 
a humorous talk on the value of a college education. 

Dr. Humphreys impressed upon his hearers that it was the duty of an 
educational institution not only to supply a knowledge of some particu- 
lar science, but to instill a knowledge of economics and an interest in 
the affairs of the nation that would fit its students to become valuable 

Professor Ganz dwelt upon the value of a course in the testing depart- 
ment of the General Electric Company as supplementary to the college 

During the dinner, President Mapelsden presented Dr. Humphreys with 
a check for the annual contribution of the club to the Graduate Fund. 

In addition to the guests and speakers previously mentioned, forty-five 
students from the Senior Class, and fourteen members of the club were 


The annual banquet of the Pittsburgh Stevens Club, given in honor 
of Professor Ganz and the Senior Class on inspection trip, was held at the 
University Club, in Pittsburgh, Wednesday evening, March 19, 1913. 

Fritz Uhlenhaut, Jr., president of the Association, was toastmaster, and 
following his address of welcome, short speeches were made by Professor 
Ganz, Messrs. Steward, Whigham and Vander Veer, president of the 
Senior Class. 

The following officers for the local association were elected for the 
coining year: — President, Mr. Uhlenhaut; vice-president, Edwin D. 
Dreyfus; treasurer, D. G. Sinclair; secretary, H. E. Williams. 

In addition to Professor Ganz and the class, the follow ing alumni were 



F. Uhlenhaut, '88, William Whigham, '88, J. E. Steward, '83, P. S. 
Whitman, '97, L. P. Streeter, '00, H. E. Williams, '00, D. G. Sinclair, '02, 
E. D. Dreyfus, '03, R. F. Carey, '06, H. H. Davis, '06, E. I. Weseman, '07, 
S. A. Hazen, '09, J. V. Perry, '12. 



Old Guard $147.00 

Class 1886 15.00 

Classes '84, '85, '87 to '02, and '04 to '11 ($25 

each) 650.00 

Receipts of the baseball game 41.25 

Classes 1913, 1914 and 1915 $5 each) 15.00 

Class 1891, for blue silk flag 18 . 25 

Castle Stevens, dinners for 294 guests 441.00 

Castle Stevens, from Senior Class toward camp 

chairs 9 . 37 

Charles B. Grady 19 


Contribution from the Old Guard included $22.50 for dinners so that 
the net amount received toward Alumni Day from the Old Guard was 

Class 1903 did not contribute anything toward Alumni Day. 

Castle Stevens, on account of guests' dinners $300 . 00 

Postal cards 16.00 

Printing pos tal cards 1.75 

Typewriting 3 . 85 

Postal card postage and clerical work 22 . 77 

Guarantee to Lafayette College for baseball team 170.00 

Printing 65.25 

Castle Stevens, on account overpayments for din- 
ners for Old Guard 1.50 

Engrossing envelopes 5 . 00 

Engraving invitations 18 . 64 

Multigraphing 4.10 

Arm bands, etc 18.10 

Printing programs and tickets 53 . 00 

Postage 1.50 



Band concert, evening and afternoon 217.00 

Printing postal cards and supper tickets 5 . 00 

Lanterns 8.00 

Castle Stevens, dinners for Old Guard 21 . 00 

Flags 57.00 

Drinking water 1 1 . 00 

Electrical work 26 . 90 

Electrical current 3 . 20 

Camp chairs 25 . 00 

Installing electric lighting 140 . 00 

Castle Stevens, on account of guests' dinners, bal- 
ance due 141 .00 

Advanced by Charles B. Grady .19 

Castle Stevens, dinners for band, etc 29 . 80 

Stevens Institute, material for decoration, ice and 

labor 96.28 


Deficit $126.27 

Respectfully submitted, 

Charles B. Grady, 


Audited by: 


August Siegele, Jr. 
Frederick A. Muschenheim. 


A meeting of the Executive Committee of the Alumni Association of 
Stevens Institute of Technology was held at Castle Stevens, Hoboken, 
N. J., on Wednesday, January 15, 1913. The meeting was called to order 
at 5.45 p. m. by President E. H. Peabody. The other members present 
were:— J. H. Cuntz, F. J. Gubelman, J. A. Dixon, W. E. S. Strong, Walter 
Kidde, L. A. Martin, Jr., R. W. Pryor, Jr.,. and T. C. Stephens. The 
following past-presidents of the Association, Dr. Alexander C. Humphreys, 
William Kent, R. S. Kursheedt, Henry Torrance, Jr., and George Dinkel; 
G. E. Terwilliger, managing editor of the Indicator and H. A. Pratt, 
Chairman of the Athletic Council, also attended. 

The minutes of the previous meeting of December 10, 1912, were read 
and approved as corrected. 



Mr. Peabody reading Mr. Hart's report on "Stevens Night" announced 
that the net proceeds of the theatre party held at the New Amsterdam 
Theatre on December 6, 1912, were $921.80. A vote of thanks to Mr. 
Hart and the members of his committee had been passed unanimously at 
the previous meeting. 

Speaking of the payment of bills by the various committees, Professor 
Martin suggested that all bills be sent to the Treasurer's office for pay- 
ment, thereby avoiding unnecessary confusion and the rendition of errone- 
ous reports. 

Mr. Pratt reported that the Athletic Council was working out in good 
shape, that three regular dates for meetings had been decided upon and 
that there had been two regular meetings this year. Besides a special 
meeting to be held February 20th, these meetings are as follows: — The 
first Thursday in October, second Thursday in December, and second 
Thursday in April. 

At the meetings the question of schedules and coaching are gone into 
as well as all general questions touching athletics. The committee believes 
that as much effort in money should be expended on the coaching system 
as can consistently be given, and steps are being taken along these lines. 
The finances of the Council are in very good shape. 

Reporting for the Committee on Increase of Membership, Mr. Dixon, 
chairman, announced that up to date the committee had received the 
following applications, some of which had been previously presented to the 
Executive Committee for action : 

For reinstatement to Active Membership 21 

The above accomplishments were largely the result of a general canvass, 
and the committee hoped that the individual work now under way would 
show increased and gratifying results. 

Mr. Dixon then moved that the following former members be reinstated 
to membership subject to their making the necessary payments, upon 
notification of the amount by the proper officer of the Association, and 
that receipts for such payments be sent each one for the full period covered 
by the amount tendered : 

George H. Chad well, '03, 
Paul Willis, '85, 
F. M. Walker, '07, 
Wallace Willitt, '96, 
Joseph A. Schmidt, Jr., '98. 

Associate Membership 
Life Membership .... 




George B. Fielder, '94, 
Robert C. Stanley, '99, 
H. C. Mathey, '97, 
Philip Leserman, Jr., '05. 

Motion seconded by Mr. Stephens. Carried. 

Mr. Dixon again moved that H. V. H. Neefus, '04, having never ac- 
knowledged his membership in the Association by payment of dues, and 
probably never having made personal application, simply being enrolled 
as a member through the election of his class as a whole, and having now 
applied for active membership, the Executive Committee present his name 
to the Association for election to active membership. Seconded by Pro- 
fessor Martin. Carried. 

Mr. Dixon further moved that C. T. Church, '95, having made applica- 
tion for Life Membership in the Association, his application be ac- 
cepted by this committee and that he be elected to life membership 
subject to the payment of the necessary amount. Seconded by Mr. 
Kidde. Carried. 

Mr. Stephens moved that Henry A. Howe, '11, having complied with 
all the requirements of the constitution, be elected to life membership 
in this Association. Seconded by Mr. Gubelman. Carried. 

Mr. Gubelman stated in his report for the Publicity Committee that a 
letter had recently been sent to all class secretaries or representatives urg- 
ing them to send to the chairman of the committee or the managing editor 
of the Indicator or both, any matters of interest concerning the members 
of their class, giving any information concerning their connection with any 
prominent piece of work or with any notable event, or when any one of 
them accomplished anything noteworthy or did something of interest to 
their fellow alumni, so that his committee might give publicity thereto 
not only in the Indicator, but also in the newspapers, trade papers, maga- 
zines and journals. Mr. Gubelman stated that the committee would 
appreciate any news of this character. 

In accordance with a motion passed at the Executive Committee Meet- 
ing of July 2, 1912, Mr. Stephens then presented for the consideration 
of the Executive Committee an amendment to the constitution to be 
presented at the following Midwinter Meeting. 

Resolved, that Article V, Section 1, now reading: 

(a) The officers, together with the eight Directors, shall constitute the 
Executive Committee. The Alumni Trustees shall be ex-officio members 
of the Executive Committee. (June 10, 1908.) 



(b) At least three of the members of the Executive Committee shall 
be residents of the State of New Jersey. (June 10, 1908.) 

be amended by adding a clause reading: 

(c) The past-presidents of this association shall be invited to be present 
at all meetings of the Executive Committee, but as such shall not count 
toward a quorum or be allowed to vote, except that the five past-presi- 
dents who last held office shall have regular voting power. 

Seconded by Professor Martin. Carried. 

Mr. Peabody brought up the question of holding a Stevens dance, com- 
bined with the New York concert of the musical clubs. After discussion 
it was the sense of the committee as expressed in a motion made by Mr. 
Gubelman and seconded by Mr.Pryor that such a dance might be advan- 
tageously held at the concert next year. 

Dr. Humphreys announced that he had perfected an arrangement by 
winch the entire senior class would be present at the annual Stevens ban- 

There being no further business, the meeting adjourned at 6.45 p. m. 

The Executive Committee of the Alumni Association of Stevens Insti- 
tute of Technology met at the Engineers' Club, New York City on Tues- 
day, February 4, 1913. President E. H. Peabody called the meeting to 
order at 1.15 p. m. The other members present were: — J. H. Cuntz, F. J. 
Gubelman, J. A. Dixon, F. A. Muschenheim, W. E. S. Strong, Walter 
Kidde, R. C. Post, L. A. Martin, Jr., R. W. Pryor, Jr., and T. C. 
Stephens. Dr. Alex. C. Humphreys, R. S. Kursheedt, H. deB. Parsons 
and George Dinkel, past-presidents of the Association, and G. E. Terwil- 
liger, managing editor of the Indicator, also attended. 

A motion was made and seconded that inasmuch as all members of the 
committee had received copies of the minutes of the previous meeting of 
January 15, 1913, the reading of the same be dispensed with. Carried. 
Mr. Cuntz offered a correction as to the insertion of one other date for 
meetings of the Athletic Council. The minutes were then approved as 

Mr. Dixon reporting for the Committee on Increase of Membership 
presented the following names for reinstatement: 
M. C. Jenkins, '87, 
J. C. Danziger, '89, 
Alex. J. Hamilton, '95, 
Franklin F. Overton, '96, 
J. W. S. Moss, '09, 
and moved that these gentlemen be reinstated to active membership 



in the Alumni Association of Stevens Institute of Technology, and that 
they be sent by the Secretary proper notice of their reinstatement and 
acknowledgement of their remittance, also back numbers of the Indicator 
for the current year and all privileges as provided by the constitution. 
Seconded by Mr. Post and carried. 

Mr. Dixon then presented the names of the following men, ex-members 
of their various classes, for the approval of the Executive Committee : 
Orion O. Oaks, '05, 
A. V. Johansen, '07, 
S. X. Metzger, '09, 
Edward Thomas Condon, Jr., '10, 
and moved that the names of these gentlemen be presented to the Alumni 
Association of Stevens Institute of Technology at its next regular meeting 
for election to Associate Membership, contingent upon their making 
proper payment. Mr. Post seconded the motion, which was carried. 

Mr. Peabody raised the question of the investment of the Association's 
funds and after discussion appointed a Committee on Investments con- 
sisting of Mr. Cuntz, chairman; Mr. Dinkel and Mr. Pryor, whose duty 
it shall be to report on the securities in which the funds of the Association 
are invested and advise on any changes deemed advisable. 

Mr. Peabody reported for the Banquet Committee that they were hold- 
ing frequent meetings and that all details for the banquet had been ar- 
ranged. He said that the number expected to attend was about 700. 

A suggestion was made by Mr. Kidde that there be a card on each table 
at the banquet or an insert in the menu giving notice of Alumni Day. 

Mr. Peabody announced that he had written to the secretaries of all 
the clubs requesting the dates of their meetings, but the results had been 
poor. In this connection he urged that the clubs prepare a calendar of 
their meetings well in advance for the benefit of such alumni as might 
thus be enabled to affiliate with them and in order to avoid conflict of 
dates, and read a letter which he proposed to send to the secretaries of all 
alumni organizations to this effect. 

Mr. Parsons spoke of ways and means of keeping the college spirit alive 
among the Alumni and cited the practice of Columbia University, where 
the classes after having been graduated a certain number of years, form in 
blocks of five for their reunions and class dinners, thus constituting little 
clubs. Sometimes these organizations meet at some down-town club for 

A motion was made by Mr. Cuntz and seconded by Mr. Post that suit- 
able resolutions upon the death of Stephen S. Palmer, trustee of the 



Stevens Institute of Technology, who died January 29, 1913, be drawn up, 
sent to the family and published in the Indicator. Carried. 
There being no further business the meeting than adjourned. 

A meeting of the Executive Committee of the Alumni Association of 
Stevens Institute of Technology was held at the Machinery Club, New 
York City on Wednesday, March 12, 1913, being called to order at 1 
p. m. by President E. H. Peabody. The other members in attendance 
were: — J. H. Cuntz, F. J. Gubelman, J. A. Dixon, F. A. Muschenheim, 
W. E. S. Strong, H. E. Griswld, R. C. Post, L. A. Martin, Jr., and T. C. 
Stephens. The following past-presidents of the Association, Dr. Alexan- 
der C. Humphreys, R. S. Kursheedt, H. deB. Parsons and Henry Torrance, 
Jr., and the managing editor of the Indicator, G. E. Terwilliger, were also 

The minutes of the previous meeting of February 4, 1913, were read and 

Mr. Griswold reported progress for the Southern Alumni Letter Com- 

On behalf of the Committee on Increase of Membership, Mr. Dixon 
then read his report, presenting the names of the following men for rein- 
statement to active membership: 

C. E. Pearce, '91, 

H. F. Richardson, 08, 

A. DeLos Smith, '97, 

J. H. Deppeler, '06, 
and moved that these gentlemen be reinstated to active membership in 
the Alumni Association of Stevens Institute of Technology, and that they 
be sent by the Secretary proper notice of their reinstatement and acknowl- 
edgment of their remittance, also back numbers of the Indicator for the 
current year and privileges as provided by the constitution. Mr. Cuntz 
seconded and the motion was carried. 

The names of the following ex-members of various classes were then 
submitted by Mr. Dixon to the Executive Committee to be passed upon 
for presentation at the next regular meeting of the Association for election 
to associate membership, subject to their complying with the terms of the 

Warren Garwin, '05, 

Hampton D. Ewing, '90, 

W. Dirk Van Ingen, '13, 
and he further moved that the names of these gentlemen be presented to 
the Alumni Association of Stevens Institute of Technology at its next 



regular meeting, for election to associate membership, which motion was 
seconded by Mr. Stephens and carried. 

Mr. Cuntz then read the resolutions on the death of Stephen S. Palmer 
which follow: 

Whereas, It has pleased a Divine Providence to remove from the 
scene of his earthly labors Stephen S. Palmer, a Trustee of Stevens Insti- 
tute of Technology; and 

Whereas, Mr. Palmer, as President of the New Jersey Zinc Company 
and in other positions of great responsibility and wide influence has 
rendered important and valuable services to the engineering profession, 
and as Trustee of Stevens and other institutions of learning has notably 
furthered the cause of education: and 

Whereas, He has shown his effective friendship for Stevens and for 
its President, Dr. Humphreys, by his liberal benefactions at critical periods 
in the history of our Alma Mater; therefore be it 

Resolved, That we, the members of the Executive Committee of the 
Stevens Alumni Association hereby record our keen sense of the loss which 
the business world and the engineering profession, as well as the Stevens 
Institute of Technology have suffered by his death, and our deep gratitude 
for all he has done for our Alma Mater; and be it furthermore 

Resolved, That these resolutions be spread in full on our minutes, and 
that a copy of them, suitably engrossed, be presented to his family, with 
our sincere sympathy. 

The adoption of the foregoing was moved by Mr. Griswold, seconded by 
Mr. Strong and unanimously carried. 

Reporting for the Committee on Life Membership Fund Investments 
appointed at the last meeting, Mr. Cuntz stated that the committee 
believes these investments are at present safe, but while deeming it inad- 
visable to make any change at this time, recommends that the stocks and 
bonds comprising these investments, and upon which the committee sub- 
mitted a report in full, be closely watched. Upon the motion of Mr. Gris- 
wold and the second of Mr. Torrance the report was accepted with the 
thanks of the Association and ordered placed on file. 

Mr. Muschenheim moved that the committee be continued with in- 
structions to watch the investments and make such recommendations to 
the Executive Committee as they think advisable. This was seconded by 
Mr. Gubelman and carried. 

By unanimous consent the Executive Committee then went into session 
as a com mil tee of the whole to consider certain incidents in connection 
with the recent Stevens banquet. They reported back to the presiding 

officer that they had appointed a sub-committee consisting of Messrs. 



Torrance, Humphreys and Gubelman to investigate the above and report 
to the President of the Association. It was moved by Mr. Griswold and 
seconded by Mr. Strong that the report of the committee of the whole be 
accepted. Carried. 

Mr. Gubelman reported for the Publicity Committee and suggested 
that a card system on the accomplishments of Stevens men be established, 
cross-indexed as to subjects or lines of endeavor. 

Professor Martin read a preliminary report on the financial result of 
the Stevens banquet. He moved that no money be refunded on dinner 
tickets, which was seconded by Mr. Gubelman and carried. 

After discussion it was decided to hold occasional informal lunches for 
Stevens men at some down-town club, Mr. Kursheedt having moved to 
that effect and Mr. Post seconding the same. 

The chair appointed R. S. Kursheedt, H. deB. Parsons, P. C. Idell, 
A. S. Lewis and E. O. Hey worth to attend to the details of the first lunch. 

There being no further business the meeting adjourned. 


A meeting of the trustees of the Alumni Association at which were 
present E. H. Peabody, J. A. Dixon, Walter Kidde and R. W. Pryor, Jr., 
was held at the Engineers' Club, New York City on February 4, 1913. 
The proceedings of the Executive Committee at its meetings held Decem- 
ber 10, 1912 and January 15, 1913 and those of the Association at the 
midwinter meeting held January 15, 1913 were ratified. 






■ B 



Castle Stevens was honored by a visit from Woodrow Wilson on Sunday, 
January 26. A number of other persons of prominence were in the party, 
who comprised the week-end guests of Mrs. C. B. Alexander. The visitors 
inspected the lunch room and the alumni rooms, and then entered the 
dining room, where the students who were lunching, rose and gave enthu- 
siastic Stevens yells for the President-elect. Dr. Wilson showed partic- 
ular interest in the drawings representing plans for the Greater Stevens, 
which were reproduced in the Indicator for last October. The party 
included Mrs. Wilson, the Misses Jessie and Eleanor Wilson, Mrs. Alex- 
ander, Mrs. Robert L. Stevens, Colonel and Mrs. E. A. Stevens, Mr. and 
Mrs. Richard Stevens, Theodosius Stevens, Norman Hapgood, J. W. 
Rufus Besson, Dr. A. C. Humphreys, John W. Lieb, Jr., Walter Kidde, 
and E. H. Peabody. 


Dr. Francis J. Pond, for many years treasurer of the Athletic Associa- 
tion, recently resigned, and Prof. W. R. Halliday was appointed to suc- 
ceed him. Since October, 1906, when he took office, Dr. Pond has had 
the satisfaction of seeing the surplus of the association grow from $67.46 
to $3,000. 


On the evening of February 28 the Stevens Engineering Society at- 
tempted something a little out of its regular routine, entertaining some 
thirty-five members of the Engineering Society of the Brooklyn Poly- 
technic Institute at the Castle. E. H. Peabody, '90, delivered a lecture 
with illustrations on "Marine Boilers." 


The Stevens Athletic Council has been formed to control athletic mat- 
ters in general at the college. The scheme was worked out after con- 
siderable consultation between alumni and undergraduates, and promises 



much in the way of coordination between the various departments of 
athletics. The present members are President, H. A. Pratt, '04 ; secretary, 
R. H. Lansdell, '13; treasurer and athletic director, W. R. Halliday, '02; 
Dr. F. L. Sevenoak, Dr. F. J. Pond, J. S. De Hart, '90, E. Q. Horton, '05, 
D. N. Mauger, '10, H. P. Bender, '13, W. M. Kelly, '13, J. H. Vander 
Veer, '13, and L. T. Van Vechten, '14. 


Robert Marshall Anderson, '87, has been selected to fill the chair of 
experimental engineering, formerly occupied by Professor Denton. Pro- 
fessor Anderson will teach the Junior and Senior Classes, the courses cover- 
ing boilers, steam engines, hydraulic machinery, air compressors, gas 
engines and turbines. 

Professor Anderson received his early education in the public schools 
of Circleville, Ohio, and later entered the University of Notre Dame at 
South Bend, Ind., from which institution he received the degree of Bach- 
elor of Science in 1883. After leaving Notre Dame he entered Stevens, 
graduating in 1887. 

From 1889 until 1899 he was connected with the faculty of Stevens, 
first in the Department of Tests, and finally as Assistant Professor of 
Applied Mathematics. Since then he has had a broad engineering experi- 


George lies has presented to the Library not only a copy of his 
book "Leading American Inventors," but also photographs of John Stev- 
ens, Robert L. Stevens, and Edwin A. Stevens. These photographs were 
taken from paintings now in the possession of Miss M. B. Garnett. Mr. 
lies has also given the Library two of the Curtis Indian prints, which 
have been hung temporarily in the library at Castle Stevens. 

Following are statistics for the year ending December 31, 1912, relating 
to the various Library interests: 

Number of readers 12,538 

Daily average during college terms 74 

Books and periodicals taken for home and office use 1 ,054 

Books used for reference in Library 2,084 

Accessions by purchase 50 

Accessions by exchange 4 



Accessions by binding 171 

Accessions by gift, including 451 pamphlets and 6 maps 691 

Total number of accessions 916 

Total number of books bound, including -20 rebound 232 

Total cost of books purchased $170 . 87 

Total cost of binding 232 volumes $236 .50 


At Castle Point Field 

April 9— C. C. N. Y. baseball. 

April 12 — Seventh Regiment, baseball. 

April 16 — Interclass Track Meet. 

April 19 — Swarthmore, lacrosse. 

April 25 — Union, baseball. 

April 26 — Rensselaer, baseball. 

April 30— N. Y. U. Track Meet. 

May 2 — Cornell, lacrosse. 

May 3 — U. of P., lacrosse. 

May 10 — Lehigh, lacrosse. 

May 17 — Swarthmore, baseball. 

May 24 — Hobart, lacrosse. 

Rutgers Track Meet. 

May 30 — Harvard, lacrosse. 

June 10 — Rutgers, baseball. 

Teams Away from Home 
March 29 — Fordham, baseball. 



-Army, baseball. 



—Lehigh, baseball. 

Crescents, lacrosse. 



-Johns-Hopkins, lacrosse. 



—Columbia, baseball. 



—Lafayette, baseball. 



—Harvard, lacrosse. 



-N. Y. U. baseball. 



—Crescents, baseball. 



—Rutgers, baseball. 



-Delaware, baseball. 



-C. C. N. Y., baseball. 



—Commonwealth F. C, baseball. 



-Rutgers, baseball. 




October 4 — Army, at West Point. 

October 1 1 — Haverf ord, at Castle Point Field. 

October 18 — Rensselaer, at Troy. 

October 25 — Johns-Hopkins, at Castle Point Field. 

November 1 — Delaware, at Castle Point Field. 

November 8 — Union, at Schenectady. 

November 15 — Conn. Agri. College, at Castle Point Field. 

November 22 — Rutgers, at Castle Point Field. 


On March 29, the following Juniors were initiated into Tau Beta Pi: 
D. M. Hill, F. W. Isles, R. M. Mosier, and L. T. Van Vechten. The 
Junior Class is also represented in the honorary society by L. F. Bayer, 
who was admitted to membership last fall. The initiation banquet was 
held at the Hotel Chelsea, New York, Professor Ganz acting as toastmaster. 


The Department of Shop Practice has been presented with a set of 
sixty stereopticon slides on safety guards and devices for preventing acci- 
dents in shops, the gift of the Illinois Steel Company, through the courtesy 
of its superintendent, W. A. Field, '91, and A. H. Young, supervisor of 
labor and safety. The views will be used in lectures to the Freshmen on 
the subject of Accident Prevention. 


The Stevens Dramatic Society presented "The Blazer Girl" before a 
crowded house on February 6 in the college auditorium. The play was 
a musical comedy, written and acted by undergraduates. It was very 
well received and may be repeated under the auspices of the Alumni 
Association during Commencement Week. 


The Senior Inspection Trip was unusually successful this year. The 
trip began by a visit to New York Edison Company stations on March 
13, after which the students went to Schenectady, visiting General Elec- 



trie Company's plant, and the American Locomotive Company's works on 
March 14 and 15. The party then proceeded to Niagara Falls, visiting 
the great electrical plants there. The party left for Pittsburgh on March 
18, and there inspected the plants of the Westinghouse Electric & Manu- 
facturing Co., and the American Steel & Wire Co., and Carnegie Steel 
Company near Pittsburgh. A portion of the party continued on to 
Washington. The trip was under the direction of Professor Ganz. 


Edwin 1 1 . Sic reus 
At the Age of 19 

I'm hi a in, mi, nil in tin pOMMtiOfl "//'.'. H Ciink, /','.•«/., of llnhnkin, by trhoxi niurtrsi/ this i>,irtruit 

it fa n pubUiksd, 

llllltlllllllllllllll IllllllllllllllllWIIlIIIlIllllllllllllllllllllllllltllllllllf llllllllllllllll 

Stevens Indicator 

Vol. XXX JULY, 1913 No. 3 



By Alexander C. Humphreys, M.E. Sc.D., LL.D. 
President, Stevens Institute of Technology. 


TNDER the above title I have been asked to prepare a 
^ paper for this meeting. I shall confine myself to 
collegiate education in preparation for the profession of 

Among educators there is a strong and growing opinion, 
I fear, in favor of extending the four-year course which, for 
some years, has been the standard in the United States. The 
lengthening of the course naturally is suggested as the remedy 
for the crowding of the curriculum which has as naturally 
resulted from the rapid advances in engineering science made 
in late years. This remedy is the one on the surface, but it 
by no means follows that it is the best remedy. 

The differentiating of the engineering profession into so 
many specialties, which has been more and more in evidence 
in late years, has also been used as an argument in favor of 
the proposed change. This may be used quite as cogently 
as an argument against the proposition. 

Here in the United States, while the more general proposi- 
tion is to extend the undergraduate course to five years, there 
are not a few who favor extending it to six and even seven 
years. As the claims are presented for more advanced study 

* Paper read at the Minneapolis Meeting of the Society for the Promotion of 
Engineering Education, 1913. 



in some branches, and for the inclusion in the curriculum of 
new subjects, it is to be expected that those in authority will 
take the path of least resistance, and so propose that the stu- 
dents shall submit to a further reduction of the portion of 
their lives remaining to be devoted to productive effort. 
Particularly is this suggested remedy to be expected from the 
heads of the departments directly concerned. 

The same tendency is to be seen in our every day life. As 
our needs, or our luxuries which we often mistake for needs, 
increase, the remedy at once suggested is the securing of an 
increase of income. In this case we might well consider two 
questions : 

Will our lives be more complete if the new wants are satis- 
fied? Cannot the income already in hand be spent to better 
advantage? May we not apply these tests to the question 
before us? 

Will our students be more completely equipped for their 
life's work by giving them additional collegiate education? 
Not necessarily. Because there is a need, and a growing need 
in our profession for more instruction and training than can 
be covered in a four-year college course, it by no means fol- 
lows that the colleges must charge themselves with the 
entire responsibility thus indicated. Have the colleges of 
engineering at any time in their history given their students 
a complete training for life's work and responsibility? The 
question needs only to be asked to be answered in the nega- 

The college training in engineering is of great value to the 
one who takes advantage of his opportunities. The college 
affords the opportunity for acquiring a sound fundamental 
training within the shortest time and with the least expen- 
diture of mental and physical energy. But this college 
training is not a necessity in the case of the men, perhaps 
exceptional, who have the brains, physical strength, and 
determination, to persist in the face of difficulties. 



Let us not forget that in every walk of life there have been 
and are now to be found men in the front rank who never 
had any college training and some who had little school train- 
ing. It is true these were or are extraordinary men and must 
not be taken as patterns in planning for those of average 
capacity. But at least we can learn from the careers of these 
men that education can be obtained outside of academic 

Then should not the man of good ability and character be 
able to study effectively by himself after four years in college, 
following the years spent in the primary, grammar and high 
schools? Certainly he should be, provided he has been 
taught how to study and reason rather than crammed with 
facts and information. 

Is it not a fact that if he were to become a master in any 
branch of the engineering profession, the student, in the past, 
found it necessary to make himself proficient and efficient 
after he had graduated from college? If this was true in the 
past, are the present conditions so different that in the four 
years of undergraduate work the student cannot acquire a 
sufficient grasp of science and mathematics as will enable 
him to reach the highest attainable rank for which his per- 
sonality qualifies him? 

No doubt some of those who graduate after four years will 
not, and perhaps could not, build a sufficiently high and 
strong structure on their college foundation to enable them 
to reach the loftiest heights of professional eminence; but 
this proves nothing. This measure of success involves more 
than formal education; it involves the questions of natural 
ability and character. Furthermore, there is not room for 
all at the top. 

Are not we of the engineering colleges too apt to be led 
astray by thinking that we must turn out a finished product? 
Is it not true that too many educators believe, or at least act 
as if they believe, that all education is to be secured only 



within the school, college and university? A great many 
believe, or act as if they believe, that all culture must be so 

When the question is put to us squarely, we must all 
admit that this is not true, even as to culture. Certainly 
then it cannot be true as to technical education. Let us be 
frank and go farther and acknowledge that there is much 
which the engineer needs, if he is to gain eminence in his 
profession, which cannot be acquired in college, though he 
were to remain there to the end of his days. The college 
may develop scientists but it remains for the school of expe- 
rience to complete the training of the engineer, as far as it 
can be completed. 

This question of the extension of the undergraduate years 
of study cannot be intelligently considered until we give ade- 
quate credit to the opportunities afforded by the combination 
of practice and study in the school of experience. If we are 
persuaded that some time should be added to the under- 
graduate course, how much time shall we add? Will one 
more year meet the demand created by the advances made 
and being made in engineering science? If not, will two 
years, three years, four years, five years, enable us to give 
our students a complete knowledge of all that is comprised 
within the limits of any one major branch of the engineering 
profession? We have only to consider the limitations to the 
knowledge of those who have devoted a life time to study in 
one branch of science to force us to negative this question. 

Is it not true that if a man spent a life time within the col- 
lege walls, when he found himself dying of old age there 
would remain much for him to learn? As a general proposi- 
1 [on, is it not also true that as his time as a college student 
was lengthened, he would become less and less capable of 
applying his knowledge of science and mathematics practi- 
cally and commercially? And here let us not forget, if we 
exclude the military branch of our profession, he is not an 



engineer who is incapable of meeting the conditions of fair 
commercial competition. I am prepared to go much farther 
and say that as there are two sides to every question, there 
are two sides to the question of college training even when 
limited to the four years. While unquestionably, in the 
case of those naturally qualified for advanced study, the 
balance is in favor of the college training, there is a minor 
disadvantage to be reckoned with, and this increases with 
the years spent in college. This disadvantage is the too 
great reliance which the student places on his college training 
and his failure to recognize and keep constantly in mind 
that his college work is only preparatory at the best. Fur- 
thermore, with weaker natures, the longer a man remains a 
student, only the less is he qualified to battle with, and the 
more he shrinks from, the stern realities of life. 

Now let us briefly consider the second test question. Can 
the time now spent in school and college up to graduation 
from the four years college course be spent therein more 
economically and efficiently? In considering this question 
we include the preparatory work in the graded schools. 

The first thought that here comes to my mind is that the 
men who graduate from the Stevens Institute of Technology, 
average in age about 223^ years. It would seem as if a man 
should be a producer as well as a student at that age — a stu- 
dent he must remain in any case. 

If we are to criticize the work of the schools in preparing 
our material for us, we must be sure that we are using our four 
years to the best advantage. Are we doing so? I believe 
that in some of our engineering schools we cannot do much 
more than we are doing. Certainly we cannot do better by 
crowding more into the curriculum. In some cases better 
work can be done by attempting less; by giving the students 
greater opportunity for assimilating that which is offered. 

Perhaps the best opportunity for a more effective use of 
our four years is in the coordination of the several branches 



of study. Those in authority must be alive constantly to the 
necessity of watching for and providing against the over 
development of any one subject and the unneccessary over- 
lapping of two or more subjects. A course in engineering, or 
any professional course, can be kept in balance only by con- 
stant effort on the part of those in authority, and the loyal 
cooperation of the whole teaching staff. The conscientious, 
ambitious professor especially is inclined to increase his 
demands on the students and so rob the other professors of 
their share of the time and energy of the students. This is 
particularly so with a professor of engineering who is fully 
alive to the progress being made in his specialty. Here it is 
to be remembered that, with a class already working to a 
reasonable upper limit, if some new illustration of principle 
is to be introduced, it must replace some other illustration to 
be abandoned. Frequently this can be done without any 
loss educationally. 

One thing is certain — just so soon as we give our students 
more to do than they can do thoroughly and with some degree 
of comfort and satisfaction to themselves for work well per- 
formed, we are not working them efficiently. 

The question will here be raised — What grade of capacity 
and ability shall we take as a standard? Shall we adapt our 
requirements to the brilliant student, the student of good 
average capacity, or the student who learns slowly? 

We can at once eliminate those who are lazy, indifferent, 
or who pay too much attention to athletics or other student 
activities or any other interests than those connected directly 
with the course of study. I say too much attention to these 
other matters because I believe the students should be 
encouraged to give some of their time, thought, and energy to 
student activities. We can sympathize with the earnest 
student who learns slowly, but it is not fair to hold back the 
majority for bis benefit. He must take an extra year if 
necessary to complete the work of the four years. Of those 



who are naturally qualified for the engineering profession and 
are really in earnest and ready to devote themselves conscien- 
tiously to their studies, there should be comparatively few 
to take this extra year. If there are, it is a warning that the 
work of the several departments should be investigated. 
Certainly we cannot fairly adjust our courses to the excep- 
tionally brilliant men. Nor need these men feel that they 
are losing time by having to mark time to enable the average 
men to keep in line. There is plenty for the brilliant men 
to learn and do if they have spare time and are willing to 
employ it sanely. On the average, I think those who come 
midway between the extremes named must furnish us with 
our gauge. And it is not unlikely that a large percentage 
of the really successful engineers will come from this section. 
They often make up in common sense what, by comparison, 
they lack in so-called scholarship. 

While I do not look for any great improvement in the case 
of some of our colleges through a more efficient employment 
of our four years, I do believe that some educators who are 
warm advocates of extending the four-year course would do 
well to examine themselves and their teaching carefully and 
frankly to determine if they are doing their best for their 
students in the time allotted; and especially if they are 
loyally cooperating with their associates in securing and 
maintaining the highest attainable coordination of the course 
as a whole. I am inclined to believe that a completely com- 
petent investigation of our colleges along these lines might 
be highly instructive and point the way to increased efficiency. 

Now let us for a moment turn to the question of the quality 
of preparation as furnished by the graded schools. Is there 
one among us who believes that it is what it should be, or 
even what it might well be if we would throw away our 
prejudices, stop boasting, and really cooperate to improve 
conditions? At least let us not attempt to avoid responsi- 
bility by sticking our heads in the sand. 



The first step should be to eliminate politics. A hard 
step to take in a country such as ours. If we cannot elimi- 
nate this dangerous influence, let us be frank and brave 
enough to acknowledge its presence wherever and whenever 

The greatest fault, in my opinion, is that we hold the col- 
lege out as the goal for all. We even deplore the fact that so 
few of those who enter the public schools, and especially the 
high schools, go on to the college. No doubt it is a cause for 
regret that certain ones do not go forward, but is it by no 
means a cause for regret in the case of the great majority. 
Many a good clerk has been spoiled by trying to make him 
into a teacher, lawyer, doctor, or minister. Many a good 
mechanic has been spoiled by trying to make him into an engi- 
neer. And I am speaking from experience outside the college 
as well as inside. Our object should be to educate the 
masses for self-support and so for self-respect. This would 
work no hardship to those going forward to the college; 
whereas the present system does work a hardship for the 
great majority. 

Another fault is that we do not regard with sufficient 
respect the duties of the teachers in the primary grades. 
They should not be considered as teachers of lower rank. 
If they do their work efficiently, the problems to follow are 
greatly simplified. It is natural that the teacher should 
try for the step which is regarded as promotion. It is 
unfortunate that so much of the poorer teaching material is 
saddled on the primary grades. 

A decided advance towards the solution of the problem we 
are now considering would be made if there could be a mate- 
rial increase in the salaries of our public school teachers, espe- 
cially in the primary grades. And then there should be a 
commensurate increase in the required qualifications, and 
particularly in the ability to teach. There are many teachers 
;m<l professors who possess bill lit lie of this ability. TJicy 



may know, but they cannot make others know. Many of 
these misfits are temperamentally disqualified from doing 
the work of the classroom. 

First of all, then, the pupils of our schools should be thor- 
oughly taught and drilled in the "three Rs" and other 
fundamental studies. And here I am not speaking of prep- 
aration for any particular line of study to follow, but for the 
future in any line of effort in study or for self-support. I 
am afraid that we of the engineering colleges allow ourselves 
to forget that the lack of complete facility in reading, writing, 
adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing, is a constant 
handicap to the student, pressed as he is for time. It is like 
giving a mechanic a poor set of tools and requiring him to per- 
form his task accurately and on time. I am old-fashioned 
enough to believe that in our efforts to make the school stud- 
ies less wearisome, we are weakening the students as to their 
powers of concentration and perseverance. This and the 
crowding of the curriculum have unquestionably led to super- 

There is also room for improvement in the matter of disci- 
pline. Our children should be taught to do right because it 
is right; failing to respond to this treatment, they should be 
taught that they must do as they are told to do. As far as 
possible they must be taught to govern themselves. Failing 
in this they must be governed. This would help in no small 
degree in better preparing for life's work, including collegiate 

Here, as in every well-considered scheme, educational or 
otherwise, extremes are to be avoided and balance is to be 
sought constantly. Let the children from the first be taught 
to find pleasure in work well and thoroughly performed, not 
in work easily done. Time and energy might be saved by 
reducing the demands for memorizing facts. Let this line of 
instruction be kept to a minimum and the children early 
taught how to find their facts and reason correctly therefrom. 



I know it is argued by many experts that the memory must be 
cultivated. Again it is a question of balance. The brain 
can be so overtaxed as to be distinctly injured as a memoriz- 
ing machine. Some are endowed with wonderful memories, 
and this is a most convenient tool for rapid and easy execu- 
tion. But I have often found that unusual memorizing 
ability is not coupled with capacity for sound reasoning. 
Here and in other places I shall be misunderstood. I can 
only repeat, I am arguing against extremes, knowing posi- 
tively that in too many cases extremes are in control. 

After all, the proof of the pudding is in the eating. The 
average age of those entering Stevens is about 183^ years. 
Many high school graduates fail to pass the entrance exami- 
nations, and fail in the fundamentals. When we compare 
with the age at which the A.B. degree used to be taken, it is 
evident we have extended the years of preparation. Is the 
improvement in preparation commensurate with the years 
added? My answer is an emphatic "No." 

Certainly, when we consider that we do not graduate our 
men until, on the average, they are over 22 years of age, we 
should very seriously consider every step of their educational 
progress, from the primary school forward, before we further 
reduce the working life of our young men. Especially should 
this point be conscientiously considered when we reflect that 
adding to the years in school and college tends in some direc- 
tions to make the student less effective as a practitioner. 
Again a question of balance. 

In connection with our investigations looking to greater 
economy in time, we may well keep our minds open on the 
question of cooperative education as practiced for many 
years in the University of Glasgow and, as now well under 
W&y in a somewhat different form, in the University of Cin- 
cinnati. There are arguments for and against this scheme. 
The question is which have the greater weight? Certainly 
the plan has the great advantage of combining practice with 



theory — the advantage which the graduate has, if he will 
avail himself of it, in studying while he practices. The 
results obtained by the Glasgow University speak well for 
their system. 

The economic questions which are pressing for solution 
today and which threaten the peace and prosperity of the 
country, place a great responsibility upon the engineer, for 
he should be capable of giving material aid in the solution of 
these questions, so many of which have to do with the indus- 
tries and public utilities. But we find the engineers of the 
country frequently wide apart on fundamental questions 
which are referred to them, and generally because these men 
have not been sufficiently trained on the investment feature 
of engineering. Engineering practice cannot be divorced 
safely from sound business practice. The weakness is evi- 
denced in the attitude of bankers towards engineers' esti- 
mates on construction and earnings therefrom. While con- 
ditions have improved of late years, because the men who 
control the money are more careful in selecting their tech- 
nical advisers, we still hear the criticism, "Is that an engi- 
neer's estimate? Then add at least 50 per cent." 

This may be considered an argument for extending the 
course. But better less theory, as long as it is accurate as 
far as it goes, and greater capacity for commercially practical 
application. At least let our students be taught that before 
or after graduation they must learn what the capable clerk 
has been learning outside the college during the college four 
years; and especially that he must learn the principles of 
accountancy, including such matters as depreciation; analy- 
sis of records; specifications and contracts; elements of 
banking, and the like. 

Apart from the demand for more time for the engineering 
course, there is coming to be a demand for a longer under- 
graduate course so that more time may be given to the so- 
called cultural studies. Are not too many of the professional 



educators particularly inclined to act on the belief, even if 
they do not hold to the belief under cross-examination, that 
the cultural studies are to be distinguished by labels, and 
that this intangible something we call culture cannot be 
acquired outside of the college or university? I do not 
propose here to be misunderstood as I have been at times. 
I believe the engineer requires all the culture, breadth of 
judgment and sympathy with his fellows that he can acquire 
or cultivate. Certainly he needs these as much as the mem- 
ber of any other profession; but the culture may not always 
take the same form. I have met people who were cultured 
in the ordinary acceptance of the term, who were out of 
touch and out of sympathy with the world in which and by 
which they were living; who had a store of knowledge, but 
with little ability to use it for their own good or the good of 
others; and who were unable to form a sound judgment 
based upon the stuff stored in their brains. 

The strictly engineering studies can be so presented and 
taught as to have a truly cultural value. Do not let us 
extend our courses only for increase in opportunity for cul- 
ture, unless we are sure of our ground. 

In estimating the educational equipment of our graduates, 
let us compare, not with what we think we know and can do 
after ten, twenty, or thirty years' experience since graduation 
but with what we actually knew and could do on the day of 
graduation. Here is a mistake frequently made by the 
practicing engineer as well as by the educator. 

It is quite in order that I should say a few words about post- 
graduate study. I have been misunderstood as condemning 
post-graduate study, and particularly at a dinner last winter 
given by the alumni of one of our colleges of engineering. 
For those temperamentally and otherwise qualified for the 
work, I believe thoroughly in college post-graduate work in 
engineering. Those men are the exception. Many who 
take up this work would do better if they went out into the 



world to try to earn a living by putting into practice what 
they have learned in college. I am most firmly of the opin- 
ion that after four years in college the great majority of 
graduates would do better by securing their post-graduate 
training while practicing their profession. Even research 
work of the highest order is being done by men so engaged. 
The colleges are constantly profiting by the results thus 
obtained, carried back to the college for the benefit, not only 
of the undergraduates, but of the post-graduate students 
and even the professors. 

But again there is the confusion of terms so common in the 
United States. What is post-graduate work in engineering? 
We hear that certain institutions are carrying on post-grad- 
uate work in engineering, when, upon investigation, we find 
the engineering studies are only those included in the regular 
four-year course. The post-graduate feature consists in the 
requirement that the students shall have first taken their 
A.B. or the equivalent. This is, in a sense, post-graduate 
study, but it is certainly not post-graduate study in 
engineering. The institutions which claim thus to do 
post-graduate work in engineering are, consciously or 
unconsciously, deceiving the public. All of our engineering 
colleges of first rank receive students who have taken their 
A.B., but I have never heard it claimed that these men are 
doing post-graduate work in engineering. One advantage 
these men have over those who are taking the so-called post- 
graduate studies first referred to is that instead of being in a 
class by themselves they have to keep pace with men who 
are required to work diligently if they are to graduate, and 
so they in turn are forced to apply themselves in a way 
which they probably had not been required to do in their 
previous college work. They have a better chance of ac- 
quiring habits of industry. 

In conclusion, let me suggest, it is because so many college 
men allow themselves to be found advocating views, which 



at least appear to favor the claim that the college and univer- 
sity hold a monopoly of all educational forces and agencies, 
that the opportunity is furnished for the attacks on the 
colleges and institutes of technology, such as those voiced by 
the late R. T. Crane, of Chicago. The extreme statements 
on the part of the college man bring out still more extreme 
statements on the part of the self-made man. Again it is 
a question of balance between two extremes. Let us think 
seriously of this before we decide to hold our students longer 
away from the educational advantages offered by the school 
of practice and experience. 


a ■ 
■ ■ 

1BIII llllllllllllllilll III 1 










By John Calder 

c ■ 






THE new element in the Art of Management is the 
conscious adoption as a basic principle in the eco- 
nomic control of men, mental operations, apparatus and 
materials of what has long been known as the "Scientific 
Method." Its industrial applications cover a very wide 
field, and the writer ventures to define the new element 
briefly, but broadly, as: 

the critical observation, accurate description, analysis and 
classification of all industrial and business phenomena of a re- 
curring nature, including all forms of cooperative human effort 
and the systematic application of the resulting records to secure 
the most economical and efficient production and regulation of 
future phenomena. 
In other words, all repeated experience with men, things 
and schemes in industry is criticized, carefully verified 
and duly recorded, and, by the use of the three methods 
of logical inference, viz.: Analogy, Induction and Deduc- 
tion, is made to yield fresh results ready for application 
wherever they are economically justified. 

The latter proviso is very important, and due regard 
must be paid to it if the "Scientific Method" is to be wisely 
applied to industrial problems. Nothing is a "result" in 
Science which is not "true," and such results are welcomed 
for themselves. 

In the arts, however, "utility" is the only justification 
for expenditures on the scientific method and there are 

* A lecture delivered to the Senior Class of Stevens Institute of Technology. 



quite a few of its results which cannot be applied with 
economy to the actual conditions of industry. 

The ability clearly to perceive and avoid such a contin- 
gency is frequently absent in men who systematize without 
a thorough shop experience. In such cases a wise manage- 
ment will avoid attempting to establish a science for irrecon- 
cilable variables or infrequent phenomena and will fall 
back upon an empirical, but none the less, "common-sense" 
solution of the problem. 

The element which is new in its application to manage- 
ment is one which has always characterized the sciences, 
whether pure or applied, but has not usually influenced 
the arts based upon these sciences. This was chiefly due 
to three causes; the neglect of the practical utility of the 
scientific discipline by those possessing it; the prevailing 
custom of leaving the executive side of the arts in the hands 
of those with no scientific education; and a popular belief, 
still widely held, that the mass of the commonest daily 
industrial experiences and problems cannot be satisfactorily 
analyzed and reduced to scientific terms. 

The particular procedure just defined, of observing, 
verifying and classifying every kind of phenomena, is 
quite old, but its consistent application, even in the sciences, 
has been a progressive matter. It attained its greatest 
impetus and extension in the last century under the stimulus 
which the evolutionary theory gave to every branch of 
science. It influenced greatly — particularly in Germany 
— the research work underlying the arts, through the in- 
creasing employment of men with true scientific training. 

As a result the technical processes of many industries 
were much improved, but, in spite of this, the actual manage- 
ment of the arts themselves and of the artisans was practi- 
cally unaffected by scientific considerations. At that time 
observed differences in efficiency of plant operations were 
due largely to the varying ability' of managers. In 181)7, 



sixteen years ago, there were signs that technical education 
was increasingly furnishing for practical control of the arts, 
as distinct from laboratory work, men with the scientific 
discipline and a passion for facts. This was the unformu- 
lated and largely unnoticed beginning of the New Element 
in Management, not a few of the younger shop executives 
having been mentally prepared for the advance before it 
had taken practical shape or been' accorded recognition by 
the owners of businesses. 

Initially, and still inherently, the advance was not specific 
new shop methods or new "systems." It was a new mental 
attitude towards practical problems by a small but increas- 
ing body of administrators, who regarded such questions as 
no longer outside the pale of scientific solution. Five years 
later the earnest desire for the truth about business began 
to be reflected in the technical press and in the proceedings 
of the professional societies, both here and in Europe. 

An analysis of such publicity, which the writer made at 
that time, showed that the directors of the metal working 
trades in particular had followed the path of least Resistance 
and applied the new method largely from the accounting 
side. The resulting more reliable inventories and costs 
brought out the facts of inefficiency to a limited degree 
and started some reforms, but comparative costing alone 
could not establish standards of shop performance and 
methods of attaining these. The accountant, though first 
in the field, had yet to be supplemented by the experienced 
Engineer with an all-round discipline and the new view- 
point of the problems of management. The temporary 
recession of business prosperity in 1903 increased the inter- 
est in the rise of the new movement, which was seldom 
consciously "scientific," but was, nevertheless, actually so 
and held in it the germ of all that has followed. 

The new "element" in the Art of Management has been 
defined as the use of the "Scientific Method" in industry. 



The general "problem" of industrial establishments, 
however, is first and last economic, and may be compressed 
into a single sentence. It is: "To furnish daily the pre- 
scribed quantity and quality of product in all its varieties 
by the most efficient shop and labor arrangements and with 
a minimum of fixed and cash capital locked up in the process." 

A productive organization and a system of plant manage- 
ment which will accomplish this and continue to do so with 
harmony and to the satisfaction of employer and employe 
alike is the desired end. 

Without assuming any finality about the precise elements 
which arise out of the application of the "Scientific Method" 
to the greatly varying problem of management just defined, 
it may be said that certain regulative principles are fairly 
apparent and underly all successful practice. These may 
be briefly summarized here: The "critical observation, 
accurate description, analysis and classification" of the 
"Scientific Method" already defined furnish comparative 
data in the form of verified experiences. 

In problems of management such experiences and their 
economical results are derived from observing three classes 
of industrial phenomena: 

(1) The economic results of different arrangements and 
forms of materials and of operations upon them, either to 
produce equipment or product. This covers the whole 
field of recorded experience from invention and design of 
product and tools down through the successive shop proc- 
esses to ultimate finished product and the tests of same in 
service. It is the object of the "Scientific Method" to 
make the best of this experience in its essential details, 
readily available for all concerned, and to see that it is 
actually absorbed and put in practice. 

(2) The economic results of varying executive methods 
for effectively directing human efforts as a whole in the 
use of I lie above experience. This covers (he entire field 



of building up, coordinating and controlling the supervising 
organization of a plant, with its statistical and recording 

(3) The economic results of steps taken to raise the 
industrial efficiency of the individual worker in every grade 
of service. This covers the whole problem of labor, reward, 
intensified ability, conserved energy and the general rela- 
tions of employer and employe. 

By analogical, inductive or deductive reasoning on these 
experiences and the date derived from them, it is possible 
in many cases to frame a scientific basis for the most eco- 
nomical handling of recurring business and industrial 
phenomena; the chief divisions of which are outlined in 
the review of the past ten years, which follows. All of 
these divisions are concerned with the results obtained 
from scientifically coordinating experience with materials 
and schemes of operation thereon, from executive success 
in the general control of human forces and from raising 
the efficiency and economic status of the individual worker. 
To the uninitiated the possible results may seem out of 
proportion to the cause, but the painstaking, critical exam- 
ination of the facts of experience with the aid of human 
invention may in the end do for the management of industry 
what it has already accomplished in the great circle of the 

Ten years ago the recognized divisions in management 
were being modified, more or less consciously, under the 
influence of the "Scientific Method." These divisions were 
chiefly as follows: 

Invention; purchasing; selling; accounting; costing; stock 
keeping; shop instructions; stock routing and tracing; ware- 
housing and shipping product; the division of labor in all 
efforts, intellectual, manual and mechanical; the improve- 
ment and standardization of designs and product and of 
the whole equipment of industry-buildings, machinery, 



producing tools and operating methods; the study of tasks; 
the division of supervising functions; the various labor 
reward expedients and incentives and the improvement 
of industrial hygiene. 

These divisions remain intact today, but in practically 
all of them the "Scientific Method' ' has made itself felt 
and marked developments in detail have taken place. In 
varying combinations these divisions have appeared in 
specific "systems" during the past decade, combined usually 
with some special method of labor reward and incentive, 
but essentially they are all industrial practices of long 
standing, which have been left uncoordinated and undevel- 
oped by the large majority of plant owners. 

Early in the movement for greater efficiency considerable 
gains were made in some general machine shops through 
adopting, as far as possible, intensive methods of production, 
which had long been common in repetition work industries. 
These had little or no scientific origin, but the results were 
often far in advance of average practice, and in the course 
of long trial they closely approached the best scientific 
performances obtained by quicker and more direct means. 

In able hands the intelligent and effective use of these 
divisions led naturally to intensified results and economics, 
but the essence of the new departure was something apart 
from progressive imitation. It consisted in a program of 
deliberate reconsideration of all the details of shop practice, 
using the thoroughness and disciplined judgment of the 
"Scientific Method" already defined. 

It was at this stage of the movement that a number of 
accountants, followed by a few engineers, specialized in 
the promotion of industrial efficiency and from time to 
time, published their "systems" or particular methods of 
Coordinating in detail the divisions of effort already named. 
Foremosl and most important of these "systems" was that 
now termed "Scientific Management" which F. W. Taylor 



advanced in 1903 as an outcome of his long continued and 
valuable researches into the art of cutting metals. 

In many ways his experiments differed in no scientific 
essentials from numerous previous investigations for deter- 
mining other mechanical and physical constants, but the 
large number of variables rendered his labors exceptionally 
difficult and tedious and had hitherto deterred engineers 
from attempting a solution. They led in particular to a 
scientific re-arrangement of men, materials and operating 
methods, upon which he based the generalization that the 
laborious and expensive task of framing a true science 
for every element in industrial problems was not only possible 
but an absolutely necessary preliminary to securing the 
highest efficiency. Mr. Taylor went further and claimed 
that the main elements of his experimental methods were 
identical with those required for the solution of a vast 
number of other, and quite different shop and business 

Mr. Taylor's notable and generous contribution of ten 
years ago to the literature and science of management did 
more than anything else to focus attention on this important 
subject and has rendered invaluable aid to the modern 
efficiency movement. Many, however, who are convinced 
that the application of the "Scientific Method" is the 
inevitable and natural course in the evolution of industry 
and of business, are by no means agreed that Mr. Taylor's 
solution, or indeed any of the formulated "systems" which 
have followed it, are equal to the requirements of industry 
as a whole. They believe that the range of current dog- 
matizing has exceeded the evidence; that before adequate 
and general formulation can be made it is necessary to 
continue for some time applying the "Scientific Method" 
to a larger variety of industrial problems. This should 
be done untrammelled by any hypothesis or by the stereo- 
typed elements and details that quite naturally form the 



scaffolding, and sometimes the only original parts of 
various "systems," which have solved more or less success- 
fully a few specific cases. 

What then have we to show for ten years' progress in 
the economic administration of industrial establishments? 

Apart from natural progress in the suitability and effi- 
ciency of buildings and equipment, helped considerably 
by the scientific view-point of what is desirable, by Mr. 
Taylor's researches and the later inventions of others, there 
is not a great deal visible upon the surface, and the bulk 
of our industrial plants have still to respond in their details 
of management. 

Nevertheless our shops now possess in their executives 
of all grades a much larger number of men possessing both 
the scientific and practical discipline, and need only the 
benefit of competent counsel and leadership to make a 
considerable advance during the next few years. 

All of the elements already named are regarded in our 
progressive plants in quite a different light from ten years 
ago. They are being developed scientifically and are 
being used from every angle as reliable and valued aids in 
production and management. 

Statistical information formerly carelessly gathered and 
seldom consulted is now accurately recorded for definite 
economic uses. Similar progress is found in the whole 
range of topics already cited as covering plant operations. 
In a word, a foundation has been laid, necessarily largely 
out of sight, which like all such work seems to the impatient 
to have had more than its proper share of attention, but 
those carrying the burden of administrative responsibility, 
and realizing the far-reaching character of the movement, 
arc not disappointed. 

If the "passion for facts" is not allowed to be dulled by 
the natural I cndency to stereotype the methods of attack- 
ing industrial problems, gratifying progress along scientific 



lines is sure to be recorded during the next decade. 
As in all true science, existing hypotheses and general- 
izations, which have done good service in concentrating 
thought, will be gradually modified to cover the large 
range of experiences which have not yet been taken into 
account by the pioneer constructors of " systems. " 

Such a program as has been outlined by Mr. Taylor, for 
instance, is a formidable task to carry out simultaneously 
with the rapid growth of industries and plants. It can 
barely be said to have made any impression outside of 
machine shops, and it has gone only a short way in these. 
But this does not reflect upon the "Scientific Method," 
which must always face very different conditions in industry 
from those met with in science, and must constantly yield 
to and be measured by considerations of ultimate utility, 
of available capital and of current product and profit. 

It is futile to expect any future in industry for any schemes 
of management or elements of such, however ingenious, 
which utilize science after all to smaller advantage for the 
investor than less pretentious measures. These, of course, 
may frequently be engaged in for the sake of consistency 
by a zealous systematizer without restraining practical 
judgment. Nor is it often desirable, considering the vicis- 
situdes of business, to commit any one concern to a very 
elaborate program of reorganization involving years of 
transition experiences and expenses. 

It is still needful for men believing in the "Scientific 
Method," but more conservative and experienced than 
the ardent systematizer, to hold the reins of business and 
guide the team. The commercializing of professional 
counsel on system demands this warning, for it has led not 
seldom to predictions and implications which have proved 
anything but "Scientific" in respect to their accuracy and 

The "Scientific Method" is no one's invention or copy- 



right. It should not be kept in a forcing frame any longer 
by special practitioners, but should compete without privi- 
leges with the other methods which we believe it is well 
fitted in many cases to supersede. 

The element of mystery has departed from the practice 
of systematizers, the best of whom merely concentrate on 
the facts of a given problem and out of a wide experience 
in coordination and practical responsibility work out 
solution by the "Scientific Method" appropriate to the 
material and human factors involved. 

Such a result, conscientiously and competently obtained 
for a problem justifying the study, is well worth the laborer's 

In the earlier days of professional systematizing much 
was said of the gains to be made by those possessing the 
experimental results with the new tool steels, but for one 
shop problem, aided by this special knowledge, there are 
a score on which the systematizer of narrow experience 
has more to learn than the competent shop executive. 

Where the former has the advantage, is not so much in 
his technical knowledge, which is being diffused rapidly, 
as in his mental detachment from current shop responsi- 
bility and his opportunity to concentrate his observation 
and reflection on one particular issue. 

No managements can expect results from the use of the 
"Scientific Method" where they are unwilling to provide 
for this specialization by competent members of their own 
staff or by outsiders. 

Among observed undesirable characteristics of systema- 
tizing practice the following may be mentioned: 

(1) The publication and quotation of statistics regarding 
gains made through the use of particular systems, without 
a frank statement of the degree of inefficiency of the plants 
before re-organization. Proprietors do not need claims of 
100% to 200% increase of product from the same equip- 



ment to interest them in the movement. They do require, 
however, to have some reliable information as to the con- 
dition of affairs out of which such results were obtained. 
Where the plant was very inefficient the significance of 
the results is much reduced. 

(2) The failure to view the plant from the investor's 
standpoint rather than as a laboratory offering opportu- 
nities for interesting and expensive experiments. 

(3) The failure to admit that every application of past 
solutions to unstudied new and different conditions is an 

(4) The waste of time and money by the too eager sys- 
tematizer on problems which will yield to scientific treat- 
ment, but which do not recur often enough to justify such 
a solution. 

(5) The undervaluing of effective leadership in manage- 
ment and consequent lack of permanency in results. 

(6) The overvaluing of emasculated "system" leading 
to a curious non-responsibility on the part of any person 
for the total result. 

(7) The frequent assumption that the treatment of the 
problems of similar plants should be identical. 

(8) The failure to properly appraise the value to a grow- 
ing concern of its internal asset of "good will." 

(9) The imperfect analysis and appreciation of "the 
human factor" in industry causing failure to reckon pa- 
tiently with "habit" and "inertia" and a tendency to 
hasty "substitution" and the breaking up of valuable 

These are all mistakes of men lacking tact, ability and 
experience, but full of enthusiasm for the new methods. 

Yet none of these failures weakens the case for the 
judicious application of the "Scientific Method" to the 
problems of industry, either directly by a sympathetic man- 



agement or by competent counsel specially hired for the 

But the difficulties encountered through temperamental 
and other defects in the agents used are not the only obsta- 
cles to be removed. 

The idea, assiduously fostered by the first professional 
systematizers, that valuable data on machine tool per- 
formance, which they alone possessed, was for sale, still 
prevails in the minds of the less progressive plant pro- 
prietors. The latter have sometimes sought to purchase 
just so much of the magic formulae without attempting 
to understand the real nature of the service which the 
"Scientific Method" offers. 

Such owners, sometimes under the influence of injudicious 
promises, have entertained extravagant expectations and 
have been correspondingly and unreasonably disappointed. 

There is perhaps no better service which a professional 
engineer of high standing could render than to circulate 
reports and information which will convince plant owners 
and executives that the "Scientific Method" opens up no 
royal road to success, but is simply the most direct and 
reasonable course towards efficient control of industry and 
the guarantee of steady evolution in the same direction. 


■ e 






■ a 





\\ TTTH the exception of Alumni Day, the exercises of 
* * which were marred by rain, fine conditions pre- 
vailed for all the events of Commencement week. The 
festivities began on Friday, June 6, when Calculus was 
tried, condemned and sentenced to horrible punishments 
at the hands of the sophomores in much the same fashion 
that this elastic old gentleman has borne the torments of 
undergraduates for decades past, only to reappear the fol- 
lowing autumn ready for a new set of victims. The cus- 
tomary court scene was enacted, and a parade held which 
was featured by many transparencies depicting the foibles 
of the faculty. A monster funeral pyre awaited the convicted 
demon of mathematics. 

On this same evening the annual reunion dinner of past 
Stute boards, together with the incoming staff, was held at 
the Castle. 

Saturday was Alumni Day. A description of its festivi- 
ties appears elsewhere. 

On Sunday Bishop Lines preached the Baccalaureate 
Sermon to the seniors in cap and gown, at Trinity Church. 
The faculty and trustees in academic costume were also 
present in a body. 

The Class Day exercises of the seniors were held on the 
lawn at Castle Point at 10.30 o'clock on Monday morning. 
A feature of the affair was the presentation by the class of 
$812.50 to the Gymnasium Fund. The exercises were also 
out of the ordinary in that President Humphreys spoke by 
special request. The formal program was as follows: 



Part I 

Sunshine Girl Rubens 

Class History, 

J. H. Vander Veer 

Pirouetti Finck 

Address of Welcome, 

C. K. Steins 

Un Peu D Amour Silesu 

Presentation of Class Gift, 

J. H. Vander Veer 
Firefly Friml 


Part II 

Blazer Girl W. C. Russ, 'IS 

Class Prophecy, 

G. G. Potterton and H. F. Gremmel 

Because d'Hardelot 

Class Dispensary, 

H. P. Bender and R. G. Humphreys 

La Boheme Puccini 

Refreshments Music Selected 

Muller's Orchestra 

In the afternoon there was a lively baseball game between 
the faculty and the seniors, the latter winning 11-10 in the 
tenth inning. President Humphreys umpired, and it is 
reported that it took the best efforts of the Student Council 
to prevent rioting on behalf of players and spectators over 
some of his decisions. 

Monday evening the annual meeting of the Alumni As- 
sociation was held in the College Auditorium, a more ex- 
tended account of its proceedings being given on another 

The forty-first annual Commencement was held in the 
Auditorium on Tuesday morning, at 10.30 o'clock. James 
Mapes Dodge, past president of the American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers, was the recipient of the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Engineering. The program of Com- 
mencement was as follows: 



March— "Aida" Verdi 


Rev. Malcolm A. Shipley, Jr., B. D. 
Introductory Remarks, 

Alexander C. Humphreys, M. E., Sc. D., LL.D., 
President of Board of Trustees and Faculty 
Salutatory Address, 

Peter Rudolph Aronson 

Sextette — ' ' Lucia di Lammermoor " Donizetti 

Awarding of Prizes, 

Conferring of Degrees — Presentation of Candidates, 
Professor Charles F. Kroeh, A. M., 
Secretary of the Faculty 

Waltz — " Southern Roses " Strauss 

Address to Graduating Class, 

William Wilson Finley, LL. D. 
President, Southern Railway Company 

Selections — " Geisha " J ones 

Valedictory Address, 

Jerome Strauss 


Rev. Malcolm A. Shipley, Jr., B. D. 

March — "La Guapa " Buisson 

Music by Lander 

The Degree of Mechanical Engineer was conferred on 
following members of the Senior Class: 

Henry John Appert, Jr. John Jacob Ehrhardt. 

Peter Rudolph Aronson. Theodore Rudolph Eilenberg. 

John Alexander Austin. Henry Gustave Fallerius. 

Gerald Lee Bassett. Alexander Forbes, Jr. 

Kenneth Harding Bedell. Arthur William Frundt. 

Harold Philip Bender. Henry Frederick Gremmel. 

Charles William Berghorn, Jr. Ernest Marcus Hammerschlag. 

John Mark Birkenstock. Vernor Seton Henry. 

Robert Culver Blakslee. Walter Oscar Hoermann. 

John Winslow Bogert. Russell Garretson Humphreys. 

Ralph Knudsen Bonell. Herbert Spencer Hunt. 

Thomas Percy Bradshaw. William Lewis Iliff. 

Jacob Herbert Brautigam. Arthur Edwin Jones. 

Bobert Cooper Campbell. Walter Morton Kelley. 

John Collins, Jr. Chester Lyman Kingsbury. 

Frank Stevens Darke. Frederick Charles Kipper. 



Robert Hall Lansdell. 
John Leicester McGuinness. 
Thomas James McLoughlin, Jr. 
Harry Winchester McQuaid. 
Nichol Harding Memory. 
Harry Hawn Merwin. 
Kenneth Renwick Millspaugh. 
Arthur Montgomery Morgan. 
Edwin Kelley Mosier. 
Waldemar Gardner Nichols. 
Robert Maxwell Oram. 
Raymond Palmer Pennoyer. 
George Guthrie Potterton. 
Robert Henry Roesen. 
Walter Conrad Russ. 
Eli as Schlank. 

Henry Fred Schorling. 

Nils Ture Sellman. 

Ernest Frederick Sickenberger, Jr. 

Samuel Joseph Silbert. 

John David Lloyd Smith. 

Carleton Kenedon Steins. 

Jerome Strauss. 

Charles Sydney Trewin. 

John Tucker, Jr. 

John Henry Vander Veer. 

Carleton Wandel. 

German Julius Frank Weber. 

Theodore William Weigele. 

Robert Lyon Wellman. 

Edward Van Dyke Wetmore. 

Ralph Hamilton Williams. 

Nelson August Zeiger. 

In the afternoon the large Commencement crowd witnessed 
a fine baseball game between Rutgers and Stevens, which was 
won by the Red and Gray by a score of 4 to 2. 

In the late afternoon President and Mrs. Humphreys held 
their reception to alumni and undergraduates in the Castle. 
The concluding event of Commencement week, the reception 
of the juniors to the graduating class, was held at the Castle 
in the evening. Some sixty couples danced until the rising 
sun announced the festivities of Commencement week a 
matter of history. 

The Commencement committees were as follows: 

Faculty committee — Albert F. Ganz, Charles F. Kroeh, 
Franklin DeR. Furman, Frank L. Sevenoak, Frederick L. 
Pry or, Alexander C. Humphreys, ex -officio. 

Senior Class — Jerome Strauss, Kenneth H. Bedell, Peter R. 
Aronson, Edwin K. Mosier, Ralph K. Bonnell, G. J. F. 
Weber, Frank S. Darke, Robert M. Oram. 

Ushers from the Junior Class — Harold J. Bogert, Henry 
H. Bruns, Harry E. Cawley, Arthur L. Collins, Frederick 
U. Conrad, Harold R. Gibbons, Clifton E. MacNabb, Leon 
L. Munier, Wilbur F. Osier, Jr., John B. Schofield, Lawrence 
T. Van Vechten and Carl J. Willenborg. 


B. Franklin Hart, Jr., y 87 
Grand Marshall of Alumni Day Parade 

■ ■ 



■ ■ 


■ ■ 

i^LD JUPITER Pluvius, who received his degree of 
Moisture Exuder from Mt. Olympus long before 
Stevens was thought of, joined in the activities of Alumni 
Day, on Saturday, June 7, and made his presence pretty 
well known for a newcomer. In other words, it rained, but 
the shower failed to dampen the enthusiasm of the throng 
of alumni and their guests back for a day at the Old Mill, 
although it did curtail the outdoor part of the afternoon 
celebration rather abruptly. 

In general the scheme of Alumni Day this year was simi- 
lar to that of the last few celebrations. A parade in the 
early afternoon, reviewed by Dr. Humphreys on Castle 
Point Field, a ball game afterward, and dinner and a con- 
cert at the Castle in the evening formed the full program of 
the day's activities. 

The alumni classes, a rather smaller proportion than usual 
in fancy dress, gathered about the college buildings at 2 
o'clock, and some little while later the parade was formed 
as the classes fell into line, in order of their graduation, led 
by B. Franklin Hart, Jr., '90, as grand marshall, on his big 
black horse. 

As the parade entered the field by the 1897 gateway, the 
line halted, and President Humphreys was escorted to his 
reviewing point in the centre of the east grandstand. At 
this time both stands were filled to capacity, and there was 
a fringe of motor cars surrounding the field. The spectators 
had been kept interested during the interval of waiting for 
the alumni in watching the growth of a small, black cloud 
that was coming out of the west. 



With the capped and gowned seniors in the van, and E. H. 
Peabody, '90, president of the Alumni Association, at the 
head of the body of alumni, the parade wound its way about 
the athletic track. 

First came the Old Guard, including the classes as late 
as 1883. Following came delegations from the classes in 
order of graduation, each with arm bands, pennants or hat 
bands to designate its members and lend a dash of color to 
the scene. 

The Class of 1890, which strode along with Henry Tor- 
rance, Jr., and a 1910 First Prize banner at its head, was 
the first to attempt something distinctive. This class held 
a "prize contest' ' for the benefit of the Alumni Association, 
and had in line an automobile purporting to be the goal. 
As the contest eventuated, it was won by E. E. Hinkle, '90, 
chairman of the Alumni Day Committee. 

Ninety-three, celebrating its twentieth birthday, was the 
next class to make a special showing. The members lolled 
along in open carriages, looking the picture of affluence and 
content. Their vehicles bore many legends, the burden of 
them being that the class rode, not because its members 
were old, but because they were too wealthy to trod the 
common ground. A local paper asserted that they "wore 
no disguises," but truth will out — their beards were as- 
sumed for the afternoon. 

Reunionites from 1894, 1895 and 1896 followed, wearing 
hat bands or arm bands inscribed with class numerals, and 
carrying pennants. The delegation from 1897 made a natty 
showing, in white ducks, blue coats and arm shields. 

Ninety-eight imported an oriental flavor into the pro- 
ceedings, with flowing white robes edged with blue, and won 
applause from the crowd for being the oldest class to 
cost ume. 

The next class, 1899, put forth no special effort at gay 
dress, but 1900 made a fine showing in brilliant red sashes 



emblazoned with class numerals, and red hat bands. They 
were followed by 1901, whose members presented a take-off 
on present millinery styles, and also wore large paper flowers 
in their buttonholes. 

Red and gray hat bands marked the men of 1902, while 
1903 formed a brilliant patch of color, wearing kimono -like 
garments that floated bravely in the breeze. No effort at 
elaborate dress was made by 1904, who followed. 

One of the best effects of the day was presented by 1905, 
which typified the founding of The Stute in its senior year. 
The men were dressed in blue coats and white ducks, and 
each wore a hat formed like a duck. They carried canes 
which they interlocked during the march. Realism was 
added to the duck part of the costume, by including a real 
"squawk," in time to which they marched. As every Stev- 
ens man knows, The Stute was founded by Henry Van Riper 
Scheel, '05, and its mascot has been the duck. 

Celebrating the latest innovation in the postal system, 
1906 showed the workings of the Parcel Post. The men 
were clad in the regulation letter-carrier costume, and trun- 
dled pushcarts heaped high with bundles, or staggered along 
under the bulky articles sent through the post. 

Nineteen seven was content with white flannels and arms 
bands, but 1908 came effectually disguised as waiters; to 
say they looked the part would perhaps be unkind, though a 
tribute to their powers of make-up. Once on the field, they 
still further carried out the allusion by chasing after several 
kegs that appeared to be heavy and full of something. Later 
in the afternoon the kegs seemed to be lighter, doubtless 
owing to evaporation. 

The local press was once more led astray when 1909 
marched by in dark business suits and wearing masks that 
a Hoboken paper said "resembled young English lads." 
It was mighty few seconds before the crowd in the stands 
caught the likeness, however, and President Humphreys 




himself was much amused when he was confronted with 
nearly forty men who bore a family resemblance to him, to 
say the least. They dragged along a miniature gas-holder, 
labeled "Prexy's Gas," which tickled the fancy of the spec- 

Next came 1910, a husky bunch of civil engineers doing 
field duty. They were dressed to the part and carried all 
the paraphernalia. 

Nineteen eleven made the biggest hit of the day. Boast- 
ing an attendance of fifty-seven out of seventy-five grad- 
uated, they typified the I. W. W. — "Institute Wonder Work- 
ers." They wore red shirts, and white trousers and hats, 
and carried banners that convulsed the grandstand throng. 
"To H — 1 with the income tax, where's the income?" de- 
manded one sign. "We will all get a raise if the minimum 
wage law goes into effect," confidently predicted another. 

"Just Kids," a comedy in one act, was played to crowded 
grandstands by the "baby graduates" of 1912, who wore 
Buster Brown costumes, dragged along express wagons and 
toys, and showed their juvenile ways generally. 

The parade circled the track just once, passing in review 
before Dr. Humphreys and the judges in the east stand. 
The program then called for a few minutes of interclass 
visiting and "stunts," after which the baseball game be- 
tween Stevens and New York University was to be held on 
the field. 

Hardly had the judges begun their deliberations over the 
prize-winners when the people in the stands concluded 
their deliberations concerning the weather, for that little 
black cloud in the west had spread and spread and spread. 
First by scores, then by hundreds the spectators hustled for 
the most available shelter. Some got to the Castle, others 
as far as the main Institute building, but most were glad 
enough to rush pell-mell into the Morton Laboratory or 
oilier nearby roofed structure. Hardly had the exodus 



started when the drops came, then a torrent of rain that 
continued steadily until about 5 o'clock. 

From the sanctuary of the Morton Laboratory, President 
Humphreys announced the conclusions of the judges. For 
their combined excellent appearance and high attendance, 
1911 was given first place. The twentieth-year class, 1893, 
was awarded second honors, and 1905 given honorable men- 
tion. The judges created a special honor, second honor- 
able mention, and bestowed it upon 1909. 

Just before sundown, the skies cleared, and the band gave 
a concert on the piazza of the Castle. Dinner was then 
served to some 600 diners in the Castle, and in the evening 
there was a band concert, an illumination of the grounds 
and dancing in the Castle. 

There was one unfortunate occurrance that cast a damper 
on the gaiety of those who knew of it. Just before the 
parade of alumni entered the gate at the north end of the 
field, the drum-major of Matt's Twenty-second Regiment 
Band, John F. McGrann, who was at the head of the musi- 
cians, suffered an attack of heart failure and died almost 

The general committee in charge of Alumni Day consisted 
of E. E. Hinkle, '90, chairman; Samuel H. Lott, '03, secre- 
tary; Charles B. Grady, '97, treasurer; F. C. Fraentzel, '83; 
F. W. Cohen, '92; J. W. Gilmore, '94; David C. Johnson, 
'06; C. G. Michalis, '07; C. F. Cunningham, '10, and E. H. 
Peabody, '90, ex officio. 

The reception committee caring for the invited guests 
comprised John W. Lieb, Jr., '80; R. S. Kursheedt, '80; 
J. H. Cuntz, '87; E. H. Peabody, '90; Prof. F. DeR. Fur- 
man, '93; Prof. Albert F. Ganz, '95; Walter Kidde, '97; 
R. C. Post, '98, and Harlan A. Pratt, '04. 


■ c 

■ii 111 iiiiiiiitiiif lit iiif fjiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii ■■■■■■■■■i ■■■liiiifiigigf ■■■■■■■■■■iiijxgim 




HP HE Commencement sermon was preached by the 
A Rt. Rev. Edwin S. Lines, D.D., Bishop of Newark, 
in Trinity Church, Hoboken, on Sunday morning, June 8 
from the text "It is required in stewardship that a man 
be found faithful," I Cor. IV: 2. 

In the first part of the sermon, the thought of Steward- 
ship, with the sense of responsibility for the right use of all 
possessions, of training and education, of opportunities, 
was presented as the true and only satisfactory working 
theory in life. Bishop Lines spoke in part as follows : 

This theory of stewardship and responsibility fits into 
every life and every condition. It is a merciful thing about 
the divine ordering of life, that a man's responsibility is 
measured by the possessions and opportunities given him, 
and the man of one talent stands as well before God as 
the man of ten talents if only he uses well what he has. We 
have all learned, that the man called to his work at the elev- 
enth hour, after having waited long in the market place 
because no man had hired him, has in that consecrated hour 
at the end of the day met his personal responsibility in the 
noblest way. There are compensations and adjustments 
in this complicated business of life for those who have a 
high purpose, which impress one more and more with the 
merciful ordering of human life. We need to change a good 
many of our judgments as to what makes success or failure 
in life; but given a high purpose, there seem to be influences 
to make adaptations which are altogether merciful. 



The thought of looking upon all we have as borrowed and 
given into our hands as stewards, carries with it the thought 
of the misuse of God's gifts. What any man would expect 
and require of another placed in a position of responsibility, 
that he ought to require of himself. The maintenance in 
the University and Institute among the students themselves 
of high ideals as regards character and intellectual attain- 
ments passes, in importance quite beyond discipline, and 
lectures and recitations. The greatness of the University 
depends more than any other one thing, upon the instruc- 
tion, the ability to teach, and beyond that to inspire a love 
of learning, but there is a public sentiment which college 
men make which gives the University its place in the regard 
of the nation. The reputation of the institution of learning 
is largely in the hands of its students and graduates and a 
sense of responsibility such as I am pleading for, makes 
rich and great the contribution of the University to the 
National life. The sending out of men equipped to develop 
the great material interests and resources of the country 
yields to the importance of sending out men trained and 
disciplined to feel a high sense of responsibility for the use 
of their own lives for the common good. I think that a 
college man ought to determine, as part of his responsibility, 
that every word or act of his should help those about him 
to nobler and stronger lives, and that there should never 
be man or woman in the world who could say that his word, 
or act, or companionship had ever injured or degraded him 
or her in any way. There is no possession in life like a good 
conscience and the ability to face any man or woman with 
the feeling that there is nothing in one's conduct to be found 
out and nothing to be regretted. That is a standard of 
personal responsibility which can be maintained, and it will 
bring a man peace at the last. 

There will come times in every man's life when the temp- 
tation to be less than true to one's self seems irresistible; 



when the powers of evil seem determined to break a man 
down. The slight departure from what a man knows to 
be the right course promises great advantage. A man is 
swept on by passion and some excuse for yielding readily 
suggests itself. In the struggle of conflicting interests a 
man loses his reckoning. There are plenty of teachers to 
tell men, that it is natural for them to do what their con- 
sciences disapprove, that the larger world into which they 
have come may have other standards than those of the old 
home. Then a man must rouse all his moral strength and 
keep the citadel of his heart in purity and integrity. He must 
keep the sense of responsibility strong, remembering, that 
there is nothing comparable to a character above reproach. 
Strength must be found to fight out that battle by Commun- 
ion with God. But with the strength given him from above 
in answer to his prayers, he may win in that struggle for 
self-respect and he will stand on a higher plane of manhood, 
able to face his enemies with new courage, for he has saved 
that of which God made him a steward, and he has saved 

There is one word in our text which claims special atten- 
tion, and a word full of blessing it is. "It is required in 
stewardship that a man be found faithful. " It is a different 
test from that which we commonly apply to the lives of 
men. We are disposed to demand success. We call the 
outcome of life a failure or of small account unless some form 
of visible success attend it. The very atmosphere which 
we breathe cultivates that thought about life. The maga- 
zines which men read instead of substantial books, are filled 
with accounts of men who are winning attention and ap- 
plause by doing something which is called remarkable. 
One who tries to remember the lessons out of the past and 
judge human life fairly, one who has watched men win 
greal success by shrewdness and cunning to be soon for- 
gotten, wearies of the pictures of men and women who are 



said to be in the public eye. The demands of the time seem 
to be met by those who play to the gallery, and the great 
company of quiet and faithful workers who are really con- 
tributing most to the world's better life are overlooked. 

In the standard of judgment declared in the requirement 
of faithfulness, we have the correction of this superficial 
test of men. A great company of men and women who have 
never won much that the world counts success have stood 
the test of faithfulness. Quietly, out of sight, they have 
set themselves to the task which lay just at hand, doing their 
duty without looking for applause or encouragement which 
comes beyond that from a good conscience. Men and women 
have turned away from the opportunity of making great 
careers or winning fortunes and high places, that they 
might be absolutely true and that they might do their duty 
to those dependent upon them. They have met the divine 
requirement in respect to stewardship, and if there be truth 
in our religion they have made the right choice. 

Faithfulness means that a man meet his responsibility, 
do his duty where God puts him, using his life and all that 
pertains thereto for the highest and noblest ends, although, 
it may mean turning away from what are commonly called 
the greatest advantages. It means that a man is able to see 
things as they are and to see life whole, to see things which 
are spiritually discerned and are Eternal. That is the vision 
which has opened before the men and the women who have 
done the world's best work, and it is a vision open to all 
who will receive it. Woe is to the man who is disobedient 
to the heavenly vision, no matter what comes to him in 
place of it. 

There was a Scotch Missionary, Burns, who died in China 
a few years ago, after a life of peculiar devotion in his work. 
After his death his friends gathered his few possessions 
together, finding little more than the Chinese dress in which 
he had gone on his missionary journeys and a few books, 



and sent them home. A young girl standing by when the 
box was opened said: "He must have been a very poor man!" 
That is the world's judgment upon many of its noblest 
servants, like his Master, being poor he had made many 
rich. Doubtless he was helping to bring in that Revolu- 
tion, which as we hope, sets the greatest of Oriental Nations 
forward in the way of happiness and truth. There are few 
words in the New Testament, rightly understood, which 
bring more of help and hope to a great company of men and 
women trying to do their duty than this and faithfulness. 
You say, that not all men may win success even in a moderate 
degree, although they work hard and seem to deserve it. 
Some will fall out of the race of life early, the recall sounded 
when they are hardly on the way, but a short life may have 
added to the world's stock of goodness and be a continuing 
influence and inspiration. A young man who had stood 
seventh in a class of more than three hundred in one of the 
great colleges, and first in his class in the Divinity School, 
gave himself to Mission work in China; within a year or two 
losing his life in an heroic effort to save his classmate and 
fellow missionary from drowning. His body rests in far 
away China, but his life is an inspiration and help to many 
who knew him, and will be for more than a generation. 
Upon the Palisades we have built for him a Memorial Chapel, 
and we have written at the door: "Greater love hath no 
man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friend." 
I am sure that out of the reading and experience of most 
of us there come examples of faithfulness and devotion to 
enforce what I am trying to say. "They that are faithful 
over few things shall be made rulers over many things and 
enter into the joy of their Lord." 

Rightminded men will put faithfulness before success 
as an aim in their own lives and in their judgment of other 
lives. The life marked by faithfulness cannot be a failure; 



it has filled out the divine purpose and God will care for its 

My message to you then today is, that in the thought of 
stewardship you will find the key to the understanding of 
life, a good working theory, and that the test of steward- 
ship is not success but faithfulness. There seems to be com- 
ing a new spirit into the world which expresses this thought. 
More and more men seem to be feeling the sense of respon- 
sibility for the use of their powers and their means for the 
common good. More and more men are trying to extend 
the advantages of life and to give as many as possible a 
chance. The selfishness of men in public life in their use 
of their places for personal gain rather than for the common 
good has offended us, and there are younger men appearing 
with higher ideals and the public conscience is aroused to 
fight for better things. Through some foundations for 
research and study, it may be that the weapons are in 
preparation which will make an end of many municipal 
abuses and direct many well met efforts. Social service is 
taking an accepted place in every church and in every com- 
munity. The display of luxury is accepted as a sign of low 
ideals if not vulgarity. Many men of large means are 
ashamed to live selfishly. Men of the greatest learning 
and professional skill are giving their service to those in the 
greatest need. The compelling motive back of all mission- 
ary work is the thought of sharing our gifts with those who 
have them not. So the thought of stewardship is winning 
its way in the world, the inspiration of many movements 
for the good of men. Be sure, that the hope of making out 
the noblest kind of life for yourself is the acceptance of 
this thought of stewardship. 

As one who has travelled far on the road upon which you 
enter this week — the road through life from college — let 
me plead with you to go on with the sense of stewardship 
for all that you have in the way of training and knowledge, 



and of personal responsibility for their noble use. If you 
set material success before you as the only end in life you 
will make a great mistake. If you only think of getting 
before somebody else in position and power you will not 
live a large life. The world is getting sight of something 
above competition and the strife for selfish success, even 
brotherhood and the common good. Every educated man 
is bound to take out into life regard for the common good, 
the spirit of helpfulness, high ideals as to the use of his life. 

It was Dr. Pritchett of the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology who said, "no man can hope to be an engineer 
in the greatest sense who has not some actual contact day 
by day and week by week with his fellow men." "Whether 
you are to deal with electricity or Chemistry or mechanics, 
you are to deal first of all, all your life long, with men." 
"If we are ever in this country to work out the problem 
or right relations between employers and laborers, you men 
who are engineers must help to that solution. You stand 
between capital and labor; you give a hand to each. You 
ought to be able, if you are educated, broad-minded, sym- 
pathetic men, to understand that each of the parties in this 
dispute has rights which the other ought to respect, and 
that both have obligations to the public which they must in 
the end recognize and respond to; but they will be brought 
to recognize their mutual obligations and relations all the 
quicker if you men who are engineers can bring to the study 
of such problems an open mind, a judicial spirit and a sym- 
pathetic appreciation of the difficulties of each." 

"If your scientific studies furnish you no suggestions as 
to your relations with other men, if they do not connect 
themselves with the philosophy of life and of conduct, if 
they do not strengthen your moral purpose and help to clear 
your conception of truth and of duty and quicken your 
sympal hies with o1 her men, then you have gol only the husks 
of an education/ 1 



Some of you will move on quietly, steadily towards suc- 
cess, as the due reward of hard work, patience and skill. 
There is no success worth making account of which is not 
based on high character. As success and higher place come, 
larger responsibility will come to the right minded man. 
Some of you will have to face hard struggles, disappoint- 
ments, hopes deferred, the fear of failure. It may be possible 
by courage and a supreme effort at a critical time to snatch 
success out of apparent failure. You may have to see what 
you have built up by patient work go down in ruin about 
you and all seem lost. But if you, as a man of high charac- 
ter, working as in the sight of the great Master, can fall 
back on the truth that faithfulness, the endeavor to do your 
best, not success, is the true test of a man's life, you will come 
through all hard experiences and make out the best kind of a 




■ ■ 


N BEHALF of the Trustees and Faculty I extend to 

all here present, and particularly to those directly 
interested in the members of the Class of 1913, a hearty 
welcome to this our forty-first Commencement. 

I leave it to the representative of the graduating class 
to extend this welcome on behalf of his class. 

I will ask your indulgence for a few minutes while I speak 
of the affairs of Stevens, and especially with regard to the 
school year now ending. 

Last year our entering class numbered 101 as compared 
with 110 the year before, and as compared with 131 for the 
year 1910. Our total enrollment this year, just before the 
second term examinations, was 309 as compared with 343 
in 1912, and as compared with 360 in 1911. 

The decrease in our enrollment is, no doubt, due to the 
increase in our regular tuition rate from $150 to $225. 
This increase already applies to the Freshman and Sopho- 
more classes and in two years more will apply to all classes. 
I should welcome such an addition to our productive endow- 
ment as would enable us either to restore the former lower 
rate of charge or to provide free scholarships for those who 
cannot afford to pay and can give such evidence of ability 
and character as to warrant such assistance without the 
fear on our part that we might be helping those not worthy or 
not qualified to profit by the help this extended. 

The Class of 1913, which graduates today, began its life 
willi us with an enrollment of 142. Today they number 

Address by President Humphreys 



65, about 40 per cent only of the entering members, and of 
these a few joined the class after the freshman year. The 
names of a few of those who graduate do not appear on the 
program because when the program went to press some work 
had yet to be completed by the men thus omitted. A few 
who have been members of the class during the Senior year 
are not graduating today, but we hope that they will be able 
to complete the work and graduate in September , or graduate 
next year with the Class of 1914. 

I deeply sympathize with those who are thus held back 
from participating with their classmates in the joys of today; 
but it would be a false sympathy which would give them 
credit for that which they have not earned. This failure 
is not always due to neglect of opportunity, but sometimes 
is due to circumstances over which the student has not been 
able to exercise control. 

During the year we have not been called upon to meet 
any serious questions in connection with discipline. I 
congratulate the men who graduate today upon their part 
in this satisfactory condition and particularly I congratu- 
late the chosen representatives of the class who have co- 
operated during the past school year in further developing 
the scheme of student self-government. By this scheme 
the students are encouraged to so govern themselves that 
the necessity for Faculty control will be reduced to a mini- 
mum. It is understood, however, that where and when 
the students do not exercise the necessary ^//-control, 
they will receive the full and prompt assistance of the 

At Stevens, students and Faculty take pride in the fact 
that hazing and cheating are taboo, and that clean athletics 
are more to be desired than victories in the field. Person- 
ally, I feel that there is room for improvement in these 
matters in many of the colleges of the United States. As 



long as no names are mentioned, perhaps I am not trans- 
gressing in making this statement. 

During the year we received gifts amounting in round 
numbers to $51,000. About $9,790 of this was sub- 
scribed by the alumni, including $5,350 subscribed to the 
Graduates Fund towards current expenses. Mrs. Henry 
Lang subscribed $10,000 for the fund for the purchase of 
the Robert L. Stevens land, and the late Stephen S. Palmer 
of the Board of Trustees, subscribed $25,000 to the same 
fund. Including a number of smaller contributions, this 
fund now amounts to $87,880 with about $30,000 additional 
subscribed by the alumni, to be paid in installments. There 
is required to pay for this land and another piece included 
in our scheme for expansion, about $200,000. 

The operating expenses for the past year exceeded the 
revenue by $37,189. After absorbing this loss — but not 
paying it — the increase in our capital was $15,197. But 
this increase in fixed assets does not help to pay our running 

During the last six years, including the $37,189 just named, 
the running expenses have exceeded the income almost 
exactly $150,000. Answering an enquiry recently addressed 
to me as to how we have paid this deficit, I reply, "We 
have not paid it. We are in debt $150,000 for the accumu- 
lated deficit and about $200,000 on the Castle Point proper- 
ties already purchased, or say $350,000 in all." It will be 
seen that if we can get relieved from this burden of debt 
we shall be relieved of interest charges which make nearly 
one half of our present annual operating deficit. Another 
burden is that of taxes, which Stevens, contrary to the 
freedom enjoyed by most educational institutions in the 
United States, has to carry. We paid in taxes this last 
year about $4,500. 

In this connection I may mention that we have not yet 
recovered from the United States government the $45,750 



so unjustly taken from our original endowment forty years 
ago; and this notwithstanding our constant and persistent 
efforts to bring the authorities to a correct view of their 
responsibilities. I say "unjustly" taken, because the act 
repealing the war income tax measure under which the 
tax was levied relieved all the educational institutions which 
had not paid their assessments levied years before our 
assessment, while making no provision to return to Stevens 
the amount paid into the United States Treasury within 
thirty days of the receipt of the bill. This seems to be a con- 
tradiction of the statement that " Honesty is the Best 
Policy." Perhaps we may hope that the new administration, 
presided over by a college president, may be inclined to 
break this record of injustice, not to say dishonesty. 

Particularly I wish to put on record the gifts of $750 
each from the Classes of 1902 and 1912, to be applied to 
the construction of a dining-room in the basement of the 
Castle for reunions and dinners of the several graduate 
classes. Also the gift of $300 from the class of 1903 in 
commemoration of the tenth anniversary of their gradua- 
tion — the first class to graduate under my presidency. 
Also the gift from this Class of 1913 to be applied $812.50 
to the fund for a gymnasium and $2.50 each to be applied 
to Alumni Association dues. This class also gave the sur- 
plus from publication of The Link, $290. 

The Class of 1887 has just announced a gift of $325 to 
furnish Study room, third floor, Castle; and in connection 
with this gymnasium fund let me say that we are in great 
need of that addition to our plant. Recently the Stevens 
Y. M. C. A. started this fund with a subscription of $50. 
The subscribers felt very modest because of the smallness 
of the amount. I have told them that this $50 represented 
the right spirit in giving for it was for the benefit of those 
coming after them, not for personal benefit, and it repre- 
sented self-denial. Let us hope that some person, who 



has been a gymnasium enthusiast, well endowed with 
this world's goods, and recognizing the great good to be 
derived from such an annex, if properly governed, may be 
found willing to add materially to this fund. 

Castle Stevens is fulfilling our hopes in contributing 
what was much needed to the life of the students outside of 
the roster hours. It has also, during the year, been the meet- 
ing place for the alumni on many pleasant occasions. Its 
operation adds to our deficit and will continue to do so 
until we have a dormitory to be operated in connection with 
the Castle, thus spreading the general or administrative 
charges over a greater number of students. Last Saturday 
evening — Alumni Reunion Day — the building and grounds 
were crowded with alumni and friends and notwithstanding 
the storm of the afternoon over 700 dined in the Castle and 
on the lawn. 

The athletic field has continued to be a most satisfactory 
source of recreation and relaxation to the students of the 
Institute and also of the Stevens School. While we have 
not won many victories, we have had at our very doors 
a field second to none, so giving our students, hard worked 
as they are, the best opportunities to avail themselves of 
all the time left in their hands. 

I have been unceasing in my efforts during the year to 
lift the burden of debt resting upon us and so obtain the 
money required for necessary extensions and improvements 
I have been in sight of success a number of times, only to 
meet again disappointment. I can only go on trying to 
meet my responsibilities and hoping that at least those who 
have promised will not continue to fail us as has been the 
record this year in a number of cases. 

Since last Commencement we have lost not a few from 
our ranks: 

Stephen S. Palmer, Trustee and generous benefactor 
and w ise counselor of the Institute, died January 30, 1913. 


The Seniors in Cap and Gown 

Head of the Line Approaching Reviewing Stand 


John Fritz, recipient of the honorary degree of Doctor 
of Science from Stevens in 1907, died February 13, 1913. 

Ralph P. Badeau, '09, died July 20, 1912. 

J. H. Fulton, '05, died August 19, 1912. 

Edward L. Jones, '92, died October 18, 1912. 

Maunsel White, '79, died October 22, 1912. 

Chester E. Bradley, '03, died October 29, 1912. 

Frank A. Magee, '83, died January 2, 1913. 

Samuel T. Mudge, '06, died September 8, 1912. 

Oscar Antz, '78, died January 9, 1913. 

F. B. Crosby, '09, died April 20, 1913. 
Men of the Class of 1913: 

Having thus spoken of the affairs of the Institute in 
general, it remains for me to say the last words which I 
shall address to you as undergraduates. I hope sincerely 
it will be my good fortune to meet you often as fellow 
alumni. As graduates you will appreciate even better than 
you do now what your Alma Mater has done for you and 
which is consummated today. The alumni of Stevens 
are justly noted for their loyalty and self-sacrificing 
devotion to their Alma Mater. There are always excep- 
tions to every rule, and of course, there are some graduates 
who are indifferent or worse to the claims of Stevens upon 
their respect and love. These men are either the victims 
of a misunderstanding, the victims of a petty spite against 
some professor or official, or are confirmed opponents of 
government, whatever that may be. I trust that the Class 
of 1913 will be free from this unlovely and unreasonable 

Bear in mind that nothing is perfect in this world. What 
we have done for you has not been perfect. But we have 
given you the opportunities in full measure to secure an 
efficient, sane, preparation for the perfecting of yourselves 
in some one branch, at least, of the engineering profession. 

Remember that it remains for each of you to learn through 



practice in the school of experience that which no school 
or college can give you. It is for you to see to it, however, 
that you learn in this other school more completely and 
more promptly because of your Stevens training. 

Remember that above all formal learning stands charac- 
ter. While we have tried to help you in that regard also, 
the final test is up to each of you. 

Do your work well and completely. How trite it sounds 
to you, but how much it means, as you must realize later. 

Do not be in haste to worry about your profession. 
Learn thoroughly the work and duties assigned to you 
before you look for something higher. 

Do not let it be three, or two years, or even one year 
before you learn that the teaching of the college is only 
part of what you require for real success. How many men 
have told me, some of them Stevens graduates, that it 
took three years of hard knocks after graduation to con- 
vince them that the college diploma did not give them a 
monopoly of anything. 

On the other hand, you have received, have won for 
yourselves during the years spent here, something of 
inestimable value, something which young men all over 
this great country are praying for the opportunities to win. 
Then it is for you to recognize that opportunity, privilege, 
and particularly specific education carry with them definite 

If through your particular training you are qualified 
to render specific service to humanity or the State, you 
must be prepared to accept and respond to that responsi- 
bility. This is especially pertinent at this time because 
the country, yes, the world, is troubled by a spirit of 
unrest, which, if not wisely guided, means disaster, and 
particularly so to those who are prominent in the move- 
ments for change — or reform, as they say. 

Remember that reform cannot be obtained as the result 



of good intentions alone. Good intentions are worthy of 
our respect, but you know that a man is not able to carry 
through some great engineering project because his inten- 
tions are good in that regard. And there are many prob- 
lems now being discussed, the solutions of which are being 
attempted with easy confidence by men and women whose 
only qualification for the work is that of good intentions. 
And many of these problems are far more difficult of solution 
than any engineering project. The latter can be solved 
if the right men and the money can be found. Some of 
these other problems never can be solved completely this 
side of the millenium. 

But go out from Stevens resolved to do your full share 
towards the solution of all the problems presented in which 
you feel your training qualifies you to assist. Also be 
careful not to take too prominent a part in any movement 
until you understand where it is intended to lead. Beware 
of the professional reformer and investigator, who is ready 
to reform anything and everything except himself and the 
things in which he is interested. Be always on the side 
of true reform, but do not spell reform with a capital R 
and do not use your activities in this regard as do many 
of the magazine writers and politicians. In other words, 
try to be an unselfish worker for the betterment of the 
conditions around you and, therefore, begin with those 
immediately under your influence and control. 

To go out into the world and secure well-earned credit 
for yourselves and so bring credit to your Alma Mater — 
This is my earnest prayer in your behalf. 

In selecting class speakers for Commencement, while 
we recognize that scholarship should be an important 
factor, we consider that other qualifications should count. 

The ten members of the class ranking highest in scholar- 



ship are invited to compete, the Commencement committee 
and the administrative officers acting as judges. 

The ten so selected this year and their standing as to 
scholarship are recorded here and here announced as Honor 



P. R. Aronson, 


W. H. Merwin, 


K. R. Millspaugh, 


J. Strauss, 


C. S. Trewin, 


R. L. Wellman, 


H. S. Hunt, 


W. L. Iliff, 


R. N. Cram, 


J. H. Vander Veer, 


P. R. Aronson was selected as Salutatorian and J. Strauss 
as Valedictorian. As it happens the successful competitor 
for first place, valedictorian, was the man with the highest 
standing in scholarship. 

Salutatory Address by Peter Rudolf Aronson 
Mr, President, Gentlemen of the Board of Trustees, Members 

of the Faculty, and Friends: 

The class of 1913 bids you a hearty welcome to these 
exercises. Pour years ago we started on a straight and 
narrow road where progress requires hard study and con- 
stant application. For four busy years we have moved 
along as a band of brothers stretching out a helping hand 
to one another; here and there losing one who needed a 
breathing spell; and occasionally overtaking a wayfarer 
who, refreshed by a short rest, was able to take up his 
journey in our company. At length we have reached a 
point where we see this narrow road spread out into a 
wide highway thai cuts with many branches through the 
broad fields of engineering. 



Public opinion is ever changing. It is not very long ago 
that the public's lack of confidence in engineers thwarted 
their best efforts. How people ridiculed Watt and shook 
their heads in doubt even after he had demonstrated that 
his steam engine would run! What tedious delay dis- 
heartened Bell before he could convince the world of the 
value of his telephone! What incredulous smiles met 
George Westinghouse when he sought someone with faith 
enough in his air brake to finance its production! The 
progress of engineering science, however, is no longer 
hindered so seriously by doubt and mistrust. The world 
today is awake. It understands the important part that 
the engineer plays in human progress. It perceives that 
the great achievements of engineers represents man's con- 
quest of the powerful and elusive forces of nature; and 
that progress in engineering, a very evident result of intel- 
lectual development, measures the advance of a nation's 
civilization. The engineer's boldness in planning, his 
ingenuity in overcoming, and his perseverance (frequently 
baffled but never overcome), in such undertakings as the 
laying of the trans-Atlantic cable and the building of the 
Panama Canal have won the admiration and respect of 
the world for his calling. 

We have been trained for this noble profession and must 
do our utmost to give it a place even higher than that 
which has at length been accorded it among the learned 
professions. We have received a general engineering 
education. Now we shall choose that particular field into 
which our inclinations lead us. Some of us have a liking 
for the electrical; some prefer the strictly mechanical; some 
will find their way into the gas field; some will join the 
railroads; others will go into mining, or structural engi- 
neering, or manufacturing, or take up patent law. Thus 
we shall separate, and yet we shall be united, for the bound- 
ing lines of the fields are not distinct, and our fundamental 



theories underly all fields alike. We shall meet with re- 
verses and discouragements. In each line of work we must 
start at the bottom and climb. We must be satisfied with 
what we may consider thankless remuneration for our 
labors. We shall be told by practical men that we know 
nothing. Often we shall be forced to live and work in 
environments which are anything but pleasant. Jealousies 
will confront us; favoritism will be shown. But these 
things must be endured, for opportunities will come with 
them and earnest and faithful work will reap the rich re- 
ward which we feel certain you desire to see us secure. 

In awarding the prizes and scholarships Dr. Humphreys 

Hudson County Schools Scholarships — Three scholarships 
each year — making twelve in all — are given each year to 
graduates of the Hudson County High Schools, preferably 
the Hoboken High School. If in any year these scholar- 
ships are not filled from the Hoboken High School, the 
vacancies may be filled from graduates of other Public 
High Schools of Hudson County. The names of the suc- 
cessful competitors each year cannot be announced until 
after the September entrance examinations. 

Last September the successful competitors were: Willis 
H. Taylor, graduate of the Hoboken High School; Arthur 
B. BellofF, graduate of the Hoboken High School; Arthur 
D. Soper, graduate of the Jersey City High School. 

Hoboken Academy Scholarships — One scholarship each 
year — making four in all — is given to a graduate of the 
Hoboken Academy. Last year this scholarship was not 

Stevens School Scholarships — One scholarship each year 
— making four in all — is awarded to a member of the Stevens 
School, Senior class, who, having been a member of the 
School for at least two years, passes the best examinations 



for admission to the Institute. Last year the scholarship 
was divided and one half was given to H. J. C. Baack, and 
the other half to John A. Conlogue, Jr. 

The Priestley Prize — was founded in 1877 by President 
Henry Morton, Dr. Albert R. Leeds, Mrs. M. B. Stevens, 
Mr. S. B. Dod, and Mr. W. W. Shippen. Formerly it 
was awarded to the member of the Junior class who had 
most distinguished himself in the department of chemistry 
during the Sophomore and Junior years. This has now 
been changed to include also the work of the Freshman 
year. The prize is $25. This year it is awarded to Paul 
Lupke, Jr., average 95.1. 

Honorable mention is awarded to Lloyd F. Bayer, average 
92.8, and Arthur E. Stover, average 91.1. Six others I 
am tempted to mention, the lowest of the six having an 
average of 85.3. 

William A. Macy Prize — Originally this prize could be 
awarded only to a member of the Freshman class who had 
entered from the Hoboken High School. This admitted of 
but little competition. By several amendments the prize 
was increased from $10 to $20, and is now awarded to a 
member of the Sophomore class on the record of the work 
of the two years; and graduates from the Hoboken High 
School, the Hoboken Academy and the Stevens School 
are now eligible. The prize this year is awarded to Henry 
M. Beekman, average 90.8, a graduate of the Stevens 
School. Honorable mention is awarded to Myrtus Ashton 
Davis, average 87.1, a graduate of the Hoboken High School. 

Mary Starr Stillman Prize in Applied Technology — This 
prize, $50 in gold, was established by Dr. Thomas B. Still- 
man, late head of our department of chemistry, in memory 
of his mother. 

It is open to competition by members of the Senior class, 
and is awarded to the writer of the best paper on a subject 
pertaining to applied technology. The prize was awarded 



for the first time in 1910. The subject this year was, 
" The Advantages of Applications of the Low Pressure Steam 
Turbine, 9 ' and the prize is awarded to Jerome Strauss. 

The essays by Peter Rudolph Aronson and Elias Schlank 
are well worthy of commendation. 

The Cyrus J. Lawrence Prizes — Two prizes known as 
the Cyrus J. Lawrence prizes have been founded by an 
alumnus of the Institute in grateful remembrance of his ben- 
efactor, the late Cyrus J. Lawrence, whose financial assist- 
ance helped him to take the full course at Stevens Institute. 

Beginning with the Class of 1910, these prizes are awarded 
annually to those members of the Senior class adjudged 
first and second, respectively, in influence in promoting 
student activities, in fostering a spirit of cooperation between 
the Faculty and the student body, and in general in contrib- 
uting to the elevation of the ideals of student life, provided 
the said two members have maintained a satisfactory 
rank in scholarship. The first prize to be $50 or its equiv- 
alent, and the second prize $25 or its equivalent. 

The awarding of these prizes presented many difficulties. 
No better plan having been found than the one tried in 
the past, it was again employed this year. The records of 
all members of the class as to legitimate activities were 
analyzed, with the result that of those showing satisfactory 
scholarship, the following ten man were found to be in the 



P. R. Aronson, 


T. P. Bradshaw, 


W. M. Kelley, 


T. J. McLoughlin, Jr., 


J. Strauss, 


C. S. Trewin, 


J. H. Van der Veer, 


R. L. Wellman, 


R. II. Williams 


N. A. Zeigcr, 



The names of these ten men were presented to the mem- 
bers of the class and they were requested to express their 
preference without previous conference, by sealed ballot 
under the conditions prescribed. As all the men whose 
names were so considered established records highly honor- 
able along the lines specified, it gives me pleasure to give 
them due credit as this time. 

Guided by this vote the Faculty Committee awarded 
the first prize to John Henry Vander Veer, the president 
of the Senior Class, and the second prize to Nelson August 

Dr. Humphreys then spoke of the men mentioned by 
class president on Class Day as having worked honorably 
and zealously for the Class and the Institute, Robert H. 
Lansdell and Nichol H. Memory, the latter is permanent 
class president. 

Address by Dr. W. W. Finley 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: 

It was with full appreciation of the honor of delivering 
the Commencement Address at this Institute that I accepted 
the invitation extended to me by Dr. Humphreys. 

I shall endeavor to say something that I hope may be of 
practical benefit to the members of the graduating class. 
As young men about to enter upon your life careers, you 
are looking forward with high hopes to the future and are 
interested in the opportunities it may hold in store. Bearing 
in mind the extent to which public policies may affect the 
development of the United States, I have chosen as my 
subject, "Government and Opportunity." 

The Constitution of the United States may be said to have 
marked the culmination and fruition of centuries of struggle 
by the Anglo-Saxon peoples to obtain for the individual the 
maximum degree of liberty of action, either by himself or 



in association with others, and to reduce to a minimum 
governmental restrictions upon his activities. 

The first century of our life under that Constitution was 
one in which relatively scant use was made of the regulative 
powers which it conferred upon the Federal Government, 
and the State Governments were generally conservative in 
the exercise of their reserved powers. It was a century of 
phenomenal achievement in which, to an increasing extent, 
enterprises beyond the capacity of an individual or a small 
group of individuals were undertaken. This led to the 
development of the corporate system under which relatively 
small capitals of many individuals are brought together un- 
der a single management. 

It was inevitable that governmental policies fitted to a 
people mainly engaged in agriculture and in whose life the 
business corporation was a small factor, should require some 
modification to fit them to the changed conditions brought 
about by the growth of manufacturing, the increased impor- 
tance of transportation and the development of the corpora- 

The American people have set about making this read- 
justment and we are now passing through the transition 
period. The situation is one calling for the exercise of the 
highest political wisdom in order that such control as may 
be necessary to prevent abuse, may be exercised without 
shutting the door to opportunity and retarding our progress 
as a people. 

We are living in the day of great enterprises. The factory 
under corporate management, with its intricate machinery 
and thousands of operatives, has taken the place of the small 
workshop, with its individual owner, small group of journey- 
men and apprentices, and hand labor; and the railway has 
supplanted I lie carter. A return to former conditions would 
be as impossible as it would be undesirable. The corpor- 
al ion musl bave a permanenl place in our industrial life 



and the opportunities of the future for the graduates of such 
institutions as the Stevens Institute of Technology must be 
found very largely within its organization. 

For this reason it is a matter of vital importance to the 
rising generation and especially to the graduates of this 
school that the problems of governmental regulation of 
business corporations shall be wisely and conservatively 
solved. This is not only to your interest, but it is to the 
interest of all the people, for the activities of man are so 
closely inter-related and inter-dependent that any policy 
tending to the injury of any important industry or occupa- 
tion can not long be persisted in without harm to the entire 
body politic. 

In his inaugural address on the fourth of last March, 
President Wilson said: 

"Society must see to it that it does not itself crush, or 
weaken, or damage its own constituent parts. The first 
duty of law is to keep sound the society it serves." 

There can, I think, be no question as to the soundness 
of the views expressed by the President in these two sen- 
tences. They may be said to summarize the philosophy of 
government, for the objects of all government should be 
the well-being of the State as a whole and the happiness 
and prosperity of the individuals who compose the body 
politic. The attainment of these objects may best be brought 
about by what may be termed conservative progressiveness. 
Intrinsically, conservation and progress are not antagonistic. 
On the contrary, wise conservation is essential to true 
progress, for it is as important that we shall hold fast to 
all that is good as that we shall accept changes that give 
promise of remedying what may be bad. 

In fact, I believe we may well question whether there is 
not more danger that we may crush, or weaken, or damage 
the constituent parts of society by hasty and ill-considered 
changes in the name of progress than by clinging to time- 



tried polices until we are thoroughly convinced that changes 
proposed will work real and lasting improvements. Lord 
Bacon, whose essays have been termed "a very orchard of 
the apples of wisdom," expressed this idea in the following 
language : 

"It is good also not to try experiments in states, except 
the necessity be urgent, or the utility evident; and well to 
beware that it be the reformation that draweth on the 
change, and not the desire of change that pretendeth the 
reformation. " 

Bulwer, in connection with a reference to the deliberation 
that must attend the alteration of the Constitution of the 
United States, says: 

"So, more or less, in every community where a considerable 
degree of political freedom is possessed by the people, experi- 
ments which seem to involve any hazards to the duration 
of liberties existing, though proffered as extensions and 
accelerants of their action, may be regarded by the most 
devoted friends of the people's freedom with the same dis- 
favor with which the trustees for the enjoyers of a solid 
estate would listen to proposals to hazard punctual rents 
and solid acres for shares in a company which offers 20 per 
cent and the chances of bankruptcy." 

In the same essay, Bulwer still further develops the idea 
that I would seek to impress when he says: 

"There is nothing in a conservative policy antagonistic 
to progress. On the contrary, resistance to progress is 
destructive to conservatism. * * * A conservative pol- 
icy * * * should have no fear of the calm extension 
of knowledge. Its real antagonist is in the passionate force 
of ignorance." 

These two essayists — one of the time of Elizabeth, and 
the oi lier of the time of Victoria — warn us against hurrying 
headlong into changes in the vague hope that they may be 
beneficial, or being led to the adoption of ill-considered 



innovations which may be found to be supported by "the 
passionate force of ignorance." In a country such as 
ours, in which all legislative powers and all executive author- 
ity proceed from the people and in which the people can 
change the fundamental character of the government, it is 
of supreme importance that popular action shall at all times 
be controlled and guided by an intelligent public opinion 
which shall so shape governmental policies that they shall 
conserve the well-being of the body politic and its constitu- 
ent members and insure their progress by preserving the 
widest possible range of opportunities. 

It is inevitable that, in every country, there shall develop 
situations in which, considered superficially, it might seem 
that the interests of some would be advanced by govern- 
mental restrictions upon the liberties of others and the 
temptation may be strong to attempt, in the name of progress 
to impose such restrictions. In so far as such restrictions 
may be necessary to prevent any individuals or associations 
of individuals from invading the liberties or rights of others 
they are consistent with sound principles of governmental 
policy. If, however, they tend to impose hardships or 
deny equality of rights to certain elements of our citizen- 
ship they are not truly progressive. 

Real patriotic progressiveness is that which seeks to 
conserve and co-ordinate all of the useful forces of the 
country without the imposition of special restrictions or 
the conferring of special rights. It is the progressiveness 
that, instead of imposing undue restrictions upon agencies 
of production or distribution, would leave to them the 
maximum of liberty consistent with the welfare of the body 
politic as a whole. It is the progressiveness that would 
weigh carefully each proposition for a change, considering 
all of its ultimate, as well as its immediate, effects, and would 
not, even if everything seemed to be wrong, grasp at the 
first suggested remedy, just as excited and impressionable 



people, in time of an epidemic of some dangerous disease, 
will follow every course of treatment that may be recom- 
mended to them. 

So far as governmental policies do not deal with crimes, 
public order, matters of public health, or social relations, 
they have to do with business activities. In this latter 
relation they should have due regard for the laws of econom- 
ics. It is important, therefore, that policies affecting the 
business activities of the people should be studied as economic 
problems. If we study them in their economic aspects I 
believe that we will find that those policies which allow the 
largest liberty in the conduct of business consistent with 
the protection of each individual from unjust treatment are 
most favorable to true progress. 

On many previous occasions I have stated the application 
of this principle to the business of transportation by rail 
by expressing my opinion that such regulation of railways 
as may be necessary to prevent undue discrimination be- 
tween individuals, localities, and commodities, and to 
prevent charges that are exorbitant or unreasonably high 
as measured by the service performed, is sound as a matter 
of economics and of governmental policy. I am equally 
of the opinion that regulations going farther and seeking to 
deny to a railway the right to fix for its service charges that 
are not unduly discriminatory and that are not exorbitant 
or unreasonably high as measured by the service performed 
are not based on sound principles of economics or of govern- 
mental policy. Their ultimate effect is to retard railway 
development and to impair the ability of the railways to 
provide the increased and improved facilities necessary for 
the prompt and satisfactory transportation of the commerce 
of the country. Such regulatory policies are, therefore, 
restrictive of opportunity, not only in railway employment, 
bul in every productive and commercial occupation. 

It needs no argument to demonstrate that regulations 



which would tend to restrict agricultural production or to 
impose undue burdens upon the commerical interests of the 
country would be disadvantageous to all members of the 
body politic. It is equally true that undue restrictions upon 
transportation must react upon every individual whatever 
may be his occupation. It is the function of the transporta- 
tion agencies of the United States to carry our citizens on 
their journeys over all parts of the country, to haul to market 
the products of farms, factories, forests, mines, and fisheries, 
and to carry the mails of all the people. Even though a 
man might not, in the course of a year, have a single direct 
business transaction with a transportation company he would 
still be vitally concerned in the efficient conduct of the trans- 
portation business. It is to his interest that conditions 
surrounding that business shall be such as to attract the 
investment of capital needed to provide ample facilities for 
carrying the commerce of the country, and that State and 
Federal governments shall recognize the economic obligation 
which they are under of abstaining from unduly restrictive 
regulation and of according just and equitable treatment to 
transportation companies, including such matters as the 
imposition of taxes and fixing compensation for the carriage 
of the mails. 

It is difficult, even for men in the railway service, fully 
to appreciate the enormous volume of traffic that is carried 
in a single year or even in a single day on the lines of all the 
railways of the country. A single comparison may suggest 
faintly the extent of this public service. Every American 
is interested in the great work being done by our people in 
the construction of the Panama Canal at a cost of $375,000,- 
000. It is in no way detracting from the importance of this 
great waterway to point out that, while according to the 
largest estimate that I have seen, the traffic through the 
Canal for the first two years after completion will be 10,500,- 
000 tons per year, the railway company with which I 



have the honor to be connected, alone carried 32,373,584 
tons of freight in its last fiscal year. The average distance 
that freight was hauled by that company during the year 
was 155 miles, or more than three times the length of the 
Canal. In other words, this single railway company carried 
in a single year more than three times the volume of freight 
what the Canal is expected to carry in a year and carried it 
on an average more than three times the length of the Canal. 
This does not take into account the very considerable ton- 
nage of express and mail handled by the railway company 
or the 18,119,253 passengers carried by it during the same 
year. When it is realized that the freight traffic statistics 
of this one railway operating in the Southeastern States 
represent only about one-seventieth of the total volume of 
freight carried in the United States in a year, some idea can 
be formed of the enormous relative importance of the public 
service performed by the railways of the United States, and 
of the vital interest of the American people in their prosperity 
and efficiency. 

My purpose in referring to governmental regulation is to 
develop the idea that all regulations of the business activities 
of the citizen are not necessarily progressive. Their effect 
may be to retard real progress and to crush, or weaken, or 
damage one of the constituent parts of society. With 
respect to all such policies I think it is the part of wisdom to 
follow Lord Bacon's advice, "to beware that it be the refor- 
mation that draweth on the change, and not the desire of 
change that pretendeth the reformation." 

Whether governmental regulation is to be restrictive of 
progress and opportunity will be dependent, in large meas- 
ure, upon the wisdom which marks the enactment of our 
laws and their enforcement. It is upon the graduates of 
inst itutions such as this that we must rely for a large measure 
of leadership in sound thinking and conservative action. 
Under our system the governed are also the governors and 



there is always the possiblity of abandoning harmful policies 
after their unwisdom has been demonstrated. I have faith, 
therefore, in the ability of the American people ultimately 
to settle all these questions aright. Whether it shall be done 
without our passage through a season of stress and trial will 
be largely dependent upon the degree to which our fellow 
citizens can be brought to a realization of the importance 
of policies that will preserve the widest range of opportun- 

I have spoken of the part to be played by public policies 
in preserving or restricting opportunities, but, important 
as these factors are, the degree of success attained by each 
one of you will be largely dependent upon the use which you, 
individually, make of your opportunities. In speaking of 
opportunities, I do not limit the meaning of the word to 
exceptional chances to achieve great success by a sudden 
stroke of fortune. The man who sits down to wait for an 
opportunity of this exceptional kind will often lead an 
unsuccessful life and will be unprepared for the exceptional 
chance if he should encounter it. The successful man is 
usually he who does not wait for something big but who 
makes the most of each day's opportunities, be they large 
or small. He searches for opportunities and makes them 
for himself, and we will generally find that, where a man 
has achieved some great and sudden success, he had been 
one of this persistent type and his good fortune, instead of 
being merely good luck, has been the result of his constant 
habit of making the most of every proper opportunity. 

You are leaving the Stevens Institute of Technology and 
beginning your active business careers at a time when the 
world is looking for young men with technical training and 
with capacity for doing things. On every hand there is 
work to do in which the graduate of this Institution can 
find their opportunities. You may have to begin in sub- 
ordinate positions, but with character, industry, and per- 




sistence, you can face the future with confidence. I hope 
that each one of you may achieve the fullest measure of 
success and that each one of you may do his part in the 
progress of the future. 

Valedictory Address by Jerome Strauss 

Mr. President, Gentlemen of the Board of Trustees and of the 
Faculty, Classmates and Friends: 

"There is an end to all. 
To pleasure and to pain 
To idleness and toil." 
Today marks the end to four years of pleasant associa- 

Joy and sorrow both are present for we rejoice at the 
attainment of a goal long sought and grieve at the severing of 
close comradeship with all those who have had during these 
four years so many daily interests in common. 

The friendships that have been formed and strengthened 
within these walls we earnestly hope will last forever. True 
friendship with its kindly criticism, its effective assistance 
at crucial moments and its uplifting tendencies is rare, 
and fortunate are we to have formed such friendships during 
our college course. 
Mr. President: 

In few colleges do the students have an opportunity 
of coming into that close contact with their official head 
which we have at Stevens. And in this respect the Class of 
1913 has been especially fortunate both within and without 
the classroom. We have learned, Mr. President, to place 
a high value on your abilities as a scholar and as a man of 
affairs and to appreciate your deep personal interest in 
the welfare of every Stevens man. And now, recognizing 
what you have done for your Alma Mater and knowing 



what you hope to accomplish, we enthusiastically enlist 

for the campaign. 

Gentlemen of the Board of Trustees: 

You have given us the opportunity of laying a solid 
foundation for future construction work. You have given 
us a strong curriculum and a faculty well equipped to do 
the teaching required by this curriculum. You have also 
recognized that to obtain the full benefit from a college 
training an opportunity must be given for social intercourse, 
and have provided for this by authorizing Dr. Humphreys 
to acquire the famous Castle Stevens. As a class we have 
profited by the purchase of this property, and feel certain 
that future classes will appreciate, as we do, all of the ad- 
vantages that have come to Stevens through the wisdom 
and foresight of its able Board of Trustees. 

Gentlemen of the Faculty: 

There is much to admire in the unselfish labor of the 
teacher. He certainly is one of those who believe that a 
successful life is marked by giving rather than by getting. 
During our college days we have been greatly influenced 
by your strong personality, and in the days to come will 
endeavor to live up to the high ideals which you have kept 
before us. We appreciate the interest that you have shown 
in all of our undergraduate activities, and assure you 
that it has done much to bring about the hearty spirit of 
cooperation between faculty and students that now exists 
at Stevens. 

To those of you who are far more to us than mere friends; 
to you who have watched most eagerly for the realization 
of your long cherished hopes; to you who by precept and 
example have had so much to do with our success up to 
the present time, we would here express our deepest grati- 
tude and pledge a future career of honest, earnest effort as 
a return for the many sacrifices that you have made for us. 




This is an age of industrial progress. Economy is the 
watchword of the day. Waste is converted into utilities 
wherever possible. Glycerine, formerly a worthless by- 
product in the manufacture of soap, is now being converted 
into high explosives; scrap iron and steel at one time per- 
mitted to rust away in huge heaps now produce imposing 
structures and even the finest cutlery; executive working 
hand in hand with laborer has given us our scientific man- 
agement, increasing production and hence the earnings 
of the latter and the profits of the former without additional 
labor from either. And to what class of men belongs the 
credit for most of this progress? Undoubtedly that class 
which combines successfully the engineer and the man of 
affairs. We are especially fortunate that the course at 
Stevens gives the student a knowledge of business matters 
as well as a purely technical training. Men of 1913: This 
day marks the end of many pleasant associations. Ambi- 
tious and confident we now start along different paths. 
Honesty of purpose and the employment of common sense 
will carry us successfully through the future years as they 
have through our college course. Now we separate. Re- 
unions may be few and far between, but when they do 
come what pleasure will be ours as we recall the days at 
Stevens Tech, and the incidents of this Commencement 

To each, and for each, I say farewell. 


■ ■ 


■ a 




jii ii 1 1 1 1 ii ill ii ii i ji i j 1 1 jjiiiiiiiJiiif uiiui if JiiuiJiiiif mil i« i Mil III 1 11 III II 1 1 1 1 1 II 

f I ^HE Stevens Club of Brooklyn has been considering for 
■P" some time past the advisability of bringing the differ- 
ent alumni clubs into closer touch with each other. The 
Brooklyn Club communicated with the various other 
Stevens clubs throughout the country and finally called 
a meeting of representatives on the morning of Alumni 
Day, June 7, 1913, in the Memorial Room of the Morton 
Memorial Building. There were present at the meeting 
F. C. Fraentzel, '83, and W. R. Halliday, '02, of the Stevens 
Club of Newark; H. H. Mapelsden, '03, and R. H. Marvin, 
'03, of the Stevens Club of Schenectady; H. E. Williams, 
'00, of the Stevens Club of Pittsburgh; F. C. Freeman, '03, 
and A. C. Klein, '08, of the Stevens Club of Philadelphia, 
and David C. Johnson, '06, of the Stevens Club of Brooklyn; 
also J. H. Cuntz, '93, G. G. Freygang, '09, F. J. Gubelman, 
'89, Walter Kidde, '97, T. C. Stephens, '00, Prof. F. DeR. 
Furman, '93, Prof. A. F. Ganz, '95, and Dr. Alexander C. 
Humphreys, '81. 

The meeting was called to order at 11 o'clock by David 
C. Johnson, president of the Stevens Club of Brooklyn, 
who was elected chairman. F. C. Freeman was elected 
secretary. Mr. Johnson then explained that the object of 
the meeting was "To discuss the matter of closer coopera- 
tion between the various individual Stevens clubs and with 
the Alumni Association." He stated that letters had been 
received from every one of the eleven Stevens clubs and 
that they were all in favor of some form of cooperation, 



provided the movement was in harmony with the objects 
of the Alumni Association. 

The following are the present Stevens alumni clubs: — 
Stevens Club of Newark; Southern Alumni Club; Stevens 
Club of Philadelphia; Stevens Club of Schenectady; Wis- 
consin Stevens Club; Western Stevens Club; Stevens Club 
of Pittsburgh; New England Stevens Club; Michigan 
Stevens Club; Stevens Club of Brooklyn, and European 
Branch Stevens Alumni Association. 

It was pointed out that the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology has an organization known as "The Technology 
Clubs Associated" which was organized in January, 1913, 
and Princeton has a somewhat similar association. 

There was considerable discussion as to whether an asso- 
ciation of Stevens clubs should be a part of the present 
Alumni Association, or be a separate organization, but 
having some offices in common with those of the Alumni 
Association, such as the secretary and the treasurer. 

The following advantages of cooperation or consolidation 
were brought out at the meeting: — To keep alive and im- 
part enthusiasm to the present clubs, to help organize 
new clubs, to inform clubs of the addresses of men in their 
vicinity, to notify clubs when prominent alumni or professors 
expected to visit their city so that a dinner or meeting might 
be held, to spread the fame of Stevens still further into all 
parts of the country, to notify alumni when the different 
clubs expect to hold their important dinners, so that travel- 
ing alumni in the neighborhood can attend, to obtain news 
items for the different Stevens publications, and to obtain 
opinions from the clubs in different parts of the country 
on subjects affecting the college or the alumni body. 

Dr. Humphreys spoke at length regarding the desirability 
pi acquainting the young men of the country with the many 
unique advantages which Stevens has to offer for engineering 



education. He expressed himself as being heartily in sym- 
pathy with the movement to bring the clubs closer together. 

A motion was made to appoint a committee to confer 
with a committee from the Alumni Association, for the 
purpose of studying the best form of organization. The 
chairman of the meeting appointed W. A. Shoudy, '99, 
F. C. Fraentzel '83, and F. C. Freeman/03. The committee 
appointed by the Alumni Association to confer with the 
representatives of the clubs is composed of David C. John- 
son, '06, Walter Kidde, '97, and T. C. Stephens, '00. 


HT^ HE annual meeting of the Alumni Association of Stev- 
ens Institute of Technology was held in the audi- 
torium of the college at Hoboken on the evening of June 9, 
1913, being called to order by President E. H. Peabody, '90, 
at 8:30 o'clock. The reading of the minutes of the mid- 
winter meeting was dispensed with. All present standing, 
the secretary then read the following names of men con- 
nected with Stevens who had died since the midwinter 
meeting : 

Stephen Squires Palmer, Trustee, S. I. T., 

Died January 29, 1913. 
John Fritz, Sc. D., E. D. (Stevens 1907), 

Died February 13, 1913. 
Oscar Antz, '78 

Died January 9, 1913. 
Franklin B. Crosby, '09 

Died April 20, 1913. 

When the reports of officers were taken up, Mr. Pea- 
body announced that he had no report, but referred to the 
minutes of the executive committee, appearing in the Indi- 
cator. He extended a cordial welcome to the Class of 1913. 

The secretary made no report, but the treasurer read a 
preliminary report, stating that in its final form it would 
be published in the October Indicator. 

Hosca Webster's report as retiring Alumni Trustee, which 
is given elsewhere in full, was then presented. 



Walter Kidde, '97, in the absence of Henry Torrance, 
Jr., '90, then read the following report of the Graduates 
Fund Committee: — 

"In conference with Henry Torrance, Jr., chairman of 
the Graduates Fund Committee, and after careful analysis 
of existing needs, for the distribution of the funds amounting 
to $5450.92 and collected for the year ending May, 1913, is 
recommended to be applied as follows : 

To the general expenses of the year '12-' 13 
in the administration of affairs of Stevens 
Institute of Technology — for expenses in- 
curred in operating Castle Stevens 

To making of a layout and birdseye view of 
Castle Point Grounds for photographic 
post cards, etc 

To necessary Castle changes, such as an ash 
vault and area way around lunch room, and 
miscellaneous odd repairs, urgently needed 


"This disposes of all the funds collected in the course of 
the year and makes use of the money in a manner agreeable 
to Dr. Humphreys and where he says it is most urgently 
needed at the present time. 

"The record of the Graduates Fund in the last three years 
shows subscriptions amounting to nine or ten thousand 
dollars, and it is a matter of congratulation for the Alumni 
Association. Indications are that next year will see a sub- 
stantial increase in the fund which is gratifying and we hope 
this may be an incentive for still further work in the sup- 
port of the President of our Alma Mater. 

Hosea Webster, 
J. W. Lieb, Jr., 
Walter Kidde, 
Alumni Trustees." 



The report was accepted as read with the thanks of the 

In the absence of F. J. Gubelman, '89, chairman, Pro- 
fessor Furman, '93, was called upon to make some remarks 
regarding the Publicity Committee. 

Por the Committee on Increase of Membership, J. A. 
Dixon, '91, reported as follows: 

"Your Committee on Increase of Membership begs to 
submit a synopsis of the year's work and report briefly as 
follows : 

"There were found to be 455 alumni who were not mem- 
bers of the Association, the addresses of 32 being unknown, 
and the first general canvass brought in but 12 applications 
for re-ins tatement. 

"The result of a repeated general effort, compared with 
what was being accomplished by more individual work, 
persuaded us to pursue our work on the latter basis and as 
a result we have been able to submit to the Executive Com- 

Por Reinstatement 43 

For Life Membership 2 

Por Associate Membership 16 

"While compared with the number of alumni who are 
still non-members and the number of ex-classmen who are 
eligible to Associate Membership, the number of names 
submitted may seem small, but it must be remembered 
that a large amount of personal and individual work, mostly 
by correspondence, has been necessary, and we believe the 
work should not be dropped. 

"Through the continued cooperation of Class Represen- 
tative, Stevens Clubs and individuals a large number of 
valuable men may be added to our membership. 

"We take this opportunity of thanking those who have 
rendered valuable assistance in the accomplishment of the 
results herewith reported. , 



"Respectfully submitted, 

"Committee on Increase of Membership 

Prof. F. DeR. Furman, '93 

Robert Boettger, '98 

Percy C. Idell, '99 

J. A. Meeker, '07 

J. A. Dixon, '91, Chairman." 

In the absence of R. S. Kursheedt, '80, chairman of the 
Stevens Luncheon Committee, Mr. Peabody made a few 
brief remarks on this subject. 

H. A. Pratt, '04, then rendered the report of the Alumni 
Athletic Committee, stating that they had had a very suc- 
cessful and busy year and thanking the alumni for their 
support. At the conclusion of his remarks he presented to 
Dr. F. J. Pond a silver loving cup in recognition of his long 
service as treasurer of the Athletic Association. 

Mr. Peabody then introduced J. D. Flack, '87, who spoke 
concerning Alumni Headquarters at the Castle. The Class 
of '87 has furnished the funds for fitting up the study-room 
on the third floor of the Castle. 

Speaking as editor of the Indicator, G. E. Terwilliger, 
'09, expressed a desire to have the Indicator serve the 
alumni in every possible way, and pointed out the necessity 
for alumni cooperation and particularly that of the Class 
Representatives in furnishing news. He stated that he 
hoped for a surplus from the publication each year. He 
also stated that the scope of the Alumni Publicity Committee 
was necessarily somewhat limited, and that he believed that 
the Faculty Publicity Committee was in a much better posi- 
tion for the acquisition and distribution of news concerning 
the college proper. 

F. C. Fraentzel, '83, reported for the Alumni Day Com- 
mittee, in the absence of E. E. Hinkle, '90, chairman, and 
stated that indications pointed to a surplus in the com- 
mittee's treasury. 



The secretary then read the name of J. F. Haworth, '90, 
presented by the Executive Committee for election to active 
membership in the Association. Mr. Haworth was unani- 
mously elected. 

The secretary read the names of the following men who 
had been recommended by the Executive Committee for 
election to associate membership, and they were unani- 
mously elected: 

Edward T. Condon, Jr., ex '10 W. Dirk Van Ingen, ex '13 

A. V. Johansen, ex '07 George L. Lancon, ex '96 

S. X. Metzger, ex '09 Jerome D. Gedney, ex '96 

Orien O. Oaks, ex '05 Wessels Van Blarcom, ex '93 

Warren Garwin, ex '05 Harold A. Brangs, ex '09 

Hampton D. Ewing, ex '90 John D. Lobb, ex '08 

Dr. Edward D. Rudderow, ex '93 

The amendment to Article 5, Section 1 of the Constitu- 
tion, proposed at the midwinter meeting by the Executive 
Committee, was read as follows : 

Article V., Section 1, now reading: 

(a) The officers, together with the eight Directors, shall 
constitute the Executive Committee. The Alumni Trus- 
tees shall be ex-officio members of the Executive Committee. 
(June 10, 1908.) 

(b) At least three of the members of the Executive Com- 
mittee shall be residents of the State of New Jersey. (June 
10, 1908.) 

It is proposed to amend by adding a clause reading : 

(c) The Past-Presidents of the Association shall be in- 
vited to attend all meetings of the Executive Committee, 
but as such, shall not count toward a quorum or be allowed 
to vote, except that the five Past-Presidents who last held 
office shall have regular voting power. 

After discussion the amendment was adopted. 

Mr. Peabody then slated that it was customary to pre- 
Bent I lie accumulated interest of the Beneficiary Fund to 
the College, and a motion was carried to this effect. 



A telegram from the Stevens Club of Michigan, sending 
their greetings to the Alumni Association was read. On 
motion of Mr. Cuntz the secretary was instructed to write 
to L. J. Schneider, '11, secretary of the Stevens Club of 
Michigan, expressing the appreciation of the Association. 

Mr. Peabody then said a few words on Stevens Clubs, 
expressing a need for their cooperation and activity in the 
cause of publicity. D. C. Johnson, '06, told of a move- 
ment for the consolidation or affiliation of the clubs, and on 
his motion the president was authorized to appoint a com- 
mittee of three to confer with a committee appointed by the 
clubs at the meeting of their delegates, to draw up plans for 

J. A. Dixon then proposed that the following resolutions 
relating to the secretaryship be spread upon the minutes in 
full, and published in the Indicator : 

"Whereas, through the resignation of the Secretary of 
the Alumni Association of Stevens Institute of Technology 
early in the season of 1912 and '13 it became necessary for 
the Executive Committee to immediately appoint some one 
to fill this important office, and 

"Whereas, the financial situation of the treasury of the 
Association made it difficult to pay the usual honorarium to 
the Secretary, and 

"Whereas, Mr. Thomas C. Stevens, of the Class of 1900, 
agreed to accept the responsibilities of this office entirely 
without remuneration, and has at great personal sacrifice 
carried on the arduous work of the Secretary's office with 
satisfaction and dispatch, and has recently submitted a 
report to the Executive Committee containing recommen- 
dations of great value to the Association, therefore be it 

"Resolved, That the thanks of the Alumni Association of 
Stevens Institute of Technology, at this Annual Meeting in 
Commencement Week, 1913, be and hereby is extended to 
Mr. Stevens in recognition of the services he had so ably 



performed for this Association and for his Alma Mater.' ' 

Mr. Cuntz spoke of the possibility of holding a Stevens 
convention next winter, by making the dates of the various 
Stevens activities fall on successive days. There was some 
discussion in relation to this. W. A. Shoudy, '99, expressed 
the opinion that men out of town would be inclined to attend 
if the midwinter meeting and dinner were held on succeed- 
ing dates, and also that the meeting should be made a prom- 
inent feature as it gave alumni an opportunity to renew old 

The announcement of those elected as officers and direct- 
ors of the Alumni Association at the annual election was 
then made by the Secretary. 

Professor Ganz nominated the following members of the 
Executive Committee for trustees of the Association: — 
J. H. Cuntz, J. A. Dixon, G. G. Freygang, J. S. DeHart and 
Walter Kidde, and there being no further nominations, 
moved that the secretary be instructed to cast one ballot for 
the election of these nominees. The motion was carried. 

Dr. Humphreys then announced that E. H. Peabody had 
received the largest number of votes as Alumni Trustee, 
and that the trustees of Stevens Institute of Technology 
had ratified his election. 

Dr. Humphreys made some further remarks, laying em- 
phasis on the fact that the Graduates Fund had been of 
great help to him and Stevens, particularly at this time in 
facing a deficit of $37,000. He also stated that the out- 
look for recovering the collateral inheritance tax from the 
United States Government was better than ever before. Dr. 
Humphreys spoke of Stevens as furnishing a broad engi- 
neering course and of the desirability of interesting the right 
kind of young men to come to the college. He then an- 
nounced the following gifts to the college during the year 1913: 

" From Mrs. Henry Lang, for the purchase of the Robert L. 
Stevens land, $10,000. It was this gift which started the fund. 



"From the late Stephen S. Palmer, Trustee, for the pur- 
chase of the Robert L. Stevens land, $25,000. 

"John Aspinwall, Stevens, '81, paid bill of Frost and 
Bartlett for doctoring the trees on Castle Point, $410. 

"An unnamed donor gave $1,000 to be applied as indi- 
cated by me. I have added it to the fund for the purchase 
of the Robert L. Stevens land. The donor particularly 
desires that his name shall not be announced in connection 
with this gift. 

"From Thaddeus R. Beal, representing the heirs of his 
father, my old friend William R. Beal, $5,000 to establish 
a scholarship to be known as the William R. Beal scholar- 
ship. I recommend that the scholarship be so established. 

"Rear Admiral George W. Melville, upon whom the Insti- 
tute conferred the honorary degree of Doctor of Engineering, 
died March 17, 1912. In his will he bequeathed to the 
Institute $5,000 to be applied to the purchase of tools or 
apparatus for the Department of Experimental Engineering 
(Carnegie Laboratory), the donor's name to be attached 
thereto. There has been litigation in regard to Admiral 
Melville's will, so we have not yet received the bequest, but 
we have just been notified that the payment will shortly be 

"From S. G. Rosenbaum, through R. S. Kursheedt, Class 
of '80, $100 to the Robert L. Stevens fund. 

"From R. S. Kursheedt, to the Robert L. Stevens fund, 

"From four graduates of the Institute, J. W. Lieb, Jr., 
'85; John W. Howell, '81; A. W. Burchard, '85; and Her- 
bert A. Wagner, '87, $550 to purchase a multipolar genera- 
tor. A special price was given through the courtesy of the 
General Electric Company. 

"From Mr. and Mrs. Andrew T. Connet, as an acknowl- 
edgment of the success in the engineering profession at- 



tained by their son Frederick N. Connet, Class of '89, $500 
to the Robert L. Stevens fund. 

"From Gerard P. Herrick, in acknowledgment of serv- 
ices performed by Professor Pryor, $100 for special store- 
room for the Carnegie Laboratory. 

"From George Dinkel, Stevens '88, to the Robert L. 
Stevens fund $500. 

"From Dr. Edward Weston, Trustee, additional equip- 
ment for the laboratory of Electrical Engineering. 

"From the United States Motor Company, through W. 
E. S. Strong, Class of '92, the extensive and valuable exhibits 
used in the celebrated Selden Patent Suit, so long in the 
courts in connection with the manufacture of automobiles. 
These exhibits will be important additions to our museum 
when the museum is built. 

"From the Link of 1912, published by the Class of 1913 
during their Junior year, surplus after paying all costs of 
publication, $280.55. 

"From the Class of 1913, in connection with their grad- 
uation, about $800 to be applied to the Gymnasium Fund. 
They also pledge $50 each to the same fund to be paid in a 
year or to carry interest until paid. 

"The Classes of 1902 and 1912 have combined to pay for 
the alteration and equipment of a room in the castle, to be 
known as the Dungeon, and to be particularly used for 
reunions and dinners of the graduated classes. The cost is 
estimated at $1,500, and each of these classes has subscribed 

"The Class of 1903 will pay into the Institute treasury on 
Alumni Reunion Day about $250, in commemoration of the 
tenth anniversary of their graduation. This amount will 
be appropriated to the Robert L. Stevens fund or the Gym- 
nasium Fund. 

" Prom the Class of '87, for furnishing the Study Room 
on the third floor of the Castle, $325. 



"From the Musical Clubs, to Gymnasium Fund, $100." 

Mr. Peabody at this point ably recited a German poem 
introducing Professor Kroeh, much to the professor's amuse- 
ment. After a few remarks from Professor Kroeh the meet- 
ing adjourned. 

The following alumni signed the roll: 

Philip E. Raque, '76 


A. C. Humphreys, '81 
Hosea Webster, '82 
Fred C. Fraentzel, '83 
Robert M. Anderson, '87 
J. H. Cuntz, '87 
J. Day Flack, '87 

E. H. Peabody, '90 

G. L. Todd, '90 

A. P. Boller, Jr., '91 
J. A. Dixon, '91 
A. J. Post, '92 
W . E. S. Strong, '92 
A. D. Whitcomb, '92 

F. DeR. Furman, '93 

H. E. Griswold, '93 
Albert F. Ganz, '95 
W. J. Boucher, '96 
C. G. Woolson, '96 
Edwin R. Knapp, '97 
Henry Samuel Morton, '97 
R. C. Post, '98 

W. A. Shoudy, '99 
William F. Cox, '00 
Louis A. Martin, Jr., '00 
T. C. Stephens, '00 
Wm. G. Broadhurst, '02 
Leigh K. Lydecker, '02 
R. F. Jacobus, '04 
Harlan A. Pratt, '04 

H. C. Gordon, '05 

I. R. Lewis, '05 
A. Obrig, '05 

E. A. Stevens, Jr., '05 
L. A. Hazeltine, '06 

E. 0. Heyworth, '06 
David C. Johnson, '06 
Francis MacLehose, '06 
Henry F. Pratt, '06 
Leon O. Hart, '07 
Peter Minck, '07 

W. Erlenkotter, '08 
C. C. Phelps, '08 
G. D. Thayer, '08 
A. J. Carniaux, '09 
G. G. Freygang, '09 
G. E. Terwilliger, '09 
Julius G. Berger, '10 

F. C. Krause, '10 
T. A. Wiley, '10 

A. R. Lawrence, '11 
Ronald K. MacMaster, '11 
Albert D. Trenor, '11 
L. A. Belding, '12 

G. Breithaupt, '12 
C. J. Dempwolf, '12 
Walter F. Dombrowsky, '12 
Walter H. Freygang, '12 
Harold H. C. Lasker, '12 


J. D. Strobell, '12 
Thomas P. Bradshaw, '13 
J. Herbert Brautigam, '13 
John J. Ehrhardt, '13 
Theodore R. Eilenberg, '13 
Chester Kingsbury, '13 
K. R. Millspaugh'13 
W. G. Nichols, '13 
R. P. Pennoyer, '13 
Robert Roesen, '13 



Elias Schlank, '13 Theodore W. Weigele, '13 

C. Wandel, '13 Robert L. Wellman, '13 

The following members of the Faculty also attended: 

Prof. Charles F. Kroeh Dr. F. L. Sevenoak 

Dr. Francis J. Pond 


■ ■ 

iiiufliijiuiiiiiiiiiiijiii jiiiiiifiiiiijijiiiiiiiffiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiifaiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiif iuiiiiii 

■ a 


By Hosea Webster, '82 

■ ■ 

iiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiij if if iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiif inn iiiit «t iiiiifin 11 iniiiQxixi 


rpWENTY-FIVE years after his graduation from Cornell 
University, in the course of Mechanic Arts, the late 
Walter C. Kerr, for many years a Trustee of Cornell Uni- 
versity, in a scholarly address to our Graduating Class of 
1904, among many other good things said: "Just so far as 
education assisted by concentration contributes to singleness 
of purpose, it is useful, but, where, by length, breadth, or 
depth, it dilutes human effort, it lacks value." 

Our attention has been so efficiently called to the present 
and future problems confronting our association, and for 
that matter the whole Institute organization, that it may 
be profitable and perhaps of some assistance to give con- 
sideration to the past and present accomplishments of our 
Alma Mater. 

The organization which embraces the Stevens School 
and the Stevens Institute of Technology, may be considered 
as a complete institution equipped to cover eight years 
continuous Academic and Technical Course, admitting boys 
at the age of thirteen. 

The Corporation is governed by a Board of Trustees, 
nominally twenty in number, of whom there are now eighteen 
members, including the three alumni representatives. On 
this Board are men of prominence and great influence and 
ability in industrial, financial, educational and social affairs 
of the Nation. 

The educational activities of the Institute are carried on 
by a Faculty, twenty of whom are teaching some three hun- 
dred boys and young men in the Stevens School, and in the 



Institute proper by a Faculty consisting of three professors 
emeritus; twelve full professors; eight assistant professors; 
eleven instructors; one superintendent of shop practice and 
shop assistants, mechanics, laboratory assistants, superin- 
tending engineers, etc., aggregating over fifty. 

At the present writing there are enrolled and in good stand- 
ing in the Institute: 

92 Freshmen, 
75 Sophomores, 
73 Juniors, 
69 Seniors, 

making a total of over 600 students, including 300 of the 
Stevens School. 

The four years course in the Stevens School is character- 
ized by simplicity and covers arithmetic, algebra, plane and 
solid geometry, plane trigonometry, English throughout 
the four years, physical geography, chemistry and physics, 
English and United States history and Civics, Free Hand and 
Mechanical Drawing and French, German or Latin. 

In the Institute there are Departments of 

Descriptive Geometry, 
Mechanical Drawing, 
Economics of Engineering, 
Electrical Engineering, 
Engineering Practice, 
English and Logic, 
Experimental Engineering, 

Mechanism and Machine Design, 

Modern Languages, 


Shop Practice, 

Si pud ural Engineering. 



Each department is under the direction of a competent 

It is perhaps well to quote from the Institute catalogue as 
follows : 

No effort is spared to make instruction in each department harmonize 
with, reinforce and supplement the work in all other departments. From 
the first it was the aim of the late President, Dr. Henry Morton, to offer 
a course of instruction in which theory and practice were carefully 
balanced and thoroughly combined. 

Stevens Institute of to-day is a natural and consistent 
growth from the Stevens of thirty years ago, holding strictly 
in every department to the fundamental idea of thoroughness 
and quality in the doing of all those things which have to be 

The paper read at Detroit, in June, 1908, before the Society 
for the Promotion of Engineering Education, by Prof. F. 
de R. Furman, upon the careers of graduates of Mechanical 
Engineering, and published in the Indicator for October, 
1908, has as one purpose "The measure of success of grad- 
uates in Mechanical Engineering, based upon the records of 
all the graduates of the Stevens Institute of Technology dur- 
ing 35 years following the founding of the Institute in 1871." 

Professor Furman's paper is based upon a careful analysis 
of facts, studied from every conceivable view-point. He 
shows that the number of graduates each year has steadily 
grown and he shows out of those who have graduated, from 
Stevens up to and including the Class of 1908, the percentage 
who had risen to positions of responsibility as owners, officers 
and managers or department heads in responsible charge, as 
follows : 

Of those who had been graduated 30 years — 98.1 per cent. 
Of those who had been graduated 25 years — 96.5 per cent. 
Of those who had been graduated 20 years — 94.4 per cent. 
Of those who had been graduated 15 years — 90.0 per cent. 
Of those who had been graduated 10 years — 80.7 per cent. 
Of those who had been graduated 5 years — 48.3 per cent. 



19 per cent were in the employ of large corporations. But 
5 per cent had entered occupations in no way associated 
with manufacturing or engineering work. He shows that 
Stevens graduates up to 1908 were engaged in over 400 differ- 
ent specialties, covering nearly every form of development, 
manufacture and use of our natural resources. 

Reference to the last Institute catalogue will show that 
there has been no falling off in the measure of success of 
Stevens graduates 

May we not be proud of the fact that this showing is con- 
vincing evidence that as a preparation for taking part in 
the great material and industrial development of our coun- 
try, the course at Stevens Institute is efficient and success- 
ful. Certainly every one of you know and will never forget 
that his Stevens degree of Mechanical Engineer means that 
he has done work — hard work — and lots of it and that it 
has always been for quality and high efficiency. 

It seems proper to make known at this point a fact with 
relation to the Stevens School, which is significant at least. 

Two boys who had made flat failures in their home high 
schools in one of our prominent suburban towns, and another 
from the same town who had failed to make any headway 
in any one of half a dozen schools to which he had been sent, 
are now at Stevens School and each a credit to himself, to 
his teachers and a source of parental pride. Those of you 
who are parents, know what it means to have your children 
do well in school or college, and if you are honest, you know 
how large a share of that success is due to the spirit of the 
Institution which is merely the manifestation of the com- 
posite ability, integrity, character and personality of those 
who make up the Faculty and Administrative Board from 
the Principal or President down to the janitor. 

The position which Stevens holds among technical in- 
stitutions, is due largely to the tireless and unselfish devotion, 
individually and collectively, of the whole Faculty and oper- 



ating organization, under the direction of Dr. Morton and 
of Dr. Humphreys, to all of whom too little credit has been 
given. When in the future the history of our country's 
great industrial development has been written, the highest 
honor will be given to those who, as teachers, have given the 
best years of their lives to the rising generation of young 
men and to those who by their generosity and devotion, have 
provided for these teachers and these young men the edu- 
cational facilities without which our national greatness 
would have been impossible. 

^Yhen to the great environment advantage, and environ- 
ment is certainly an influence of great weight, due to its 
proximity to the great industrial centers and activities in 
and about New York City, there is added the equipment of 
buildings, dormitories, residences for President and Faculty, 
as planned by Dr. Humphreys, giving more complete control 
over the habits of thinking, doing and growing of the young 
men during the most critical formative period of their lives, 
our beloved Alma Mater will become a still greater influence 
and power, not because of its bigness, not because of its 
great diversity of courses, optional and required, not because 
of its great breadth and probable consequent shallowness 
and distracting diversity of courses and potpourri of intell- 
ectual and mental gymnastics, but because of the mental 
atmosphere, of the rigid adherence to physical and mathe- 
matical exactness necessarily characteristic of a purely 
engineering and technical education. 

The elevated prominence and the proximity of Castle 
Point to our country's greatest industrial, social and intel- 
lectual center must make it most attractive to educators of 
prominence and superior ability and accomplishments. 

In a letter addressed to the Board of Trustees, individually 
and collectively, preliminary to their recent annual meeting, 
Dr. Humphreys outlined clearly the present condition of our 
affairs. He says in this letter: 



During the ten years of my presidency I have secured contributions 
amounting to almost $600,000. I have worked in many directions to 
secure for the Institute the interest of those well able to help and es- 
pecially those who have been enriched through the industries, and I 
hope I have made some progress, but it is weary waiting. I have opened 
the way and I am willing to go forward to the full extent of my abil- 
ity and strength. During the past year I have been carrying burdens 
in the Institute and outside, which unaided I cannot carry another year. 
I have worked unceasingly in this connection during the ten years of 
my presidency and if I may be pardoned for being personal, I have 
sacrificed four-fifths of my previous income through my official connec- 
tion with the Institute. 

There are probably few of you who do not know that it 
requires something besides the dollar mark to measure the 
sacrifices which Dr. Humphreys has made and is making, 
not because of any proportionate obligation assumed or 
implied, not for the honor or greater glory of it, but that a 
greater number of the coming generation of our young men 
may have the privileges of that thorough and efficient prepa- 
ration for the higher and better responsibilities of the life of 
today which has been, and is, and more than ever will be, 
behind the degree at Stevens Institute. 

It is always darkest just before dawn and there are in our 
Board of Trustees, in our Faculty and in our alumni, so 
many men of great affairs, of great accomplishments and of 
great things, that the labor, the sacrifices and the devotion of 
Dr. Humphreys will and must be rewarded by immediate 
development of his great and comprehensive plan for an 
up-to-date educational institution which I sincerely believe 
will show how to effectively prepare young men for the greater 
than ever problems before our great nation. 

While it has not been possible to gather statistics, it is 
probably true that the great and rapidly increasing popu- 
larity of courses in the Science of Agriculture, is largely re- 
sponsible for the material decrease in the number taking 
courses ill civil and mechanical engineering in all technical 
schools and colleges. 



If there were in every class and department, as many 
students as it could conveniently accommodate, the resulting 
increase in our income would nearly if not quite solve one 
serious problem, the annual deficit due to the fact that while 
our cost per student is said to be lower than any similar 
institution, even at that our income is less than our ex- 

The alumni of Stevens have a splendid working organiza- 
tion and it is suggested that the greatest possible assistance 
and aid can be given, if now and in the future, this organiza- 
tion's energies are devoted to a campaign whose sole object 
shall be an increase in the number of students. 

The situation, therefore, presents not in any sense a duty 
to any of you, but a privilege to all, alumni, Faculty and 
Trustees, to associate and combine in the development and 
fruition of a plan which because diverted to the right edu- 
cation of those who are to influence our future national char- 
acter, therefore, is purely patriotic and because patriotic 
must of necessity, particularly in these times, call forth the 
best effort in every one of you. 








Franklin Butler Crosby, Stevens '09, was killed in an 
automobile accident near Taunton, Mass., on Sunday, 
April 20, 1913. 

In his death Stevens loses a son who was true to the 
highest ideals for which the college stands. He was capable 
to a marked degree and possessed the ability to direct his 
knowledge and initiative into such practical channels that he 
had risen to a position of unusual authority for a man not 
yet four years graduated. Blessed with a winning person- 
ality, "Chub," as his college friends best knew him, had 
the facility of making his acquaintances his firm friends. 
He had a cheery word for all and was never too busy to 
tackle a problem that had perplexed a neighbor. 

Mr. Crosby was twenty-five years old, the son of the 
late William Bedlow and Maria Theresa Hall Crosby. 
He was unmarried and lived at Short Hills, N. J., with 
his aunt, Miss Josephine Hall. 

At Stevens Mr. Crosby made an enviable record. He 
stood high in scholarship and was a member of the honor- 
ary association of Tau Beta Pi. He was also a member 
of the Beta Theta Pi fraternity, and of Scarab. He was 
manager of the track team in his senior year, an associate 
editor of The Stute and was interested generally in athletics. 
Upon graduation he entered the employ of Gunn, Richards 
& Company, later leaving that firm to become associated 
with J. W. DuB. Gould, specializing in production engineer- 
ing and similar work. He was connected with the American 
Locomotive Works, in their automobile department at 
Providence, as a representative of Mr. Gould at the time of 
his death. 


Stevens Indicator 







Gerald E. Terwilliger, '09 
One Liberty Street, New York City 

Subscription Price, $1.50 per Year. Single Copies, 50 Cents 


Among alumni as well as undergraduates much complaint 
is heard concerning the lack of success of some of the ath- 
B s ball o letic ^ eams ^ or severa l seasons past, and 
Lacrosse? ^ ne °^ question has come to the front 

more prominently than ever before whether 
Stevens should attempt to support two major sports such 
as baseball and lacrosse during the spring athletic cam- 
paign. Just at present there seem to be more and more 
converts to the belief that the college cannot maintain two 
separate teams to advantage. That one team draws good 
men from the other is indisputable. But which to abolish? 
There are sound arguments in favor of retaining either 
baseball or 'acrosse as against the other. The Indicator 
does not mean to ally itself with either camp, but merely 
desires to bring the matter forcibly to the attention of the 
alumni and especially to the recently organized Athletic 
Council, which would appear to have jurisdiction. No step 
should be taken unadvisedly, or without due consideration 



of the rights of all concerned, but there is a vital problem 
to be faced, and the sooner it is faced honestly and squarely, 
the sooner may its proper solution be expected. 

Active steps have been taken to consolidate and enlarge 
the Stevens clubs scattered over this country and Europe. 
^ . It has been felt in many quarters that the 
Clubs Stevens alumni clubs were not doing as efficient 
and widespread service as they might under a 
scheme of cooperation. Through the energy of the officials 
of the Stevens Club of Brooklyn the matter has been 
brought to a head, and a committee is already at work 
upon a plan which will supplement the activities of the 
Alumni Association without conflicting with the general 
alumni body. The question of organizing new clubs in 
undeveloped territory, and reviving those which have 
fallen into a moribund state is to be met. With such a 
system of cooperation in force, and with the use of the 
office of the secretary of the Alumni Association as a clearing 
house of alumni news, the alumni should be brought into 
closer touch with each other, and greater things for Stevens 
made possible. 

The Alumni Association has entered a new fiscal year 
with a comfortable bank balance and a record of achieve- 
ment that is highly creditable to the retir- 
ing administration. There are plans in 
view which promise a still further advance 
It is proposed to combine certain of the 
fixtures, such as the annual dinner and the midwinter 
meeting, in order to hold a Stevens Convention, a monster 
reunion of graduates who would make the trip to New 
fork over the week-end and attend the various functions 

Year Ahead 

in usefulness. 



of the two-day session. So great was the success of the 
theatre party, that 1914 will surely see another of these 
enjoyable functions. Altogether it looks like a most inter- 
esting program. Did it ever occur to you what a favor 
you might do some non-member by telling him of the 
useful activities of the Alumni Association? And while 
thinking of this, remember that students who did not 
graduate are eligible for associate membership. 



President J. H. Cuntz, '87 

First Vice-President J. Alfred Dixon, '91 

Second Vice-President William E. S. Strong, '92 

Secretary Gustav G. Freygang, '09 

Treasurer Louis A. Martin, Jr., '00 

Directors: Term Expires 1914 — F. J. Gubelman, '89; H. E. Griswold, 

'93; R. C. Post, '89; R. W. Pryor, Jr., '02. Term Expires 1915— 

John S. DeHart, '90; Frederick A. Muschenheim, '91 ; Charles H. 

McCullough, Jr., '91; Frank E. Law, '92. 
Trustees: J. H. Cuntz, '87; John S. DeHart, '90; J. A. Dixon, '91; 

Walter Kidde, '97; Gustav G. Freygang, '09. 
Alumni Trustees: Walter Kidde, '97; John W. Lieb, Jr., '80; Ernest 

H. Peabody, '90. 

Stevens Institute Alumni Association (European Branch) — Lafayette D. 
Carroll, '84, Acting Secretary, 36-38 Victoria St., London, S. W., 

Stevens Club of Newark — W. R. Halliday, '02, Secretary, Stevens 
Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N. J. 

Stevens Club of Brooklyn — William E. Paulson, '04, Secretary, 13 
Fulton St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Southern Alumni Club — A. M. Norris, '07, Secretary, 1412 Continental 
Bldg., Baltimore, Md. 

Stevens Club of Philadelphia — J. B. Klumpp, '94, Secretary-Treasurer, 
U. G. L Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Stevens Club of Schenectady — Richard H. Marvin, '03, Secretary- 
Treasurer, General Electric Co., Schenectady, N. Y. 



Wisconsin Stevens Club — Cornelius T. Myers, '00, Secretary, General 

Motors Co., Detroit, Mich. 
Western Stevens Club — A. K. Hamilton, '95, Secretary, 143 Liberty St., 

New York City. 

Stevens Club of Pittsburgh — E. A. Condit, Jr., '02, Secretary-Treasurer, 

2348 Oliver Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
New England Stevens Club — F. M. Gibson, '01, President, American 

Sugar Refining Co., Boston, Mass. 


'73. — J. A. Henderson, 120 North 19th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
'74. — H. W. Post, Box 415, Mountain Lakes, Boonton, N. J. 
'75. — S. D. Graydon, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N. J. 
'76. — A. Riesenberger, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N. J. 
'77— F. E. Idell, 50 Church St., New York City. 
'78. — A. A. De Bonneville, 132 Nassau St., New York City. 
'79. — John S. Cooke, 364 Broadway, Paterson, N. J. 
'80.— J. W. Lieb, Jr., 55 Duane St., New York City. 
'81— R. M. Dixon, 2 Rector St., New York City. 
'82. — Hosea Webster, 85 Liberty St., New York City. 
'83— F. C. Fraentzel, 804 Broad St., Newark, N. J. 
'84. — W. L. Lyall, 439 Aycrigg Ave., Passaic, N. J. 
'85.— A. W. Burchard, 30 Church St., New York City. 
'86— F. A. LaPointe, 63 Eighth St., Hoboken, N. J. 
'87.— J. D. Flack, "Orienta, " 302 West 79th St., New York City. 
'88. — Richard Beyer, 902 Hudson St., Hoboken, N. J. 
'89— F. J. Gubelman, 47 West 34th St., New York City. 
'90.— E. H. Peabody, 85 Liberty St., New York City. 
'91— C. G. Atwater, 17 Battery Place, New York City. 
'92.— W. O. Ludlow, 12 West 31st St., New York City. 
'93.— E. D. Lewis, 185 Madison Ave., New York City. 
'94. — G. B. Fielder, Cartaret Trust Co., Sip Ave., Jersey City, N. J. 
'95, — A. F. Ganz, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N. J. 
'96.— W. H. MacGregor, 165 Broadway, New York City. 
'97.— J. M. Towne, 54 Walnut St., East Orange, N. J. 
'98. — Robert Boettger, United Piece Dye Works, Lodi, Bergen Co., N. J. 
'99— J. S. Henry, Safety Car Htg. & Ltg. Co., 2 Rector St., New York 

'00— II. L. Underhill, Consolidated Gas Co., 501 East 21st St., New 
York City. 



'01. — A. Siegele, Jr., 167 Lenox Road, Flatbush, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
'02— L. K. Ltdecker, 2 Rector St., New York City. 
'03. — S. H. Lott, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N. J. 
'04. — C. E. Hedden, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N. J. 
'05— I. R. Lewis, care of Walter Kidde, 140 Cedar St., New York City. 
'06. — L. A. Hazeltlne, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N. J. 
'07. — Peter Minck, Kilbourne & Jacobs Mfg. Co., 25 Broad St., New 
York City. 

'08— G. D. Thayer, 24 Monticello Ave., Jersey City, N. J. 

'09— G. E. Terwilliger, 1 Liberty St., New York City. 

'10. — Nelson Ogden, New London Ship & Engine Co., Groton, Conn. 

'11.— S. J. Bell, Babcock & Wilcox Co., Bayonne, N. J. 

'12— Russell G. Hess, 709 Billings Ave., Paulsboro, N. J. 









William Kent's present address is 120 West 32nd Street, New York 


Theodore A. Elliott has changed his address to 205 Central Avenue, 
Cranford, N. J. 


H. deB. Parsons gave a lecture illustrated with lantern slides in the 
auditorium of Stevens Institute of Technology on April 3. Mr. Parsons' 
subject was "Three Hundred Years of Engineering Development in the 
Hudson River Valley." 

Dr. David S. Jacobus gave an illustrated lecture on "Boilers" at a 
meeting of the Detroit Engineering Society on March 7. 


John M. Rusby, engineer of tests of the United Gas Improvement 
Company, made an address on "Industrial Combustible Gases," before 
the mechanical and engineering section of the Franklin Institute in Phila- 
delphia on April 24. 


William W. Randolph has removed his offices to the Woolworth 
Building, 233 Broadway, New York City. 


Robert M. Anderson is with Murphy & Bolanz, 1004 Commerce 
Street, Dallas, Texas. 

J. H. Cuntz has been elected vice-president of the Board of Trustees 
for Industrial Education of the City of Hoboken. The 1913 volume of 
the "Sentry," the year book of the Hoboken Academy, is dedicated to 
Mr. Cuntz. 


Kh hard Beyer has been appointed a member of the Board of Trustees 
for Industrial Education of the City of Hoboken. Mr. Beyer, H. L. 
Ki:si;.\, '8!), and Prof. P. De R. Furman, '93, acted as judges of the draw- 



ings made by pupils of the evening classes of the Industrial School this 
spring. This appointment was made by Governor Fielder, of New Jersey, 
who is a brother of George B. Fielder, '94. 


W. W. Jackson is with the Regina Company, Rahway, N. J. 


The address of Samuel F. Smith, is in care of William Cubitt & Com- 
pany, 258 Gray's Inn Road, London, W. C, England. 


In a recent letter to President Humphreys, Dr. George L. Manning 

"Your very kind note of inquiry regarding my plans for the sabbatical 
leave has just been received. 

"I am looking forward with much pleasure to spending a year, mostly 
in America, and one of the chief pleasures is that of renewing acquaintance 
with my Alma Mater and those of her sons whom I know. I am counting 
on being away during the college year of 1914-15." Dr. Manning is 
professor of physics in Robert College, Constantinople, Turkey. 


Nicholas S. Hill, Jr., was recently appointed chairman of the Advi- 
sory Commission of Engineers on the Jerome Park filtration plant for the 
City of New York. The appointment come from the Corporate Stock 
Budget Committee of the Board of Estimate and Apportionment. 

Henry C. Meyer, Jr., is now located at the Architects Building, 101 
Park Avenue, New York City. 

W. O. Ludlow, of the firm of Ludlow & Peabody, is now located in 
the Architects Building, 101 Park Avenue, New York City. 


Mors O. Slocum is with Haines & Slocum Company, 259 Monroe 
Avenue, Rochester, N. Y. 

Harry Holden MacCord, ex-'93, has passed the Michigan Bar 
examinations. With one other he obtained the highest average among 
the seven candidates who passed the examinations. Mr. MacCord studied 
law while keeping up his regular work with the company for whom he has 
worked since leaving Hoboken nine years ago. His address is 202 Com- 
monwealth Avenue, Detroit, Michigan. 




H. H. Adams is now Superintendent of Equipment of the Chicago 
Railways Company, 3901 West End Avenue, Chicago, 111. 


In the preface of his recent work upon "Steel Rails," William H. Sellew, 
expresses his appreciation of the assistance of Harry D. Tiemann in 
preparing the section concerning Impact. 

Harold W. Anderson is with the General Chemical Company at 
Marcus Hook, Pa. His address for mail is Box 381, Ridley Park, Pa. 


M. Penderell Walker was married to Miss Landis on December 26, 
1912, in Tokyo Cathedral, Japan. Mr. and Mrs. Walker are now back at 
St. John's University, Shanghai, where he is professor of mathematics. 


A. G. Sidman has been resident engineer during the construction of a 
power house at Hauto, seven miles from Mauch Chunk, Pa., to supply 
current to the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company, and to industrial 
plants within a radius of 175 miles. Three turbo-generators of 10,000 KW. 
capacity each are to be installed at the start. They will generate three- 
phase current at 11,000 volts, which will be stepped up by transformers to 
a transmitting voltage of 110,000. 

Miss Grace E. Clark, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. William N. Clark, of 
1302 Garden Street, Hoboken, N. J., was married to Charles N. Morley, 
on June 25, Mr. and Mrs. Morley will make their home in Hoboken. 


Charles B. Buerger, who for the last two years has been senior assist- 
ant engineer in the nitration division of the Department of Water Supply, 
Gas and Electricity, of New York City, has joined the staff of George W. 
Fuller, consulting hydraulic and sanitary engineer in New York. From 
1900 to 1903 Mr. Buerger was with the Atlantic Refining Company, 
of Philadelphia. In 1906 he entered the service of the Bureau of Water 
of Philadelphia, remaining until 1911 as mechanical engineer in charge 
of dflMgna for city water supply and filtration equipment and stations. His 
work in the Department of Water Supply, Gas and Electricity of New 
York ( il .v w&B on the design of the Jerome Park filter plant. 

Miss Helen Christie was married to William Babcock Prince at St. 
Louis, Mo., on April 2(5. 




I. Benjamins has changed his address to 76 Havemeyer Street, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. 


William H. Taylor is now manager of the Omaha Gas Company, 1509 
Howard Street, Omaha, Neb. 


William A. Leddell has recently accepted a position as Mechanical 
Engineer with the Detroit Copper Company, and is located at the Com- 
pany's mine in Morenci, Arizona. 

R. H. Mount has changed his address to 48 Irving Place, Redbank, N. J. 

The address of H. B. Gaylord, is now Room 730, 30 Church Street, 
New York City. 

George N. Calkins' present home address is 119 Essex Street, Hacken- 
sack, N. J. 

Charles M. Willis is assistant gas engineer with the J. G. White 
Management Corporation, 43 Exchange Place, New York City. His 
home address is 49 Oakview Avenue, Maplewood N. J. Mr. Willis was 
married on June 11, 1912, to Miss Dorothy MacLeod Patterson, of Tren- 
ton, N. J. 


L. C. Everett is now engineer with the Marconi Wireless Telegraph 
Company of America, located in the Woolworth Building, New York City. 

George A. Balz has changed his address to P. O.Box 327, Perth Amboy, 
N. J. 

James A. Tweedy's address is Babylon, Long Island. 


L. A. Hazeltine has recently been elevated to the rank of Assistant 
Professor of Electrical Engineering. He was previously instructor in the 
same department. 

In the preface to the second edition of the D'Este Steam Engineers' 
Manual acknowledgment is made of the obligations of the compilers to 
William R. Van Nortwick for his section on the Steam Engine Indicator. 

A son was born to Mr. and Mrs. Burchard Prescott Romain on March 
8, and has been named after his father. 

Miss Lucy Roberts Budlong, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Thomas S. 
Budlong, of Plainfield, N. J., was married to James Edward Pinkney 
on June 5. Francis MacLehose was best man, and Leroy Davey, 
Henry F. Pratt and Raymond C. Lewis were ushers. On the return 



from his wedding tour, Mr. Pinkney was treated to a surprise at the hands 
of the apprentices in R. Hoe & Company's apprentice school of which he 
is the head. The head of the concern and a large number of employees 
were present when a testimonial was presented to Mr. Pinkney by the 
students of the school. 

H. H. Davis is with the Crucible Steel Company of America, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., in their sales department. 


A daughter, Dorothy, was born to Mr. and Mrs. Merritt B. Lum on 
May 12. 

Miss Isabelle E. Deshon, of Ridgewood, N. J., was married on May 10 
to Loyal A. Williamson. 

E. G. Hatch has changed his address to 149 Broadway, New York City. 


Charles C. Phelps is now on the publicity staff of the Ingersoll-Rand 
Company, at 11 Broadway, New York City. His home address is now 
932 Hudson Street, Hoboken, N. J. 

R. P. Aylsworth is with the Stevens- Aylsworth Company, 114 Liberty 
Street, New York City. 

L. J. Carling's present address is 404 Summer Street, Stamford, Conn. 

C. B. White is now Chemical Engineer with the Vulcan Detinning Com- 
pany of Sewaren, N. J. 

Willard T. Fletcher is with the Western Union Telegraph Company, 
at 195 Broadway, New York City. 


Miss Francis Esther Shields, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Henry Lincoln 
Shields, was married to Adrian Alfred Williamson at the Reformed 
Church, North Hackensack, N. J., on June 2. 

Albert E. Sierad has changed his residence to 6327 Walnut Street, 
East Liberty, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

A son was born to Mr. and Mrs. Joseph J. Amberg on May 7, He has 
been named Robert Joseph Amberg. 

Wells A. Lippincott is now Manager of David E. Kennedy, Inc., in 
the Caxton Building, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Gustav G. Freygang was granted the Degree of Master of Arts by 
Columbia University at the June commencement. 

Joseph K. Blum is now with the Gardner Crusher Company, at 556 
We, I 84tfa Sired, New York City. 



R. W. Smith has gone to Japan in the interests of the General Electric 
Company. His address is in care of J. R. Geary, 23 Water Street, Yoko- 
homa, Japan. 

F. L. Eidmann has been in charge of the course in gas engines at the 
Lansing, Mich., Y. M. C. A. for three years. The Lansing Y. M. C. A. 
was one of the first in the country to offer a course in practical gas engine 
work. Eidmann handles the course in addition to his duties with the 
Seager Engine Works. 

B. H. Hirschensohn's present address is 1009 Chapel Street, Cincinnati, 

The home address of W. P. Wright is 133 Charles Street, Jersey City 

Miss Maude Rabold Yeager, daughter of Mrs. Anna M. Yeager, was 
married to Thorn Birdseye at Altoona, Pa., on June 7. 

Carl H. Ludwig, was married on June 24 to Miss Mary Isabel Forcier, 
daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph J. Forcier, of Milwaukee, Wis. 

Walter J. Willenborg, ex-'09, was married on May 8, 1913, to Miss 
Rose Marie Timken, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. J. Henry Timken, of Hobo- 
ken, N. J. 


Ralph H. Upson won the National Championship Balloon Race on 
July 4 in the balloon "Goodyear," entered by the Goodyear Aero Club, of 
Akron, O., which Mr. Upson was largely instrumental in founding, and of 
which he is secretary. This club was formed about two months ago, for 
the purpose of making pleasure balloon trips from Akron, and was the 
direct result of a single experimental trip made to ascertain the avail- 
ability of natural gas for such a purpose. It was such a success that a 
club was at once formed, which now has a large active membership, with a 
large number on the waiting list to make flights. The ascents are made 
nearly every Saturday when the weather is good, three passengers being 
taken at a time. The trips last from one to twelve hours. 

A. Heller is with the L. Helmuth Company, 17 Battery Place, New 
York City. 

W. deL. Carr is with the U. G. I. Company, Broad and Arch Streets, 
Philadelphia, Pa. For the present his mail address is P. O. Box 65, Ham- 
mond, Indiana. 

Cecil I. Cady is with the American Steel Wire Company, New Haven. 
Conn. His home address is 136 Pine Street, New Haven. 




Herbert E. Preston is now employed as a Taylor Stoker Test Engineer 
with the American Engineering Company, of Philadelphia. 

A. H. Harris, Jr., has accepted a position with the Providence Gas 
Company, Market Square, Providence, R. I. 

Louis J. Platt, ex-' 11, is now with the American Trimmer Manufac- 
turing Company, Hoboken, N. J. 

William Brehmer's address is 118 Cypress Avenue, New York City. 


John L. Entwisle is with the U. G. I. Company, of Philadelphia. 
His address is Central Y. M. C. A., 1421 Arch Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

John A. Malone is with the Standard Oil Company of New York, 
Marshall Building, Ballard Road, Bombay, India. 

G. L. Clouser's address is 932 W. Huntingdon Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Announcement was recently made of the engagement of Miss Marguerite 
Sandford Burdette, of Bayonne, N. J., to Loris R. Anderson. 

Miss Helen Remsen Anthony, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. William R. 
Anthony, was married to John Franklin Perry, ex-' 12, at the residence 
of the brother of the bride, 255 Ballantine Parkway, Newark, N. J., on 
June 3. Mr. and Mrs. Perry are residing at 30 Fabyan Place, Newark, 
N. J. 

L. B. Paterson is engineer in charge of Boiler Water Purification with 
the Nichols Copper Company, of Laurel Hill, L. I. His address for mail 
is 121 Russell Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Conrad Freeman has accepted a position with the United Gas Improve- 
ment Company, in their Industrial Appliance Department at Eleventh 
and Market Streets., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Raymond Loughlin has moved to 181 Vernon Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

R. G. Hess is with the Western Electric Company, 463 West Street, 
New York City. His home address is 5 Park Place, Red Bank, N. J. 

Charles W. Huber is a special apprentice with the N. Y. C. & H. R. R. 
in their locomotive shops at Avis, Pa. 


W. Dirk Van Ingen, ex-' 13, is with the Bureau of Medical Statistics 
Mutual Life Insurance Company, 32 Nassau Street, New York City. 

The en^a^cinent has been announced of Miss Eleanore de Groff Sher- 
wood, of Hackenjack, NT. J., and Robert Hall Lansdell. 

Mr. and Mrs. John Frankly n Berry, of Brooklyn, N. Y., have announced 
the engagement of their daughter, Margaret Voorhees, to John Henry 
Vander Veer. 


■ ■ 

■ B 


■ ■ 

B Hi 




■ ■ 



A meeting of the Executive Committee of the Alumni Association was held at 
Castle Stevens on Wednesday evening, April 9, 1913. The following were present: 
Messrs. Peabody, Martin, Kidde, Dinkel, Dixon, Cuntz, Post, Gubelman, Humph- 
reys, Kursheedt, Anderson and Terwilliger. 

The minutes of the preceding meeting of March 12 were approved with certain 
corrections noted. 

Mr. Dixon offered and Mr. Cuntz seconded the motion that the application of 
H. L. Bolton, '02, for life membership, and William C. Cuntz, '92, for reinstate- 
ment, be approved, and that the application of George L. Lancon, ex '96, for asso- 
ciate membership, be presented at the annual meeting. 

Mr. Gubelman reported for the Alumni Publicity Committee and noted the 
appointment of a sub-committee to handle matters in connection with Alumni 

Mr. Peabody reported progress on behalf of the Alumni Day Committee. 

Speaking for the Luncheon Committee, Mr. Kursheedt reported that the com- 
mittee advised going ahead slowly in the matter. Mr. Gubelman offered and Mr. 
Dinkel seconded a motion that the entire matter be referred back to the committee 
with authority to do as it deemed best. On motion of Mr. Kidde, seconded by 
Mr. Post, it was moved that the matter of the Alumni luncheons be presented 
to the class representatives by Mr. Terwilliger the following evening and that 
their attitude be communicated to the chairman of the committee. 

On motion of Mr. Post, seconded by Professor Martin, the report of the nominat- 
ing committee was received and the committee continued, with power to substitute 
names in the event that any person named could not serve, and to arrange the ballot. 

On motion of Mr. Kidde, seconded by Mr. Post, it was moved that the question 
of the salary of the Secretary of the Alumni Association, the handling of the ac- 
counts of the Indicator, the employment of a stenographer, and the administra- 
tion of other details connected therewith, be submitted to a committee consisting 
of Messrs. Cuntz, Martin and Terwilliger, with power to act. 

The president was authorized to appoint a committee to confer with the students 
concerning presentation of "The Blazer Girl" during commencement week, with 
power to act, on motion of Professor Martin, seconded by Mr. Dinkel. 

A letter from Edgar Palmer, acknowledging receipt of resolutions of the Execu- 
tive Committee on the death of his father, Stephen S. Palmer, was received and 



On motion of Mr. Cuntz, seconded by Mr. Post, the matter of the preparation 
of suitable letter-heads for the association and its allied activities, and the question 
of the desirability of making such letter-heads uniform with those in use by the 
departments of the college, were referred to a committee consisting of Messrs. 
Stephens, Martin and Terwilliger. 

Mr. Dixon offered and Mr. Cuntz seconded a motion that the secretary be in- 
structed to transmit a letter to Hosea Webster expressing the sympathy of the 
association upon the death of his wife. 

The question of the proper method of handling funds received and disbursed 
by the Alumni Day Committee and other committees of the association was con- 
sidered, and on motion of Mr. Post, seconded by Mr. Gubelman, the matter was 
referred, with power to act, to the committee already appointed to consider the 
secretary's salary, etc. 

The Executive Committee met in New York City at the Railroad Club on Wednes- 
day, May 14, 1913. President Peabody called the meeting to order at 1 p. m. and 
the secretary noted the following members present: E. H. Peabody, J. H. Cuntz, 
F. J. Gubelman, J. A. Dixon, W. E. S. Strong, H. E. Griswold, L. A. Martin, Jr.. 
R. W. Pryor, Jr., and T. C. Stephens; also the following past-presidents: Dr. 
Alexander C. Humphreys, William Kent, R. S. Kursheedt, George Dinkel and 
H. S. Morton; and the managing editor of the Indicator, G. E. Terwilliger. 

After the reading and approval of the minutes of the previous meeting of April 9, 
Mr. Peabody reported progress on behalf of the Alumni Day Committee and Mr. 
Cuntz was called upon to report for the committee appointed at that meeting to 
consider the secretary's salary and other financial and administrative details con- 
nected with the officers of the secretary and treasurer, the management of the 
Indicator and of the various sub-committees. He reported that the committee 
had decided that beginning July 1, 1913 the Secretary should receive an honorarium 
of $200 a year and that the honorarium of $100 to the Treasurer be continued 
as heretofore; also to employ a stenographer to take care of all clerical work con- 
nected with the various officers, the Executive Committee, and the management 
of the Indicator at a salary of $600 a year, of which the management of the 
Indicator agreed to pay $150. The committee recommended that a system of 
vouchers upon which the treasurer would issue checks, be adopted by the manage- 
ment of the Indicator, and that all funds collected by the various committees 
be transmitted to the treasurer and be disbursed by him upon order of the respec- 
tive committees. It was moved by Mr. Griswold and seconded by Mr. Dixon 
that the report be adopted and placed on file. Unanimously carried. 

Mr. Peabody, speaking of the falling off in attendance at the college, said that 
some active step should be taken to remedy this and asked Doctor Humphreys 
to explain the situation. Doctor Humphreys attributed the immediate cause of 
the .small number of students to the increase in tuition fees and urged the necessity 
of interesting the alumni in obtaining the right material for prospective students. 
He told of the desirability of obtaining men from various parts of the eountry, 
which would result in an interchange and broadening of ideas as well as helping to 



spread the fame of Stevens and of how the alumni of other colleges, teaching in 
preparatory schools, would go even to extremes to send men to their colleges. 
The present equipment, Dr. Humphreys stated, could take care of about 150 
in the Freshman class, whereas the actual admissions were only about 100, chosen 
from less than 200 applicants. This question of attendance, he suggested be taken 
up at a joint meeting of the Alumni Publicity Committee and the Faculty Publi- 
city Committee. It was so moved, seconded and carried. 

Mr. Gubelman suggested that it might be found expedient to consolidate the 
two committees. 

Reporting for the committee appointed to consider the adoption of a uniform 
letter-head for all branches of the organization, Mr. Stephens said that the com- 
mittee was not in favor of using a letter-head uniform with that adopted by the 
college, but that being a separate and distinct organization, it was deemed advis- 
able to have a distinct letter-head; and also, that the letter-head for the Indicator 
management should be different from that of either the Alumni Association or 
the college. It did advise, however, that the letter-heads for all officers and sub- 
committees of the Association have a uniform main caption, preferably "Old 
English, " the name of the particular office or committee being placed below this 
and to the left in "Antique." Moved and seconded to adopt report and carried. 

Professor Martin read his treasurer's report, showing a balance to date of about 
$348 and stated that the estimated budget to the end of the fiscal year was about 
$200 leaving a balance of somewhat over $100 in the treasury at the end of the 
year. It was moved by Mr. Strong and seconded by Mr. Dixon to accept the 
report. Carried. 

Mr. Dixon, for the membership committee, made the usual motions that Albert 
W. Erdman, '91, E. B. Smith, '98, M. J. Weichert, '96 and Hubert S. Wynkoop, 
'88, be reinstated to active membership and that the names of Jerome D. Gedney, 
ex '96 and Wessels Van Blarcom, ex '93, be presented at the annual meeting for 
election to associate membership. Seconded by Mr. Griswold and carried. 

The secretary then read the names of men who had been reinstated by the Ex- 
ecutive Committee or elected to membership during the year 1912 but had not 
qualified by the payment of dues, in some instances not having received bills, and 
asked instructions as to the method of procedure in these cases. Upon a motion 
by Mr. Gubelman, which was seconded by Mr. Cuntz and carried, the Secretary 
was instructed to notify these men that their dues for the current year would be 
remitted and upon their paying the proper amount for the ensuing year, they would 
immediately be placed upon the rolls as members in good standing. Taking up 
the resignations of E. G. Seaman, '93 and B. H. Jackson, '95, which had been laid 
on the table at the meetings of December 4, 1911, and April 3, 1912, respectively, 
a motion was carried to refer the cases of these men to their class representatives. 

Mr. Griswold reported for the Southern Alumni Letter Committee that after 
considering the matter they considered it undesirable to seek financial aid from the 
New Jersey State Legislature at the present time and recommended that the com- 
mittee be discharged. Mr. Strong so moved, with the thanks of the Association. 
Seconded by Mr. Dixon and carried. 



Mr. Terwilliger told of the proceedings of the Brooklyn Club dinner held at 
Castle Stevens on the evening of May 7 and the plan put forth that night for the 
affiliation of the Stevens clubs. He stated the Brooklyn club had appointed a 
committee to confer with the officials of the Alumni Association as to the best 
method of bringing this about. At the suggestion of Mr. Cuntz a motion was made 
and carried that a committee be appointed to confer with the above mentioned 
committee of the Brooklyn club. The chair named Messrs. Cuntz, Dixon, Stephens 
and Peabody, ex-officio. 

The report of the Stevens Luncheon Committee was rendered by Mr. Kursheedt, 
accepted with the thanks of the Association and a motion made to continue the 
committee until next fall. Mr. Kursheedt reported that the luncheon had been 
a great success as a beginning, there being thirty-five present. Regrets were re- 
ceived from forty. 

A letter was read from Mr. Boucher, giving the dates of the Civil Engineering 
Society and expressing the hope that the dates of Stevens activities could be so 
arranged as not to conflict with these. The secretary was instructed to write to 
the most important engineering societies for their calendars of dates with a view 
of preparing a Stevens calendar that would not conflict. 

A special meeting of the Executive Committee of the Alumni Association was 
held at Castle Stevens on Saturday, May 24, 1913 for the purpose of canvassing 
the ballots cast at the annual election of the Association. The meeting was called 
to order at 5:30 p. m. by President E. H. Peabody, the other members present 
being J. H. Cuntz, Walter Kidde, L. A. Martin, Jr., R. W. Pryor, Jr., T. C. Stephens, 
and George Dinkel, past-president of the Association. 

The reading of the minutes of the previous meeting was dispensed with and the 
count of the 400 ballots cast, out of which twenty were barred from voting as 
defective, taken up with the following result: 


For President, John Henry Cuntz, '87 380 

1st Vice-President, J. Alfred Dixon, '91 380 

2nd Vice-President, Wm. E. S. Strong, '92 379 

Secretary, Gustav G. Freygang, '09 379 

Treasurer, Louis A. Martin, Jr., '00 380 

For Directors : 

John S. DeHart, Jr., '09 346 

Fred A. Muschenheim, '91 297 

Chas. II. McCullough, Jr., '91 254 

Fred.W. Cohen, '92 107 

Frank E. Law, '92 183 

Thos. C. Stephens, '00 148 

David C. Johnson, '06 115 

The four directors elected being Messrs. DeHart, Muschenheim, McCullough 
and I>aw. 



For Alumni Trustee the candidates in the order of the vote cast for them were 
Messrs. Ernest H. Peabody, '90, Richard H. Rice, '85 and Roland S. Kursheedt, '80. 

It was moved by Mr. Kidde and seconded by Mr. Pryor that those elected be 
announced at the Annual Meeting and published in the Indicator, the order of 
the vote on Alumni Trustee to be forwarded to the Board of Trustees and the 
President of the Stevens Institute of Technology. Carried. 

On Wednesday evening, June 4, 1913 a meeting of the Executive Committee 
was held at Castle Stevens, Hoboken, N. J., being called to order at 8 p. m. by 
President E. H. Peabody, J. H. Cuntz, F. J. Gubelman, J. A. Dixon, Walter 
Kidde, R. C. Post, L. A. Martin, Jr., R. W. Pryor, Jr., and T. C. Stephens were 
the other members present, while the following past-presidents of the Association: 
Dr. Alexander C. Humphreys, Messrs, R. S. Kursheedt, R. M. Anderson and Henry 
Torrance, Jr., were also present, and G. G. Freygang, secretary-elect, attended 
by invitation. 

As a copy of the minutes of the last regular meeting of May 14 had been sent 
to each member, the reading of the same was dispensed with, but the minutes of 
the special meeting held May 24, 1913 for the purpose of counting the ballots 
of the Association's annual election, were read. Upon motion of Mr. Dixon, seconded 
by Mr. Kidde, the minutes of both meetings were approved. 

Mr. Stephens then rendered his report as secretary, calling attention to the fact 
that that office was handicapped by the obsolete method of filing addresses and 
addressing mail and recommending that the cumbersome rubber- type addresso- 
graph now used be discarded in favor of a stencil system, filed as a card index, the 
stencils being cut on an ordinary typewriter. 

He advocated that when reply-cards are sent out for addresses by any depart- 
ment a request be made for both business and residence address, to specify which 
address is preferred for mail and to "O. K." if such card has been correctly ad- 
dressed, thereby saving much unnecessary address changing on the files. 

In connection with publicity, Mr. Stephens said that the office of the secretary 
might be used to advantage as a clearing house for information to be exchanged 
among the various clubs, branch associations, class representatives, the Indicator, 
the Stute, the Publicity Committee and the Excutive Committee, by means of 
copies of letters dealing with the activities of the above and any important news 
concerning individual alumni. Also that, if this were done, it would help materially 
to bind the alumni closer together and serve to spread the fame of Stevens and to 
spur the various organizations to renewed activity. The secretary's office might 
be of assistance also, should it be deemed expedient to compile an individual his- 
tory and record of each alumnus, but only provided that the time of the clerical 
help employed at present be devoted exclusively to the Association and the In- 
dicator and be not needlessly taken up by cumbersome systems. 

At the conclusion of the report Mr. Post moved that it be accepted and that the 
Association make an appropriation not to exceed $180 to purchase a stencil ad- 
dressing machine and the necessary accessories as described by Mr. Stephens. 
This was seconded and, after discussion, carried unanimously. The chair appointed 



Messrs. Stephens, Gubelman and Kidde as a committee to attend to the purchase 
of the machine and the arranging of the details of the system. 

The Committee on Increase of Membership presented the following men for 
reinstatement to active membership: C. J. Everett, '90, A. G. Kollstede, '94, K. S. 
Littlejohn, '98, R. J. Decker, '99, and the usual motion was made and carried so 
reinstating them. Also the names of the following: Dr. Edward D. Rudderow, 
ex '93, John D. Lobb, ex '08, Harold A. Brangs, ex '09, were offered for considera- 
tion as associate members and the name of J. F. Ha worth, '90, for active member- 
ship, their names to be presented at the annual meeting for election. A motion 
to recommend these men for election was carried. 

Mr. Gubelman reported for the Publicity Committee, reading a letter from 
the Faculty Publicity Committee regarding means of acquainting men with the 
desirability of taking the course at Stevens. The report was accepted and the com- 
mittee continued, Mr. Cuntz moving that a joint meeting of the committee be 
held with the Faculty Publicity Committee at the earliest practicable moment 
for the purpose of devising a plan of cooperation. It was seconded and carried. 

Mr. Cuntz told of the coming meeting of representatives from the Stevens clubs 
and of their plans for consolidation. 

A Stevens calendar to be sent to all the alumni, containing the dates of future 
events and illustrated with views of past events, and the like, was suggested by 
Mr. Kidde. 

It was moved by Mr. Cuntz and seconded by Mr. Dixon that the members of 
the senior class be elected to membership in the Association with the proviso that 
they should not be entitled to the privileges of active membership until they had 
signed their applications for such membership and received their degrees. This 
was carried unanimously and the secretary was instructed to write to the president 
of the senior class notifying him to that effect and inviting the class to attend the 
annual meeting. 

At the suggestion of Mr. Peabody, the Executive Committee tended Mr. Stephens 
a unanimous vote of thanks for his work as secretary during the past six months. 

There being no further business before the committee, Mr. Peabody called 
attention to the fact that this was the last regular meeting of the committee before 
the change in administration, and said that he wished to express his appreciation 
of the support which the committee had accorded him during the year's work and 
the interest and enthusiasm they had displayed in the cause of Stevens. 

Mr. Cuntz here arose and said that in view of the excellent, untiring and ener- 
getic administration of the Association's retiring president he thought it fitting 
to propose a rising vote of thanks to Mr. Peabody as a token of the Association's 
and Executive Committee's appreciation of his services. Mr. Stephens seconded 
the motion and it was carried unanimously. 

The Trustees of the Alumni Association met at Castle Stevens on June 4, 1913 
and ratified the proceedings of the Executive Committee at its meetings held 
February V, March 12, April 9, May 1 t and May Present were: E. II. 

Peabody, -J. A. Dixon, Walter Kidde and R, \Y. Pryor, Jr. 



The Class of 1893 held its Twentieth Anniversary Banquet at the 
Hotel Astor in New York on the evening of April 25. In anticipation 
of a royal good time — and they were in no wise disappointed — 22 mem- 
bers of the Class responded to the call to dinner, one coming from far 
away North Carolina and several others from distant states to be heartily 
welcomed by the New York contingent after an absence of two decades. 
The company sat down to table in the yacht room of the hotel and pro- 
ceeded to enjoy themselves in the whole-souled manner of students of 
other days. The average weight of the Class was ascertained to be 
175.3 pounds, the scales being fractured at 296 pounds by the success- 
ful claimant for the prize. All but two of those present proved to be 
benedicts and one proudly pointed to his record of five girls and a future 
candidate for Stevens. 

A handsome loving cup was presented to and gratefully received by 
the Class Secretary for his twenty years' service. 

Before parting, the Dinner Committee was warmly praised for the 
success of its efforts and all joined in vowing that they would return 
five years hence to celebrate the rounding of its quarter-century mile 
post by the Class. 

On Tuesday, May 6, the Class of 1909 held a well-attended reunion 
dinner at Castle Stevens. Plans were discussed for Alumni Day, and a 
vote authorized to be taken by secret mail ballot to ascertain the average 
income of members of the class resulting from their own efforts next 
June, when they will have been graduated just five years. 

The second quarterly meeting of the Michigan Stevens Club was held 
on June 28, at the home of Austin Church, '95, at Trenton, Mich. There 
was a good attendance of members and several incidents of note, in- 
cluding the fact that R. S. Lane, '08, was precipitated from Mr. Church's 
motor boat into the green waters of the river, and E. T. Birdsall, '86, 
president of the club, was held up on the way for speeding in his new 

The Class of 1912 held its first reunion dinner at Castle Stevens on 
the evening of Friday, May 9. Twenty-four men were present. Whitley 



acted as toastmaster, introducing as speakers, Hess, Dempwolf, Ross, 
Schwarz, Carter and Breithoupt. Plans were discussed for the "Dun- 
geon Room," which 1912 is to build at the Castle in conjunction with 
the Class of 1902, at an estimated cost of $1,500. The room is to be 
situated in the basement, and will be used particularly for class dinners 
and the like. The committee in charge of the dinner comprised Lasker, 
Schwarz and MacNabb. 


■ a 






■ a 


The spring athletic season was far from the success that was looked 
for at its beginning, but much good material is available for next year's 
campaign. The tennis team won four matches, tied one and lost one. 
The track team defeated New York University, 54 J to 46 J, and lost to 
Rutgers, 67 § to 37 J. The detailed baseball, lacrosse and tennis records 
follow : 


March 29 — Stevens 





2 — Stevens 





5 — Stevens 





9 — Stevens 


C. C. N. Y. 



19 — Stevens 





21 — Stevens 





25 — Stevens 





26 — Stevens 





30 — Stevens 


N. Y. U. 



3 — Stevens 





7 — Stevens 





10 — Stevens 





18 — Stevens 





30 — Stevens 





31 — Stevens 


Montclair F. C. 



10 — Stevens 





14 — Stevens 






5 — Stevens 





12 — Stevens 


Johns Hopkins 



19 — Stevens 





26 — Stevens 





2 — Stevens 





3 — Stevens 11 

U. of P. 



10 — Stevens 





24— Stevens 10 




30 — Stevens 








3 — Stevens 





5 — Stevens 


C. C. N. Y. 



10 — Stevens 


N. Y. U. 



14 — Stevens 





17 — Stevens 





31 — Stevens 




On May 6 the Stevens Engineering Society held its annual dinner at 
the Hotel Flanders, New York City. The occasion was most enjoyable, 
the work of the closing year being reviewed and plans made for the 1913- 
1914 season. Among the guests were Calvin W. Rice, Dr. F. J. Pond, 
William Kent and Prof. F. L. Pryor. 

Early in the spring a debating club was formed, to which all students 
are eligible. The frequent occasions upon which engineers are required 
to speak in public makes the organization particularly of value at Stevens, 
A series of debates is to be arranged during the fall term. 

A. S. Kinsey has been elected a member of the Board of Education 
of South Orange Township, including the villages of South Orange 
Maple wood and Hilton, N. J. The term is three years. 


Fall football practice will begin at Castle Point Field on Monday 
September 15, under the direction of Coach Fuller. The schedule is 

October 4 — Army, West Point. 
October 11 — Haverford, Hoboken. 
October 18— R. P. I., Troy. 
October 25 — Johns Hopkins, Hoboken. 
November 1 — Delaware College, Hoboken. 
November 8 — Union, Schneectady. 
November 15 — Conn. Agri. Col., Hoboken. 
November 88— Rutgers, Hoboken. 

Stevens Indicator 

Vol. XXX OCTOBER, 1913 No. 4 

By R. H. Upson, '10 

==l M M M I ( 1 1 1 If 1 1 1 \ 1 1 M 1 1 1 M M 1 1 M1M 1 1 1 1 f 1 1 1 H I M U II M 1 1 II 1 1 H H 1 1 H H H II I M 1 1 1 1 T-rT-rTTTTl = = 

HP HE Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company is turning its 
A attention to three principal lines of aeronautic devel- 
opment; aeroplane accessories, spherical balloons and 
dirigibles. Although I realize that aeroplane accessories 
and dirigibles might be of more interest to most of you, 
I welcome the opportunity to talk on spherical balloons, 
first, because you are probably less familiar with balloon- 
ing; second, because it is a subject whose importance I 
firmly believe has never been fully realized in this country. 

Six years ago when the aeroplane first began to attract 
attention by its successful performances it was asserted by 
many that the real conquest of the air had at last arrived 
and that the old-fashioned balloon would speedily become 
extinct. I can show by a few figures about how much the 
spherical balloon has lost by the advent of the aeroplane. 
As a rough gauge to the general activity in ballooning, I 
shall take the amount of gas used per year for inflation 
purposes at the St. Clouds grounds, near Paris. In 1905 
just before the aeroplane came into public notice, the total 
amount of gas used was 276,000 cubic meters. In 1911 it 
was 773,000 cubic meters. During that year there were 
625 ascents made, taking 2,100 passengers, including many 

*Lecture delivered before the Aeronautical Society, New York. 


women. I have been unable to get the exact figures for 
1912, but it is estimated that there were 3,000 balloon flights 
made in France and 20,000 in Germany during the last 
year. Thus, old-fashioned ballooning, instead of becoming 
extinct, as some of our friends would have it, apparently 
owes much of its strength to the achievements of its so- 
called competitors. 

This situation has a very good parallel in the history 
of illumination. Not very many years ago candles were 
about the only source of artificial light that people had. 
When kerosene lamps and illuminating gas first came to 
be widely used, one might have thought that candles would 
soon be forced out of the market. Finally with the intro- 
duction of electric lighting, its subsequent improvement and 
rapidly increasing adoption, one might well think that the 
gas consumption would drop off correspondingly. But has 
it? Is there any great drop in the sale of kerosene lamps? 
Are candles becoming extinct? On the contrary, statistics 
show that there is more gas, there are more lamps and more 
candles being used today than ever before. The increase 
in population explains only a small part of it. The real 
reason is that the coming of better, more efficient illumi- 
nants has so increased the general desire for illumination 
that even the older and cruder forms have been carried 
along in the same great wave. Incidentally each form has 
found uses of its own which, though less comprehensive, 
owing to the presence of the others, are no less important. 

There are many other examples of a similar nature. 
Photography and painting, phonograph and piano, tele- 
phone and telegraph, steamboat and sailing ship, steam 
power and water power may be mentioned. This course 
does not always hold, as is witnessed by the automobile 
and horse, but it seems to be a very ordinary result. Thus, 
the aeroplane is not a competitor but an ally of the balloon. 
The achievements of aviation have merely stimulated inter- 



est in ballooning, not only with the general public, but 
among constructors and inventors who are trying to raise 
its standard of quality. 

Granting that the spherical balloon has retained its hold, 
even in the presence of aeroplanes and dirigibles, we come 
to another question which is quite as important. What rea- 
son have we for thinking that the present development will 
continue? In other words, what are the practical uses for 
a balloon, which justify its existence? We may easily admit 
that there is no such great economic need for balloons as 
there was for railroads, for instance. But if a thing, no 
matter how small, does its fair share toward aiding progress 
and knowledge, or promoting comfort, it certainly is worthy 
of our support. I believe the spherical balloon is justified 
on these grounds. If you will consider now some of its 
uses I think you will come to the same conclusion. 

First, there is the military use. In this it is much simpler 
for some purposes than the aeroplane. A captive balloon 
may be used for observation, a free balloon for reconnoiter- 
ing, for dropping explosives, and for carrying messages. 
One of the principal uses is in the case of a besieged city 
where a balloon may be of great value to both the besiegers 
and the besieged. By its means the besiegers may examine 
the condition of the city and its defenses very effectively. 
By gauging the wind with a pilot balloon and starting from 
the windward side a balloon could be made to pass directly 
over the city and do great damage by dropping explosives. 
With an ordinary sized balloon, say 80,000 cubic feet, one 
ton of explosives could be carried and dropped at one time, 
which would disturb the equilibrium only to the extent of 
15,000 feet increase in altitude. A few bullet holes through 
the gas bag would in general be insufficient to bring the 
balloon down before it had done its work. Aeroplanes in 
this case, as in many others, would be good defensive weapons 
for the city, but before making extravagant claims for them 



in this respect, it should be noted that the balloon would be 
as fully armed, if not better than the aeroplane, and also 
that the balloon could be sent up at night when it would be 
almost impossible to detect it, owing to the entire absence 
of noise in its operation. 

Balloons are also of great value to the besieged in a city, 
principally for the purpose of carrying messages to the out- 
side world. Every one is probably familiar with the work 
of the French balloons during the siege of Paris in the 
Franco-Prussian War. These carried messages out of the 
city every few days during the siege and carrier pigeons 
brought back replies. 

Another use for balloons is for the study of meteorology. 
The small rubber balloon for carrying instruments to high 
altitudes is a practical necessity in the exploration of the 
upper atmosphere. But a man-carrying balloon has great 
advantages at all ordinary heights. Here the pilot can vary 
his altitude at will, direct his course to a certain extent, and, 
above all, apply the factor of human intelligence at the 
point where it is most needed, insuring a variety of observa- 
tions which are impossible otherwise, even with the best of 
instruments. The mere contact with the upper air is a great 
teacher. Thus you will find almost without exception that 
an experienced balloonist, even without effort on his part, 
is also well versed in meteorology. The effect is much the 
same as that of a sail-boat upon its navigator, the principal 
difference being that the sail-boat is confined to two dimen- 
sions while the balloon may roam through all three. 

This brings us to a third use for balloons which in one 
sense includes the first two, namely, that it furnishes training 
for the development of other and more advanced forms of 
aerial transportation. Aside from the military and meteor- 
ological aspects, this training is of special value in the case 
of dirigibles. The dirigible itself is primarily a balloon and 
is subject to many of the same laws that apply to a spherical. 



Thus among materials of construction, fabric, valves, cord- 
age, gas and others have been and will be benefited by 
experience with spherical balloons. 

I have already referred to a captive balloon for military 
purposes. Another use, with which you are, of course, 
familiar, is for amusement enterprises. A large captive bal- 
loon carrying twenty or thirty persons is a well-known 
feature of nearly all world's fairs. 

Finally we come to two uses for spherical balloons which 
will probably be most important in the years to come, 
namely, for advertising and for sport. I shall postpone the 
discussion of these for the moment to go briefly into the 
methods of construction. 

The most important material in the construction of a 
balloon is the fabric. This may be either rubberized or 
treated with other materials, such as varnish. 

Rubber has the advantage of being durable, permanently 
gas-tight, and pleasant to handle, properties which so far 
have not been shown to any great extent by varnished 
balloons. Rubber, however, has the disadvantage of being 
more expensive. 

The ordinary rubberized balloon fabric is made of two 
plies of cloth with rubber between, and often on one or 
both surfaces as well. One ply of cloth is generally laid on 
the bias, which makes the fabric very tough and hard to 
tear. There are many problems involved in the actual con- 
struction, most of which are capable of strict mathematical 

I won't waste your time by trying to expound the principle 
of Archimedes and explain why a balloon rises. Suffice to 
say, that there is a gas within the balloon of lower density 
than the outside air. The pressure of gas in a balloon is 
zero at the bottom, where it comes in contact with the air, 
but the pressure increases as we go up into the balloon in 
the same way that water pressure increases with depth. 



For this reason, if we have a balloon surface which is per- 
fectly flexible in all directions, it will not take the form of a 
sphere, but a peculiar curve always more or less pear-shaped, 
but different for every different set of conditions. With a 
properly designed net, however, the natural curve may be 
made very nearly spherical and the fabric may then be 
given sufficient margin of strength to make the balloon lit- 
erally spherical. In this form it is easier to make, presents 
a better appearance, and in a moderate sized balloon no 
extra weight is necessary. This principle must be applied 
with considerable caution, however, and always with due 
allowance for stretching of the fabric and the weight of the 
valve, or, instead of a sphere, your balloon will assume a 
kind of pumpkin shape which is very often met. 

An ordinary balloon envelope is built out of horizontal 
blocks of fabric. These are generally alternated like bricks, 
but recently many balloons have been made with the blocks 
laid straight above each other as it is found that a better 
surface can be obtained in this way. For all ordinary widths 
of cloth the blocks should be made of such a size that the 
combined cost of labor and material is a minimum. Hence 
it would be absurd to use the same size block for all different 
sizes and kinds of balloons. It may vary even in balloons 
of the same size and material; for instance, the design best 
adapted to French manufacture is not at all the best for 
this country, owing to the comparatively high cost of labor. 

The strength, lightness and tightness of fabrics are the 
objects of much experimentation. It is impossible to make 
a balloon absolutely tight against leakage, but this may be 
reduced to almost any desired figure. A good "free" balloon, 
of say 40,000 cubic feet, should show a total leakage of less 
than would escape through a single hole one-sixteenth inch in 
diameter. It is often desirable to make it much lower still in 
the case of captive balloons. The leakage through valves is 
an important item which is often overlooked. I have seen old 



experienced aeronauts using valves which leaked over 100 
times as much gas as escaped through all the rest of the 
balloon. The seams must, of course, be made over 100 per 
cent efficient, both as to strength and tightness. 

The resistance of the fabric to conduction and radiation of 
heat is another very important study which I shall touch 
upon a little later. 

I wish I had time for more about the construction: the 
different kinds of valves, the wonderful and peculiar proper- 
ties of balloon nets, the stresses occurring throughout the 
balloon. However, from what has been said, you will prob- 
ably see that safety, in other words, sufficient strength, is 
about the only prime requisite. The other qualities, light- 
ness, tightness, durability, resistance to heating, cheapness, 
and the rest, are largely so interrelated with each other that 
the main problem in the design is to get such a combination 
as will provide maximum efficiency for the whole. 

A free balloon is controlled, as you all know, by the means 
of gas and ballast; that is, a certain amount of reserve 
weight is carried, called ballast, which is lifted by a corre- 
sponding reserve of gas. In order to ascend or to check a 
descending impulse, ballast is thrown overboard. To ac- 
complish the reverse, gas is released. The latter process is 
largely automatic so that generally the valve does not have 
to be used at all until the landing is to be made. It is 
mainly this alternate loss of gas and ballast which finally 
terminates a balloon flight; and the principal cause of this 
sacrifice is the heating of the gas by the sun's rays. 

When the sunlight passes through any surface, a certain 
amount of the radiant energy is transformed into heat and in 
the case of a balloon is imprisoned within, where it acts to 
raise the temperature of the gas. When the temperature 
reaches a certain point, enough heat is lost by outward con- 
duction through the fabric to balance that received by ra- 
diation, and the temperature has then reached a maximum. 



This temperature is sometimes found in a varnished balloon 
to be as much as 90° F. higher than the outside air. 

The temperature itself doesn't cause much trouble, but 
change in temperature does and this is always occurring 
throughout the day, even in cloudy weather, from the con- 
stantly varying radiation from the sun. An increase in 
temperature, of course, causes the gas to expand, thereby 
driving out the air or gas which happens to be at the bottom 
of the balloon. Whether it is air or gas, the loss of weight 
is like the loss of much ballast and causes the balloon to rise. 
The rise is much more marked if there is air in the bottom of 
the balloon, and in this case it usually persists until all the 
air has been forced out. This is bound to occur sooner or 
later, however, so that a rising impulse always automatically 
checks itself in time. 

Not so with a cooling or descending impulse, however. 
There is no limit to the amount of air that can be sucked in, 
so that even a slight descending impulse may often carry a 
balloon clear to the ground if ballast is not thrown out to 
stop it. Atmospheric conditions may be generally found, 
however, at certain heights where the equilibrium of the 
balloon is essentially stable in both directions. This occurs 
when the temperature gradient of the air in a downward 
direction is less than that which would result from the 
adiabatic contraction of a descending particle. 

It is the aim of a skillful balloonist to find these atmos- 
pheric conditions and take advantage of them, and also to 
find wind currents which take him where he wants to go; 
and even, failing in these, to use his ballast in such a judi- 
cious way that it will last him the longest possible time. 

The pilot has at his service various instruments which 
are a great aid in attaining these ends. The barograph 
makes a record of the height on a piece of paper. The 
thermograph records the temperature; the animoscope tells 
whether he is going up or down through the air; the stati- 



scope whether up or down relative to the ground. The va- 
riometer gives the exact speed of such rising and falling. 
The balloon-compass, an ingenious instrument devised by 
our German friends, gives the speed and direction of flight 
in a horizontal direction. 

But even the most skillful aeronauts with the best of in- 
struments can do little against unusually adverse weather 
conditions. It is this element of chance and uncertainty 
which I regard as the most attractive feature of ballooning. 
It is a great game which any one may play and a few play 
well; but it is not a game like chess, where nearly all de- 
pends upon the skill of the player. It is more like bridge, 
where each man must make the best of the cards he gets, 
whether they be good or bad. Thus it is in a balloon race 
that even the poorest and most inexperienced has a chance 
to win if he holds the right cards. 

But please do not think that when I say element of 
chance I mean danger. Ballooning is actually one of the 
safest sports known. Statistics show that less than one-half 
of one per cent of the persons making flights are injured in 
any way, and the fatalities are so rare as to be almost negli- 
gible. It is, of course, easy to take risks in a balloon, for 
instance, by staying up through a severe storm, but it is 
also very easy to see the approach of a storm in time to 
make a good landing. A man doesn't take such risks if he 
is merely out for pleasure or in charge of passengers. A 
fatality in a balloon full of passengers is, as far as I am 
aware, absolutely unknown. 

The use of a small captive balloon for advertising is com- 
paratively new, but promises great things. A captive balloon 
used to be a very complicated and cumbersome affair and 
wholly unsuited for commercial use. For instance, it is 
stated in a recent work on military aeronautics that a small 
captive balloon (about 15,000 cubic feet) requires a detach- 
ment of three officers and forty-five men to operate it. But 



now that such a balloon shows signs of commercial utility, 
a type has been developed which can be operated almost 
entirely by one man. 

It might be said that an advertising balloon is attractive 
principally on account of its novelty, and that consequently 
its use would not be permanent. I think that view is wrong. 
A balloon has certain inherent qualities which are bound to 
attract attention, no matter how old or commonplace. It is 
conspicuously isolated. It has no competitors in its own 
field. It is always moving, always changing. Even the 
most complicated electric sign has a certain cycle of changes; 
but a balloon never moves the same way twice and is an un- 
failing source of interest to all who see it. And the expense? 
It is generally less than that of a first-class electric sign of 
similar size. 

I believe the spherical balloon is here to stay. It does not 
promise astounding development for the future, but it has 
qualities of permanency which cannot be disregarded. 
Some day aeroplanes and dirigibles may darken the sky, 
but the spherical balloon bids fair to remain the best of 
advertisers and the King of Sports. 




By Alex. C. Humphreys, '81, M. E., Sc. D., LL.D. 





HP HE American Gas Institute having accepted the gracious 
* invitation of the Institution of Gas Engineers to pre- 
sent a paper at this meeting, which is intended particularly 
to celebrate its fiftieth anniversary, I have been designated 
to represent the sister society for this service. I appreciate 
the honor thus conferred; and this sense of appreciation 
finds emphasis in the fact that my long-time friend, Sir 
Corbet Woodall, is the Institution's President this Jubilee 

I have chosen as my subject Depreciation,' * so-called. 
This is a subject of importance to the owners and managers 
of all industrial properties. It is of particular importance to 
the owners and managers of public service properties. In 
connection with rate-making cases before commissions and 
courts, it is of vital importance to-day to the owners and 
managers of public service properties in the United States. 
Within the limits of a single paper — perhaps extended be- 
yond the bounds suggested by a kindly forbearance — I 
cannot hope to meet satisfactorily all the many and complex 
questions which have come to be included or involved in the 
ambiguous term "Depreciation." Certainly, as used in the 
United States the term is not self-explanatory. This in- 
ability on the part of those discussing moot questions to 
agree upon the meaning of terms and forms of expression 
is at all times a fruitful source of otherwise unnecessary 
disagreement. Perhaps this is particularly in evidence in 

* Reprinted from the Transactions of the Institution of Gas Engineers (Great 
Britain), 1913. 



the United States. I know in advance, therefore, that, 
through one cause or another, partly on account of the 
magnitude of the subject and my inability to give adequate 
expression to my views within the limits required, I shall 
not now succeed in avoiding all misunderstanding. 

Necessarily, what I have to say is of more direct interest 
to an American audience. But part of what follows should 
be of interest to all owners and managers of public service 
properties; and in view of the fact that there is no incon- 
siderable amount of British capital invested in American 
public service properties, this discussion may be found to 
be of direct interest to many on your side of the Atlantic. 
In view of the spirit of unrest which is now in evidence all 
over the civilized world, and the readiness with which addi- 
tional laws are placed upon the statute books of the United 
States, it is of the utmost importance that those who are 
responsible for these properties should be more nearly in 
agreement as to the most effective lines to be followed in 
their honest efforts to secure full protection for the invest- 
ments entrusted to them. 

If the many and complex questions involved in deprecia- 
tion are to be solved so as to do justice both to the investor 
and the purchaser of service, there is required on the part 
of all concerned the most competent, comprehensive, and 
judicial study and treatment. While this responsibility must 
rest upon all who can or do exercise influence in the settle- 
ment of these questions, particularly must the responsibility 
rest upon the lawyers and experts representing the compa- 
nies. In certain cases these representatives of legitimately 
invested capital have not sufficiently mastered the questions 
involved to qualify them to meet effectively their great 
responsibilities. This is peculiarly a cause for concern 
because the commissions and courts have of late years had 
thrust upon them for adjudication many novel questions; 
and so they need at our hands all that we can furnish as to 



general theory and special conditions. Here it is necessary 
to distinguish between hypothesis and theory. The theories 
adopted must include all the accepted teachings of experi- 

While looking and hoping for, and confidently expecting, 
such a revision of public opinion as will give the public ser- 
vice corporations more even-handed justice than has been 
indicated of late in certain cases, this hope and expectation 
should rest upon the determination on the part of those most 
directly concerned to do all that is legitimate and straight- 
forward to this end. Certainly it is the duty as well as the 
best policy of the representatives of the companies to be 
frank in their statements of fact and bold in the presentation 
of their opinions, provided those opinions have been formed 
with the rights of all in mind. 

We must believe that, in the great majority of cases, the 
commissions and courts are doing their best, as far as time 
and training permit, to arrive at just decisions. But without 
wishing to express disrespect for our commissions and 
courts, certainly we must not be too ready to accept their 
opinions as the final word on any technical question. Some 
of our lawyers and experts are too ready to accept court 
opinions and decisions as final. The fact that on any of the 
questions we have to consider we can find court opinions 
varying through a wide range should furnish a sufficient cor- 
rective to this subserviency of mind. Certainly we should 
constantly keep in mind that, at least on many of the tech- 
nical questions involved, we engineers are more competent 
to form a correct judgment than are the lawyers or judges. 

For instance, I am not prepared to change my opiniqn as 
to the strength of cast-iron pipe as ordinarily used for the 
distribution of gas because the late Justice Peckham, of the 
Supreme Court of the United States, in handing down the 
unanimous decision of that court, in the celebrated New 
York Consolidated Gas Company's case, included in his 



opinion the statement that one feature of the law under 
consideration could not be enforced against the company 
because a pressure measured by a column of water %\ 
inches high would burst the cast-iron pipes used to convey 
the gas. 

This may be taken as an exceptional error. But this case 
of the Consolidated Gas Company was one of vital impor- 
tance to our public service corporations and we may assume 
that it received the most careful attention of the Judge to 
whom was assigned the duty of making the more specific 
study of the evidence and of writing the opinion of the 
court. Judge Peckham was an able judge and a fair man, 
and yet he made an error which an illiterate but specifically 
trained foreman of a street gang could not have made. If 
Judge Peckham could make such an error, why should we 
blindly accept the opinions of commissioners and judges 
simply by reason of their official position? 

Are we not further warned against a too subservient atti- 
tude of mind in this connection when we find our commis- 
sions and courts holding widely different opinions on what 
appear to be comparatively simple points of law? Where 
there is a direct question stated with all the facts arrayed on 
both sides, I see no reason why the engineer is not as com- 
petent to express a sane opinion on the law as a judge or 
lawyer is competent to express a correct judgment on some 
technical question in engineering or accounting. I feel 
quite sure that in many such cases I could do as well on the 
law questions as Judge Peckham did on the question of the 
strength of the ordinary cast-iron pipe. 

I could cite many other cases to support this proposition. 
I have in mind a statement presented over the signature of 
the chief statistician of one of our most influential state 
public service commissions, in which nearly a million dollars 
was deducted from the operating expenses of a certain com- 
pany because the money was paid for taxes. Those of us 



who have to supply from income the money to meet the tax 
collector's claim will find little comfort in the statement of 
commission or court that this item of cost is a "fixed 
charge," and, therefore, something different from the other 
items of cost — such as wages, salaries, coal, etc. I do not 
find that this classification assists me to pay the bill or to 
reduce the cost per 1,000 cubic feet of the gas sold. 

Much of the error to be found in the opinions and deci- 
sions of the commissions and courts is due to the acceptance 
of hypotheses as theories, which fail to meet the definition 
of theory because they exclude the necessary limitations of 
practice. One reason for misunderstanding in connection 
with depreciation, so-called, is that some of those charged 
with responsibility fail to appreciate, either wholly or in 
part, that the questions involved are not the same in the 
case of a so-called monopoly, subject to governmental regu- 
lation, as in the case of a commercial undertaking engaged 
in an avowedly competitive business, and which only has to 
reckon in this connection with its owners. This statement 
is not to be misinterpreted by those who, through ignorance, 
are ready to discover dishonest motives actuating those 
dealing with the public. 

To take a simple example: In a close corporation en- 
gaged in a competitive business, the managers of which are 
liable only to their own stockholders, it may be considered 
right and wise to distribute only a portion of the net profits 
and to apply, wholly or in part, the surplus profits, particu- 
larly in extra prosperous years, to writing down the plant 
account. In the past this has been regarded as conservative 
practice. Even though the proprietors received no addi- 
tional stock to represent the increase in assets, they knew 
that their proportional shares in the ownership of the prop- 
erty remained unchanged. But to get a fair return on the 
full investment, the dividends were necessarily based upon 
what appeared to those uninformed as an excessive dividend 



rate. The fact that the plant and business had been ex- 
tended by the investment of earnings — the dividends paid as 
averages through the years probably having been moderate 
— does not in any way vitiate the ownership of the stock- 
holders in these extensions. If all the net profits had been 
distributed to the stockholders, and then the additional 
capital as required had been handed back to the company in 
payment for additional stock, the facts would not be 
changed. Yet by this last method there could have been 
no question as to the rights of the stockholders. 

In the case of public service corporations whose rates of 
charge are subject to regulation, however, this practice 
raises questions, and so subjects the stockholders to unneces- 
sary hazard. In the state of Massachusetts, this practice of 
writing down plant account — charging extensions against 
income and also debiting lump sums to loss and gain and 
crediting plant account — has been much in evidence. This 
was to be expected from the generally conservative tenden- 
cies in New England. The state of Massachusetts was the 
first to place its gas companies under the supervision or con- 
trol of a commission. This commission was not given the 
powers that are now conferred upon our state commissions; 
but it exercised a very restrictive influence as to stock and 
bond issues and rates of return, and its decisions in this 
connection have not been notable for consistency. The case 
is made harder for the stockholders because the law of 
this state prohibits stock dividends to cover surplus earned. 

The effect of this writing down of the Massachusetts 
companies is at once apparent by a study of the annual re- 
ports of the Commission of Gas and Electricity. These 
companies, instead of showing "watered" stock, show a 
total capitalization which does not represent the structural 
value of the plants, to say nothing of certain overhead 
charges and " going value." One of these companies shows 
a capital which is equal only to 35 cents per 1,000 cubic feet 



of annual sales. If we add to the capital stock as issued the 
"notes payable" issued to cover part of the extensions and 
for which the company may hope to be allowed to issue 
stock, the total is only $1.64 per 1,000 cubic feet of annual 
sales. The cost to reproduce the plant and business of this 
company would exceed $5 per 1,000 cubic feet of annual 

In a case recently decided by this commission, the gas 
company involved (Attleboro) had been paying 12 per cent, 
dividends on a capital which was equal to $1.10 per 1,000 
cubic feet of annual sales. The commission in its opinion 
says: "Its capital, in proportion to its business, ranks lowest 
of the gas companies in the state." This company had no 
"notes payable" against extensions; so presumably the com- 
mission took this into account in making the comparison 
with other companies, and particularly the company to 
which I first referred. But notwithstanding the company 
was paying only 12 per cent, on its capital as issued, which 
would have been about 2.6 per cent, on a capital equal to $5 
per 1,000 cubic feet of annual sales, the commission reduced 
the price of gas, at the same time enunciating certain rules 
which clearly must operate to confiscate portions of the 
company's legitimate investment. 

I simply introduce these cases to point out that what may 
be conservative policy in the matter of writing down plant 
account to cover "depreciation" in the case of a company 
managing its own business, it is a fatal error to write down 
assets below their legitimate investment cost where we are 
subject to the opinions and control of those who have had 
insufficient practical experience. It may be easy to under- 
stand that the public, in the persons of the consumers, are 
willing to take something for nothing, but this does not 
prove that the investor can rightfully be required to accede 
to such a demand; and if he is so treated he will in the future 
be slow to furnish capital for new public service under- 
2 317 


takings or for the further development of those already in 

Not only does this unscientific and haphazard method of 
"writing down" of assets work a direct injury to the stock- 
holders of the company involved, but it works an indirect, 
but very potent, injury to the industry as a whole by fur- 
nishing opportunities to the adroit and unscrupulous statis- 
ticians to make comparisons which appear convincing on 
their face but which have no value when analyzed. Un- 
fortunately many such comparisons are accepted on their 
face in the absence of competent analysis. Here we must 
not forget that the public and the irresponsible politicians 
are on the watch for high rates of dividends, without regard 
to the relation between total legitimate investment and total 
face value of bonds and stock. 

It may create some surprise if I make the statement, as I 
do, that not a few of our well-established steam railroads 
have so maintained and so extended and bettered their plants 
from income that they could not now pay 5 per cent, an- 
nually on the reproduction cost of their physical assets alone. 
I believe this would be true of our railroads taken as a 
whole. Or we can say that the total par value of the stocks 
and bonds of all our railroads does not equal the cost to 
reproduce their physical assets. It is not unlikely that this 
statement will be received, even in certain quarters in the 
United States, with doubt and perhaps derision. But I 
venture to believe that some of our public service com- 
missioners, those competent, fair, and courageous, who 
might have laughed at this statement a few years ago, would 
now, as the result of their experiences, be willing to lend it 
their support. 

In our gas and electric rate-fixing cases — in the first 
instance generally tried before the state public service 
commissions — we are called upon to meet commission and 
courl decisions which arc far from being consistent. In 



general, the service rate of charge must be one which allows 
of a "fair return" (whatever that may mean) upon the 
"value" (whatever that may mean) of the property "use- 
fully employed." Perhaps the one element which is included 
in all decisions is the appraised value of the plant. Some 
courts have defined this as the cost to reproduce new, less 
"depreciation." This is the dictum which the public service 
corporations are most generally called upon to face. 

Many questions are here introduced as to what constitutes 
the reproduction cost. Shall the unit prices be those quoted 
at the time of making the appraisal? As this might work 
for or against the corporation under fire, it is sometimes 
suggested that the average prices for the last five or more 
years should be used. Here there is a fine field for argu- 
ment, and especially on the part of the experts, lawyers, and 
others opposed to the public service corporations. A prolific 
source of debate is the question of pavements over mains. 
If the mains were laid before the pavements, should the 
company claim the cost of pavements as adding to the cost 
to reproduce new? If the company were selling its prop- 
erty, whether the pavements were laid before or after the 
pipes, the price would be enhanced by reason of the mains 
being under pavement. 

Some commissions and courts include the value for sale 
of the property as a whole as an element for consideration. 
Others, like the California Commission, exclude this element 
from consideration in a rate-fixing case. To be on the safe 
side the companies must be prepared to meet any and every 
contention which has received any measure of approval at 
the hands of any commission or court, no matter how incon- 
sistent these several contentions may be when introduced in 
the same case. The company may have to face a selection 
of all the elements least favorable to its case, irrespective 
of consistency. The opinion of the Massachusetts Commis- 



sion in the Attleboro case, recently decided and previously 
referred to, is notable for its inconsistencies. 

There are other items to be considered in the making of 
an appraisal which are prolific sources of disagreement, 
either as to their admission or as to their measure, such as 
preliminary expenses, interest and taxes during construction, 
omissions and contingencies, engineering, organization dur- 
ing construction, insurance, compensation of general con- 
tractor (including his expenses), "going value," etc. For- 
tunately there is a fairer disposition now in evidence as to 
the admission of these "overhead charges," though there is 
still ample room for improvement in the interest of justice 
to the investor. The Public Service Commission of the 
Second District of New York has done more than its share 
in developing sane and fair methods in these and other con- 
nections. The Wisconsin Commission also has shown a 
disposition to be fair and independent in its statements of 
principles, though it has not always been keen to be guided 
by the principles so enunciated. 

It is not my present purpose to discuss at length these and 
other items which we have to consider in our rate-fixing 
cases. I may say, however, that these items, of which depre- 
ciation is one of the most important, if not the most impor- 
tant, all things considered, are to-day questions of vital 
importance to many of our public service companies. I 
have referred to these matters in the effort to disclose the 
atmosphere in which we have to fight for justice. 

The subject of "depreciation," as connected with the 
making of appraisals for rate-fixing cases, has been greatly 
complicated by being involved with the estimates made to 
cover each year's share of the cost of final renewal or re- 
placement of plant; this to be included as one of the year's 
items of cost of operation. This estimate is made, and the 
annual debit to loss and gain and credit to a reserve account 
are made, solely for the purpose of spreading more evenly 



over the years of the plant's service the cost of that portion 
of maintenance which is not covered by current expendi- 
tures for repairs and minor renewals. This estimate of final 
renewals is supposed to include the elements of physical 
decay, obsolescence, and inadequacy. 

Unfortunately, as I think, we have not infrequently in- 
cluded in this estimate some reserve for extraordinary 
hazards outside of final renewals. This introduces an un- 
necessary complication, particularly when it is claimed that 
the plant has depreciated to an amount represented by the 
balance to the credit of this depreciation reserve. By segre- 
gating the charge for final renewals from contingencies and 
hazards, we would be in a position to support more effec- 
tively our three claims — namely, the inclusion of an annual 
cost charge to cover final renewals; the inclusion of a rea- 
sonable charge for the creation of a limited reserve for 
contingencies and hazards; and the exclusion of a depre- 
ciation deduction from our plant appraisals in rate-fixing 

We will assume that the estimate of the annual cost of 
final renewals of the several parts of plant is made on the 
basis of a compound interest sinking-fund. The total 
amount required each year to be charged to loss and gain 
and credited to reserve will be made up of several amounts 
required to replace the several parts of plant at the end of 
the several expectations-of-life which we, in our wisdom or 
unwisdom, assign to each part of the plant. These parts will 
be grouped together according to the assigned expectation- 
of-life. The amount annually required for each group will 
be the sum which, accumulating at compound interest for 
the years assigned, will equal the cost of the plant — or the 
cost less such amount as we believe we can recover in dis- 
posing of the displaced parts of plant. 

It is thus seen that the total amount credited to reserve 
each year is the sum of the amounts required for the several 



sinking-funds; the number of such sinking-funds being the 
number of different lengths of life we have assigned to 
the several parts of plant. This bringing together of the 
amounts required by these several sinking-funds is con- 
venient in our accounting; but it has led to further compli- 
cation by bringing into the problem the so-called "average 
life" of the plant. The use of this term is constantly crea- 
ting the impression that the plant lives to the term set by the 
average life and then has to be renewed as a whole. Noth- 
ing could be farther from the truth. 

To show that in a sinking-fund scheme there is no length 
of time which is mathematically the average-life, it can be 
pointed out that this term will vary in length with the rate 
of interest by which the fund compounds. For instance, I 
have before me a very simple expectation-of-life table in 
which there are assumed only five groups of parts of plant 
as follows: Group "A," 10 years, $25,000; Group "B," 15 
years, $50,000; Group "C," 25 years, $100,000; Group "D," 
35 years, $150,000; and Group "E," 50 years, $175,000; 
total, $500,000. The true average-life found by dividing in 
each case the cost by the expectation-of-life is 28.378 years; 
whereas the so-called "average-life" for a 2 per cent, sinking- 
fund would be 28.2 years; for a 4 per cent, sinking-fund, 27.73 
years; and for a 6 per cent, sinking-fund, 27.05 years. 

To emphasize the point that this average-life should not 
be allowed to misguide us, and further that the sinking-fund 
is in fact a collection of sinking-funds, it may well be noted 
that in the life-table above given the several groups of plant 
will be renewed within the fifty years which completes the 
cycle, as follows; Group "A," 5 times; Group "B," 3 1-3 
times; Group "C," 2 times; Group "D," 1 3-7 times; and 
Group "E," 1 time. Here it can be seen that while the 
term average-life may be convenient for use by those who 
Understand the subject, it may readily lead into error those 
who have thai little knowledge which is so dangerous. 



This brings me to three points which must be kept con- 
stantly in mind in connection with the study of the problems 
in depreciation: 

1. The depreciation reserve, or, more correctly, reserve 
for final renewals, is set up for the purpose of spreading the 
cost of final renewals of parts of plant as uniformly as possible 
over the periods during which the several parts are expected 
to render effective service; thus obviating unnecessary 
fluctuations in cost of operating, and so making it more 
practicable to keep the rates of dividends as uniform as 

2. The amount to be so charged annually to loss and 
gain and credited to reserve is based upon an estimate or 
assumption of the effective life of each part of the plant, 
considering the elements of physical decay, obsolescence, 
and inadequacy. There is here the opportunity for the exer- 
cise of the highest judgment, recognizing the difference be- 
tween hypothesis and theory and keeping in mind all the 
limitations of practice. To cover the element of obsoles- 
cence, we must know the present state of the art and proph- 
esy as to the future. As to inadequacy, we must estimate 
as to the future increases in demand for service. As to 
physical decay, we are limited as to the future by the char- 
acter of the management, over which we may have no control. 
Necessarily, then, this estimate is subject to correction. It 
must be based upon certain assumptions; and these assump- 
tions as to design, construction, operation, and accounting, 
must control so long as the estimate goes uncorrected. This 
should mean that the estimate must constantly be open to 
correction as additional general and specific experience is 
gained. It should also follow that no tables of averages are 
applicable to any specific case. 

3. The loss will not have to be met until the replace- 
ment actually is made. It is an accruing liability against 
an obligation not yet due. Hence, if we take out the year's 



share of the accruing liability, as the payment is not yet due, 
the fund should receive the benefit of interest accumulations 
until the time for payment arrives. So far as the plant's 
capacity for rendering efficient service to the buyer of serv- 
ice is concerned, it by no means follows that the plant has 
depreciated to the extent of the balance to the credit of the 
reserve, and that this amount, or any amount, should be 
deducted from the appraised cost to reproduce the plant new. 
On the contrary, the fact that such a renewal reserve is 
being maintained is the strongest argument that all that is 
possible is being done to provide against impairment of in- 
vestment and impairment of service efficiency. The lia- 
bility to renew or replace the plant rests upon the proprie- 
tors; and here is the best indication that this liability is 
recognized and provided for. 

Let us now consider a case of appraisal of plant for rate 
fixing. We will assume that the plant is being maintained 
in efficient condition through repairs and minor renewals 
paid for from current income; that final renewals are beng 
made as required and the cost debited to the final renewal 
reserve; and that we are debiting each year to loss and gain 
and crediting to final renewal reserve the amount indicated 
by the estimate based upon the expectation-of-life of the 
several groups of plant. Of course, it is to be understood 
that where reserve is credited on account of liability for 
future renewals, when those renewals are made the expendi- 
tures therefor should be charged against reserve and not 
against the year's operating expense. I emphasize this 
point because some have been misled by thinking that we 
purpose to build up the reserve indefinitely. 

Now let us further assume that the appraisal of plant for 
rate-fixing is in continuous operation, and that depreciation 
is to be deducted as indicated by our table of expectations- 
of-life for the several parts of plant, and as advocated, 
unfortunately, by some commissions and courts, and not 



always opposed by those responsible for the protection of 
investments. The result would be the eventual elimination of 
all the investment in plant. For as each life group of plant 
reached the age at which the tables declared it was to be 
renewed or replaced, the deduction for "accrued deprecia- 
tion" would equal the original cost. So as each group of 
parts of plant came to the time for renewal or replacement, 
that portion of the investment would be deducted from the 
plant appraisal, and there would be no provision for re- 
establishing the assets, because expenditures for repairs, 
renewals, or replacement cannot, as a general proposition, 
be capitalized. 

I say here "as a general proposition." I leave the way 
open for exceptional cases, such as the rapid and abnormal 
obsolescence experienced in the development of the electric 
lighting and electric railway industries. Here the allowed 
rates of charge for service were not sufficient to pay a "fair 
return" on the investment and maintain the integrity of the 
investment. To require the proprietors to meet the total re- 
newal charge in such a case would spell confiscation. 

Now let us consider specifically certain questions which 
are raised in our rate-fixing cases, and which trouble even 
some of the lawyers and experts appearing for the com- 

Question No. 1: If you are not willing to deduct for 
"depreciation" in your appraisals of plant, why do you 
claim the right to include an item for "depreciation" in the 
cost of gas? 

Answer: The income from the operation of the property 
should first pay all items of operating cost, including admin- 
istrative charges, taxes, and the maintenance of the in- 
tegrity of original and supplementary investment. The cost 
of the final renewals or replacements of plant, as well as the 
repairs and minor renewals currently made, must, then, be 
paid for from income. This means that the cost of final re- 



newals — or what is usually called estimated, accrued, or 
theoretical depreciation — is an item to be included first or 
last in the cost of gas. 

As the cost of final renewals does not generally fall evenly 
on the succeeding years, we may estimate the cost thereof 
and divide it evenly over the years involved. Unless this is 
done, the cost for the year or years under examination may 
be below the average, by reason of the non-inclusion of the 
year's proportion of cost of final renewals and replacements. 
Or, it might happen, if there had been expenditures for final 
renewals or replacements far above the average, that the 
cost of gas might be unduly high. In either case, the rate of 
charge would be based upon an incorrect statement of aver- 
age cost. This serves to explain why some companies are 
now properly including in their statements of cost an item 
to cover the cost of final renewals, although they did not 
include such an item before the days of rate regulation. The 
mere fact that the effort is made to spread this item of 
cost over the years involved is no argument one way or the 
other for a deduction for depreciation in the case of a plant 
which is being properly maintained and is rendering efficient 
service. This is a legitimate item of cost; and the item 
being acknowledged as a charge against income, the liability 
rests against the proprietors, whether or not a reserve is 
established, to meet this liability. 

This point is well made in a brief on this subject sub- 
mitted by Charles F. Mathewson, of the New York Bar, 
in the case of King's County Lighting Company v. The Pub- 
lic Service Commission for the First District of New York. 
Mr. Mathewson was the trial lawyer for the company in the 
celebrated New York Consolidated Gas Company case. The 
brief now quoted from considers this question chiefly from 
the legal standpoint. It is the most logical paper on this 
Subject I have ever read. Mr. Mathewson says: 

"The proposition [to deduct "accrued depreciation" in 



valuing plants in rate-making] is so absurd on its face that it 
hardly needs discussion to show its fallacy. Why, aside from 
the question of 'confiscation,' should consumers, for exactly 
the same service, equally efficiently rendered, expect to pay 
less in the sixth year than in the first year, merely because 
some items of plant will (viewed at the sixth year) require 
replacement at a date in the future then nearer than such 
date was at the beginning of operation? As well might it be 
claimed, to repeat a homely illustration, that a farmer should 
regulate the price of the eggs which he sells, by the age of 
the hen which lays them — reducing the price of the product 
as the hen gets on in years. The reason he does not is that 
the service efficiency and operating value of the hen, as evi- 
denced by the quality of the eggs which she lays, are not im- 
paired by the fact that her life is advancing. That advance- 
ment may concern the farmer and possibly concerns the hen; 
but it in no manner affects the value of the eggs to the con- 
sumer, or justifies him in demanding them at a lower price 
than he paid at an earlier period of her life. The consumer 
of the eggs must expect to pay a sufficient price to afford a 
return to the farmer on his total investment in the hen during 
her life, plus enough more to enable the farmer on her death 
to replace her and thus keep his investment unimpaired. A 
farmer could hardly be expected to invest in hens for the 
purpose of supplying the public with eggs, if for a portion of 
their life he was to receive a return on only a third or a half 
of his investment; and any such rule would simply compel 
the public to go without eggs until the regulating power 
(if such there were) saw fit to revise its reasoning. There 
is absolutely no difference in the economic principles appli- 
cable to the operation of a gas plant and the operation of a 
hennery, so far as concerns right to return on capital; and 
what is absurd in one case is equally absurd in the other. The 
fact that the rate of return in the one case is subject to reas- 



onable regulation, and not in the other case, has no bearing 
on the main proposition.' ' 

This question can be further answered by the statement 
that, if the final renewals were so evenly distributed over the 
years as to make a practically uniform annual charge, there 
would be no occasion for a renewal reserve, and there would 
be no occasion for raising this question. For instance, sup- 
pose we bring into the shop for testing and repairing such 
a number of consumers' meters that the whole number in 
service is completely overhauled in sequence every five 
years. Each meter is examined, cleaned, parts repaired or 
renewed as found necessary, or condemned and replaced by 
a new meter. The cost of all this work, including the new 
meters to replace those condemned, is charged each year 
into the cost of distribution, and so into loss and gain. 

Here there would be no need for any additional item to 
be included in operating cost to cover final renewals of this 
portion of the plant. The cost of maintenance and final 
renewals would thus be more accurately distributed over 
the years than by means of any estimate based upon expec- 
tation-of-life. Furthermore, the plant would so be main- 
tained to the highest possible degree of service efficiency. 
Certain experts of reputation have, unfortunately, taken the 
position with regard to plant so maintained by approxi- 
mately uniform renewals that depreciation should be 
deducted from the appraised cost to reproduce new. 

As further examples we may consider the ties of a rail- 
road or the poles of a telegraph company. The assumption 
has been made that these would have a ten-year life, and 
that one-tenth of the total number would be replaced each 
year. Then it has been assumed that the average age of 
these ties or poles will be five years, and so there is a 50 
per cent, depreciation which, in a rate-fixing case, must be 
deducted from I lie cost to reproduce the plant new. As a 
question of averages, the statement may be correct. As a 



basis for deducting 50 per cent, from the investment in this 
portion of the plant, it is without the slightest warrant in 
equity or common sense. This procedure deprives the in- 
vestor of return upon one-half of his investment in this 
portion of the plant, and so works confiscation. And this 
though the utmost that can be done is being done to main- 
tain the service efficiency of the plant! And the service 
efficiency is the only feature in this connection in which the 
buyer of service has any just claim for consideration. A 
certain authority has recently stated that a railroad soon 
after being put into operation will suffer a depreciation of 
15 per cent, and thereafter it can be maintained at 85 per 
cent, of its original cost by adequate current expenditure 
for maintenance. 

In each of these cases, if there is of necessity a deduction 
to be made from the original cost to cover "depreciation," a 
deduction which cannot be avoided by entirely adequate 
expenditures for replacements, then an amount equal to the 
deductions for depreciation should be added to the appraisal 
as one of the necessary items of cost, on the same basis as 
interest during construction and the many other items other 
than material and labor, as already mentioned. Certainly 
there is no reason, under these circumstances, including the 
maintenance of service efficiency, why the investor should 
submit to any such wholesale confiscation or to any confis- 
cation, however small. 

It may happen that the whole question of "depreciation" 
may be cared for by the approximately uniform annual ex- 
penditures for final renewals. This condition is not infre- 
quently to be found in the case of properties which are 
scattered over a number of locations, or have been built at 
different times widely apart. We have such cases in the 
United States, and I have no doubt there are many in Great 

Question No. 2: Having established a sinking-fund to 



cover accruing and accrued depreciation (final renewals), 
why, in a rate-making case, should you not deduct corre- 
spondingly from the reproduction cost (new) of plant? 

Answer: Practically this is question No. 1 turned around; 
but it approaches the difficulty from another point of view. 

It has already been shown that the final renewal sinking- 
fund is established to spread more uniformly over the life 
of the plant the cost of final renewals of the several parts 
of the plant. The establishing of the fund indicates a defi- 
nite purpose to maintain the plant from income, and hence 
shows that there is no occasion to depreciate the investment 
in plant. This fund, whether invested in securities or 
additions to plant, claims its own earnings or interest accu- 
mulations to complete the amount required for renewals. 
Hence its earnings are appropriated in advance as a charge 
against income, and the fund cannot be taken as an offset to 
depreciation. If depreciation were deducted, the earnings 
from this portion of the investment indicated by the depre- 
ciation deduction would be eliminated, and so the invest- 
ment to that extent would be confiscated. 

Question No. 3: If plant extensions have been made 
from the accumulations in the final renewal sinking-fund, 
why should these additions to plant be included in the 
inventory of plant to be appraised for a rate-making case, 
and why should these extensions not be treated as duplica- 
tions of capital investment? 

Answer: This a special case under question No. 2. When 
the "depreciation" sinking-fund is drawn upon to pay for 
extensions or betterments, the amount is loaned from the 
credit balance of "depreciation" reserve, which balance is 
the accumulation remaining after the payments for the final 
renewals which have been made against the reserve. Here 
it is to be remembered that this reserve is being added to 
annually by the charges to operating cost and interest on 
accumulations, and is being reduced from time to time as the 



parts of plant included in the expectation-of-life table come 
to be renewed or replaced. 

Then all parts of plant which appear in the inventory or 
appraisal as having been paid for from the depreciation 
reserve fall in one of two classes: 

(1) Parts which have been installed as renewals or re- 
placements, and are, therefore, in place of parts represented 
in the original investment, and hence to be included in the 
inventory as such. 

(2) Parts of plant which have been installed as exten- 
sions or betterments, and which have been paid for by money 
borrowed from the depreciation reserve. These parts 
should, therefore, be included in the inventory and appraisal 
because they are not a duplication of investment, but repre- 
sent additional investment. 

As has been shown, the balance to depreciation reserve 
should be credited each year with interest at the rate agreed 
upon. The money so borrowed has to be returned when 
required for final renewals, and must be repaid from capital. 
In the meantime, the company has been able to defer the 
day for permanent financing. These extensions can be con- 
sidered as capital investments; the amounts borrowed from 
depreciation reserve, with interest thereon, standing as a 
liability against the proprietors. In this connection, the 
point may be again made that, whether there is a deprecia- 
tion reserve or not, the liability for renewals rests against 
the proprietors. 

As to whether there shall be a depreciation reserve or 
not, concerns the proprietors, and in no way concerns the 
public or the consumer. In any case, the cost of final re- 
newals must be paid from income; and it can work no hard- 
ship to divide this cost as uniformly as possible over the 
years of service. This could be done by estimating the cost 
per 1,000 cubic feet without necessarily making any journal 
entries. The journal entries, and all that follows, are simply 



steps in accounting which make for greater accuracy and 
permit at any time the regulating authority to check up the 
methods pursued. If the plant is not so maintained as to 
give efficient service, either by failure to make repairs and 
minor renewals from current income, or later to make final 
renewals, the liability rests upon the proprietors, and can be 
enforced by the regulating authority. 

If the deductions were made from the appraisal of plant 
to cover neglected repairs or renewals, and then the de- 
ficiencies, under the orders of the commission, were made 
good, the investment would remain impaired, and so there 
would be confiscation. If the price were fixed on the basis 
of this valuation, so reduced by depreciation deduction, 
then the price so reduced would not be sufficient to give a 
fair return upon the entire necessary investment. If exten- 
sions to plant were made after this reduction in price, the 
price then could not afford a fair return upon this undepre- 
ciated additional investment. The final outcome would be, 
if this confiscatory procedure were continued, that the plants 
so affected would not be extended, and the public to be 
served would suffer. If it is claimed that the rate of charge 
would be increased to meet this restoration of the plant, the 
answer is that it is much easier to reduce than to increase 
a price, and especially so as to the service rendered by a 
public service corporation. 

As a certain member of one of our most influential com- 
missions said recently in this connection: "We are repre- 
sentatives of the people." It might be suggested that, as 
our public service corporations are largely owned by the 
small investors, either directly or through banking agencies, 
the commissions, if they are to protect all the people, should 
be encouraged to act impartially between the sellers and the 
buyers of service. 

Our confidence as to the future is increased by the knowl- 
edge that some of our commissioners are strong enough 



and fair enough to take this position; and the number is 
increasing. One notable case can be referred to, of a man 
who went into office avowedly opposed to public service 
corporations, believing them to be what the interested poli- 
ticians accused them of being, but at the end of his five 
years of very active service, publicly declared that he had 
found greater fairness, candor, and honesty with the corpo- 
rations' representatives than with the representatives of the 

Question No. 4: In the making of plant appraisals for 
any purpose, should present actual depreciation be measured 
by reference to tables of expectation-of-life prepared for 
estimating accruing liability for final renewals, together with 
the ascertained present age of the plant? 

Answer: If what I have so far said is conceded, it fol- 
lows that the accrued liability referred to cannot be ascer- 
tained by reference to tables of averages computed from the 
study of plants dissimilar in many ways. Such an estimate 
of accrued liability, to support any claim to accuracy, must 
be based upon a careful and competent study, preferably 
extended through years, of the plant under examination. 

If, then, we wish to know the condition of plant at any 
time, why refer to such tables? Why not examine the 
plant itself, having in mind its condition as to physical 
decay, obsolescence, and inadequacy? Certainly, if we de- 
sired to learn the cost of an elaborate structure, we would 
not consult the preliminary estimates of the architects 
when we could have access to the treasurer's final and com- 
plete records. 

Were it not for the fact that many prominent engineers 
are following the practice of using so-called standard tables 
in estimating present depreciation, deducting in proportion 
to the age of the plant, I should not think it necessary to 
treat this question seriously. This method, reduced to its 
simplest terms, is something as follows: A plant is assumed 
3 333 


to have an average life of fifty years. The average age is 
found or assumed to be twenty-five years. Result, depre- 
ciation 50 per cent., investment impaired 50 per cent. 

Perhaps it is unnecessary to say that the men who err 
most radically in this direction are book-men, who have had 
little or no practice to balance their faulty or incomplete 
theories. In the United States, the professors of economics 
and statisticians are much in evidence at present; and many 
of these men are striking examples of the "blind leading 
the blind." The recklessness of statement indulged in by 
some of these men, depending as they do upon the reading of 
books, often each other's books, is simply appalling. It is 
still more appalling when we reflect that not a few of these 
men are teaching their destructive doctrines to the young men 
attending some of our prominent colleges and universities. 

To determine the amount of actual depreciation of a plant 
presents many difficulties, and calls for superior capacity 
founded upon scientific attainments and broad and exact 
experience. This determination may be required in con- 
nection with a change in ownership, that it may be known 
what expenditures, in addition to the purchase price, are 
required to bring the plant up to the required productive 
capacity and efficiency. Or, it may be required to check 
up the accuracy of estimates on the cost of maintenance, 
including final renewals. Or, it may be required by a public 
service commission to test the justice of a complaint as to 
faulty service. In any case, the facts are to be learned by 
expert examination of the plant itself, having in mind phy- 
sical decay, obsolescence, and inadequacy. If life-tables 
are employed, they should be used with the utmost caution, 
and then only as a most general guide, and never by those 
who have not had adequate experience as constructors and 
operators. Perhaps the greatest danger in these tables is 
that they encourage those who are incompetent to think 
they are competent. 



Question No. 5 (a question recently asked): Assume a 
plant that has cost $100,000; its average life, 40 years. At 
the end of the first year's operation there has been charged 
to loss and gain $2,500 ($100,000^40) as the year's propor- 
tion of depreciation, and a satisfactory dividend has been 
earned and paid to the shareholders. Then, as the share- 
holders have received a satisfactory return on their $100,- 
000 invested and have also had returned to them $2,500 of 
their principal, what right have they to demand a return 
next year on more than $97,500? 

Answer: Like many of the questions asked by the cross- 
examiner, this question, either through design or failure to 
understand the principles involved, is based upon faulty 
premises, and involves an unwarranted assumption. Assum- 
ing that the proposition as to non-deduction for accrued 
depreciation is accepted, then if the average life were forty 
years, $2,500 should not be charged to loss and gain to cover 
the year's depreciation; but there should be charged such a 
yearly payment only as through the operation of a sinking- 
fund would be required to redeem $100,000 at the end of 
forty years — and this for the purpose of renewing or replacing 
the plant. The end sought is so to maintain the plant as to 
maintain the integrity of the investment. The maintenance 
of the plant includes repairs, minor renewals, and final re- 
newals. In this particular case, the amount so required for 
a 4 per cent, sinking-fund would only be $1,050. 

Whether or not $2,500 or $1,050 has been charged to loss 
and gain against income, this is not a return of part of the 
investment, because, when correctly estimated and com- 
puted, it is part of the cost of maintenance, and hence a 
charge against cost, quite as much so as repairs and minor 
renewals. (I apologize for repeating such a self-evident 
proposition, but it seems to be necessary.) Again, if the 
amount charged is $1,050, as it should be, this amount, and 
the succeeding payments, must be invested in one way or 



another so that the earnings or interest on the annual pay- 
ments may also be added to the fund to produce the required 
$100,000. When we bear in mind that for a forty years 
amortization at 4 per cent, the forty annual payments only 
aggregate (1.05X40 = ) $42 per $100, and the interest 
accumulations have to produce the required remaining $58, 
perhaps we can better appreciate that the annual renewal 
reserve payments cannot work as earners of dividends for 
the stockholders; but they have their separate work to do 
for the stockholders in earning interest to be applied to the 
protection of the investment. 

It is to be remembered by those who are puzzled by ques- 
tion No. 5 that the $100,000 plant must continue to be a 
$100,000 producer of service year by year. If depreciated 
to $90,000 at the end of the fourth year, only a $90,000 ser- 
vice should be expected then from its operation; at the end 
of the thirty-ninth year, only a $2,500 service should be re- 
quired from its operation. 

Over and over again the question is raised in one form or 
another: If the consumer has been charged for depreciation 
in the rates, why should he be charged again through failure 
to deduct for depreciation? The depreciation, or cost of 
final renewals, is part of the operating cost; and there would 
be just as much reason for reducing the investment because 
certain amounts have been charged into operating cost for 
coal, wages, salaries, etc., as there would be for reducing the 
investment in plant because the cost of maintenance has been 
included as part of that cost. 

Finally, nothing that I have said as to the determination 
of actual * ' depreciation' ' is to be taken as an admission that 
in a rate-fixing case any deduction should be made from the 
appraised cost to reproduce plant new to cover so-called 
accrued depreciation, or, more correctly speaking, the ac- 
crued liability against the stockholders for final renewals 
or replacements. This is a liability resting against the pro- 



prietors; and they must be given the normal opportunities 
to meet this liability without in the meantime suffering con- 
fiscation of investment by anticipation of the dates when the 
several payments to meet this liability may fall due. It is 
the part of wisdom for the owners of properties to reserve 
from income all that may be required to preserve intact their 
property investments; but this establishes no reason for 
deductions for depreciation in connection with rate-fixing. 

If, however, the public service companies are to be re- 
quired by the commissiqns and courts to face a demand 
for deduction for estimated accrued depreciation, then 
ordinary prudence suggests that there should be charged up 
for such depreciation each year the amount found by divid- 
ing the cost of plant by the estimated average-life; that is, 
"straight line depreciation." 

Let us hope that the commissions and courts may be 
convinced of the justice of the proposition herein presented, 
that is, estimated depreciation charged on the sinking-fund 
basis, and then no deduction from appraised value for depre- 
ciation so accrued on effective plant. 



■ a 

By J. H. Cuntz, '87 


■ ■ 

■ II 


n a 

\ \ THAT distinguishes the past century from all that 
" * have gone before? What has enabled the human 
race to make an advance greater than in all the preceding 
centuries, and to reach a stage of civilization from which 
there can be no great recession in the future? What has 
made the world as it is today? 
The work of the engineer. 

A few examples from the experience of our own country 
will help us to realize how the engineer has changed the 
course of history. 

When Edmund Burke made his great speech on Con- 
ciliation with the American Colonies, one of his strongest 
arguments was based on the remoteness of America from 
England. He says: "Three thousand miles of ocean lie 
between you and them. No contrivance can prevent the 
effect of this distance in weakening government. Seas 
roll and months pass, between the order and the execution; 
and the want of a speedy explanation of a single point is 
enough to defeat a whole system. . . . This is the 
immutable condition, the eternal law of extensive and 
detached empire.' ' 

That condition has now been entirely changed by the 
engineer. The ocean still rolls between the shores of the 
old world and the new, but communication between them 
is now instantaneous, and men can travel from one to the 
Other in four days. It is not too much to say that modern 

*An address delivered before the Woman's Press Club of New York City, January 

25, 1913. 


means of communication might have prevented the Revo- 

The battle of New Orleans would never have been fought 
if an Atlantic cable had existed in 1814. The treaty of 
Ghent, which ended the War of 1812, was concluded on 
December 24, 1814, and more than two weeks later, on 
January 8, 1815, Jackson won his memorable victory, 
without which he might never have reached the White 
House in later years. 

Without the telegraph and the railroad it would be 
difficult, if not impossible, to keep all sections of our exten- 
sive country bound together in a close political union, and 
it would certainly be impossible to attain and preserve 
that wonderful homogeneity which characterizes our hundred 
millions of people spread over our three millions of square 
miles. Even such slight differences of speech as yet exist 
will become equalized with the extension of the telephone. 

The Institution of Civil Engineers, in many respects the 
premier engineering society of the world, has defined the 
profession of engineering as "being the art of directing 
the great sources of power in Nature for the use and con- 
venience of man." 

Such has been, and is, the aim of the engineer, and a 
brief review of his work will show us how well he has suc- 

The engineering era began with the improvement of the 
steam engine by James Watt, which made it a commercial 
success and an active force in the world's work. The 
steam engine multiplied man's strength a thousandfold, 
and its application to navigation and to land travel enabled 
him to transport himself and his goods to the ends of the 
earth with swiftness and safety. 

The telegraph was the forerunner of the electrical age, 
which has given us the telephone, the electric light, the 
wireless telegraph and the many applications of electric 



power, while improvements in the gas engine have made 
possible the automobile and the aeroplane. 

All over the world at the present day the work of the 
engineer is transforming the face of Nature or directing 
her sources of power to the use and convenience of the 
human race. Down at Panama one of the most tremendous 
works ever undertaken by man is now nearing completion, 
and the great oceans will soon be joined. All the conti- 
nents except Africa are now crossed by railroads, and even 
on the dark continent the iron horse has penetrated to 
its center, and the Cape to Cairo road is half finished. 

The arid regions of the earth are being made productive 
by means of irrigation projects, to which all the resources 
of modern science have lent their aid. Egypt and Meso- 
potamia are being rejuvenated, and in our own country 
the United States Reclamation Service is doing work of 
vast importance and value. In hundreds of places through- 
out the West, orchards and alfalfa fields have replaced 
the sage brush and the cactus within the past few years, 
and thousands and thousands of happy homes have been 
established under the irrigation ditch. Our streams are 
used not only to enrich our soil, but also to generate electric 
current which can be transmitted hundreds of miles and 
converted to a multitude of uses. 

But we need not go far afield to see great engineering 
works. Right here in New York are centered some of the 
greatest in the world. The East River is spanned by the 
three longest suspension bridges and the heaviest cantilever 
bridge now in existence. Under the Hudson and the 
East Rivers are the most extensive subaqueous tunnels, 
and under our streets the most remarkable subway system 
on, or rather under, earth. 

The piercing of the Swiss Alps by the St. Gotthard, the 
Simploo and other tunnels attracted world-wide attention, 
and rightly so, but how many people realize that far down 



in the rock which underlies Manhattan Island and the 
Upper Bay a tunnel is now being driven which will be 
twice as long as the greatest one through the Alps? And 
this deep New York tunnel is only a part of the system 
which will gather the waters of the Catskills in an immense 
artificial lake, and convey them a hundred miles to the 
metropolitan district through an aqueduct which pierces 
mountains and, at Storm King, plunges 1,500 feet below 
the Hudson. 

Many more works are being planned or are under con- 
struction. Others of great magnitude and daring have 
been projected, such as a bridge across the Hudson, and an 
extension of Manhattan Island southward to Governor's 
Island and even beyond. This last is not as fanciful a 
project as it sounds, for Governor's Island itself has recently 
been doubled in size by building a sea wall and then pump- 
ing sand inside. 

The engineer is prepared to perform even greater works 
than have already been accomplished, and to be of ever 
increasing service to humanity, but he is too often hampered 
by political and financial obstructions. What could he 
not do if given a free hand in this metropolitan district? 

New York has grown in a haphazard way, generally 
unaided, if not actually hampered, by the powers that be. 
The problems arising from her growth have been attacked 
only when they became too pressing to be longer evaded, 
and their solutions have too often been only makeshifts. 
WTiere other communities strain every nerve to attract 
commerce, she calmly contemplates the probability of the 
greatest steamships in the world going elsewhere because 
she has not had the energy and foresight to provide adequate 
docking facilities, with all her magnificent natural harbor. 
Officials and commissions wrangle for years over plans for 
rapid transit, while the people are herded like cattle in 
subway and on elevated. 



The engineer is ready to solve these problems and is 
anxious to get to work. He is able to do far more than what 
is immediately required, for he is trained to look ahead and 
to have a large vision of the future. In order to effect a 
permanently satisfactory solution of New York's municipal 
problems there should be a re-distribution of her population 
and industries, and this is largely an engineering proposition. 
The metropolitan district, including the neighboring parts 
of New Jersey, should be viewed as a whole. 

Factories should be moved from Manhattan Island and 
be reestablished in the most advantageous situations. 
Employees should be moved to healthful locations conven- 
ient to their work and enabled to obtain comfortable homes. 
Rapid transit by bridge and tunnel, subway and elevated, 
should be furnished. Ample docking and terminal facilities 
should be provided. All these plans must be carried out 
in a broadminded and farsighted way. The engineer is 
ready. Give him a free hand and let him get to work! 

What may be called the aesthetic side of engineering 
is receiving more and more attention. While in the past 
the charge that engineering works were ugly was sometimes 
justified, this reproach is being done away with. Engineer- 
ing is not only compatible with beauty, but the best engi- 
neering is almost necessarily beautiful. The architect and 
the engineer are working hand in hand to build our bridges, 
our skyscrapers, our docks and our railroad terminals. 
An artist like Pennell grows enthusiastic over the pictur- 
esqueness of the Panama Canal, and our skyscrapers are 
winning the admiration even of foreign critics, for in some 
of their aspects they fulfil the dreams of the poets. 

Last summer I was at Niagara Falls on a clear moonlight 
night. My friend, the engineer of the Niagara Falls Power 
Company, took me in his automobile across the International 
Bridge, whose graceful arch, the widest in the world, spans 
the rushing waters. 



We drove to a power house on the Canadian side, a granite 
structure of severe but chaste architecture, standing near 
the rapids above the Horseshoe Falls. Inside, the dynamo 
room occupied the whole length of the building and con- 
tained a dozen electrical machines, each capable of genera- 
ting over 12,000 horsepower. These dynamos, shaped 
like gigantic flat tops, were driven by water wheels far 
down in the pits below. They spun with a velocity at 
their rims of miles a minute, and gave forth a deep humming 
note. Beyond this there was no sound in the vast hall, 
and no human being was in sight except an occasional 
attendant making his rounds. 

On one side in the gallery there was the switch-room, 
where, on white marble panels, were arranged instruments 
of glass and ebonite and shining brass. All this apparatus 
was so skillfully and wonderfully contrived that a little 
lever, moved by a single finger, could release and control 
the power of thousand of horses. 

Outside, shining in the white moonlight, were the ever- 
flowing river and the thundering cataract. Inside, the swiftly 
spinning machines, sending invisible power far and wide, 
for lighting, for transportation, for manufacturing. Nothing 
detracted from the beauty and majesty of the scene, and 
the forces of Nature were here most effectively directed 
to the use and convenience of man. 

We cannot tell all that the coming years hold in store 
for us, but I like to think of that quiet power house beside 
the moonlit river as a type of the engineering work of the 
future, where Nature will still retain her primal beauty, 
and where man shall have learned to utilize her secret 
powers to evolve a higher civilization than we have as yet 
any conception of. 


• m 

• 1 

II I! 11 11 fY 1 1 1 lllllf 1 1 1 1 1 1 til \tf 1 1 1 1 til 1 [If 1 Mill I1IM 1 111 1 II 11 II 11 1 111 It 1 1 1 II 1 1 1 1 II 1 Ml 1 1 1 1 1 III lilt 


By C. T. Coley, '01 

■ ■ 

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 1 e 1 1 1 1 ! 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Mil 1 1 M 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IE it 1 1 1 1 1 ii 1 1 1 1 1 1 w 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r 1 1 t i-ri 

■ 0 

T CHOSE the subject: "A Method of Checking the Eco- 
**• nomical Height of an Office Building," both because 
it is a problem that is encountered almost daily, and one for 
which I have not seen a satisfactory solution; and conse- 
quently thought that the development of a solution would 
be a little new and interesting to you. 

We will consider the erection of one of the most modern 
and expensive office building skyscrapers, the construction 
of which must be of the very highest grade. The plot of 
ground should be in the very best location for a building of 
this kind. Let us assume a land value of $300 per square 
foot of lot area. The value of a plot of ground is determined 
by the best possible use to which it can be put, or improve- 
ment that can be made thereon to bring in the largest net 
financial return per annum, upon the money invested in the 
lot. The value of a plot of ground is, therefore, dependent 
upon its net annual earning capacity, which earnings are 
usually funded at 5 per cent, making the value of the land 
about twenty times the net return per annum earned by the 

The annual interest charged on $300 valuation per square 
foot would be $15, money worth 5 per cent. The New 
York City taxes are about $1.83 per $100 valuation, which 
on each square foot of land under consideration, would be 
about $5.50 per year. This added to the interest cost of 

*A paper read before the National Convention of Building Owners and Managers* 
Copyright, 1913, by C. T. Coley. 



$15, makes a total cost of $20.50 per year for owning one 
square foot of land in the best financial business district on 
which to stand a building. If the entire area is not covered 
by the building, but say only 95 per cent of the total, the 
balance being used for light courts, we must divide the total 
cost per square foot per annum ($20.50) by 95 cents, giving 
$21.58, the amount that must be earned per annum on each 
square foot of land on which the building actually stands. 
Since only 65 per cent of the area is rentable area, to produce 
one square foot of rentable area, we will require one divided 
by .65, or 1.54 square feet of floor area, and consequently 
the annual land carrying charge would be increased from 
$21.58 to $33.23 per square foot of land over which to 
secure one square foot of rentable floor area per floor. 

The question arises at once, what can be done to meet 
this great expense? One answer is, after looking around 
to see what is suitable for the neighborhood — build a sky- 
scraper office building. What will one cost? How high 
will it have to be, so that the net profit on the building, will 
equal the expense on the land? What will the operating 
and other expenses be per annum? We will look into the 

Experience shows that office buildings of the very best 
type of granite, marble, bronze and steel construction cost 
from 80 cents to $1.00 per cubic foot of building volume to 
build. When the average distance between finished floors 
is twelve feet, it requires twelve cubic feet of building volume 
to produce one square foot of floor surface, of which past 
experience shows that in a well designed building, about 65 
per cent of the total floor area is rentable area. Therefore, 
to obtain one square foot of rentable area per floor under 
consideration, it will be necessary to build twelve divided by 
.65, or about 18J cubic feet of building volume. 

Let us assume that we are to build a building about 
twenty-five stories high of the type costing 80 cents per cubic 



foot. It would, therefore, be necessary to make an expendi- 
ture of 80 cents multiplied by 18|, or $14.80 for eighteen 
and one-half cubic feet of building volume in order to secure 
one square foot of rentable area. 

The costs of maintaining one square foot of rentable area 
per annum in a high-class building of this kind are about 
as follows: 

Engine room labor, supplies and repairs, per sq. ft. rentable area.$0. 18 

Coal and ash removal, per sq. ft. rentable area 15 

Elevator labor, supp'ies and repair, per sq. ft. rentable area 09 

Janitor's labor and supplies, per sq. ft. rentable area 15 

Electrician's labor and supplies, per sq. ft. rentable area 02 

Supervision and collections, per sq. ft. rentable area 09 

Building repairs, per sq. ft. rentable area 15 

Insurance, per sq. ft. rentable area 01-1 

Water, per sq. ft. rentable area 02-1 

Sundries, per sq. ft. rentable area 01 

Sub-total , .$0.88 

Taxes on structure alone, per sq. ft. rentable area 27 

Total $1.15 

Assume an allowance of 10 per cent of gross rents for 
vacancies and loss of rent on an average rent rate of $3.50 
per square foot — 35 cents. Now, making the total $1.50. 
Interest at 5 per cent on an investment of $14.80 necessary 
to produce the required building volume to secure one 
square foot of rentable area, 74 cents; allow for depreciation 
and amortization in fifty years about 30 cents. (Money 
worth 4 per cent compounded semi-annually and one per 
cent depreciation.) Total cost per annum, $2.54 per square 
foot of rentable area. Subtracting this cost of $2.54 from 
the gross rent rate of $3.50 per square foot of rentable area, 
leaves a net profit per square foot of rentable area of 96 
cents per floor. 

In order to equalize or wipe out the annual expense of 



$33.23 for the lot area on which to build one square foot 
of rentable area, we would needs get the profit of 96 cents 
per square foot rentable area per floor by repeating the 
operation or building floors upon floors as many times as 
96 cents is contained into $33.23, or 34.6 times, making the 
building thirty-five stories high. 

Hence it will be seen that to develop or improve a plot of 
land properly, with the value assumed which will pay 5 per 
cent on the investment in the land and building, and at the 
same time set aside a proper fund for depreciation and 
amortization, a thirty-five story building will be necessary. 
This would be the proper height for the building, provided 
that the plot area was sufficient to allow for the proper 
shafts up through the building to contain pipes, smoke stack, 
stairs and elevator shafts and still give a rentable area of the 
assumed 65 per cent of the gross area. 

There is a subject which is almost analogous with this 
one, which really should be considered with it. We may 
have a skyscraper craze, and Doyle might say: "Well, If 
I can break even with a thirty-five-story building and pay 
myself 5 per cent on all of the land and the building, why 
not go up sixty stories and pay myself 5 per cent more, 
giving me 10 per cent. That is Doyle. But along comes 
little Mr. " Elevator 99 and says, "You cannot do it. We 
cannot serve you away up in the air. 99 

The maximum depth of an office which we can rent is 
from twenty-five to twenty-seven feet. Some of you go 
thirty, some twenty-five, but you don't get anything for 
the last five feet if over twenty-five feet deep. There are 
only three things we have to sell — light, air, and quietude; 
resulting in peace of mind, and peace of mind means good 
service in the building. It means that at the top of a build- 
ing, thirty-five stories high we can get the maximum rent, 
because the tenant can get good air and have daylight. 
You cannot satisfy them with gas light or electric light, it 



is sunlight and good air, quietude, away from the noise of 
the street, peace of mind, good service. 

Now, we will try limiting the boundaries inside of a given 
lot. The distance we will assume to be thirty feet all the 
way around the lot, which is the maximum depth of the office 
you can rent in that lot. Of course, you must allow space 
for stairs, elevators and so forth. You can see that we could 
go up high enough with the building so that the entire 
inner space is filled with stairs, smoke stacks and elevator 
shafts. For a building fifty stories we would need maybe 
seventy-five elevators; for a building forty stories high you 
would need maybe sixty elevators, so in place of going so 
high, architects are wisely putting in courts. What happens? 
You get rentable area lower down. That means we have 
more rentable area per floor. Keep the buildings low. 
Don't go so high. Think of the height of the building and 
the elevator service it takes to go from the ground floor 
away up to these heights. 

I will tell you something of how I arrived at some calcu- 
lations that determined the proper number of elevators to 
put in the new Equitable Building. That building will be 
thirty-six stories high and contain about twelve hundred 
thousand square feet of good light rentable area. I have 
tried to give elevator service throughout that building, which 
I consider to be the most important of all services in office 
buildings of the best type, as good as any of our friends and 
competitors surrounding us. I have tried to give in the 
schedule which I have laid out exactly the same elevator 
service to a man located on the thirty-fifth floor as to a man 
located on the tenth floor. Two men, friends, walk down 
Broadway together. They enter the building. One goes to 
the tenth floor, the other goes to the thirty-fifth. They get 
to t heir respective banks of elevator, and both reach their 
offices at exactly the same time. It does not make any 



difference, therefore, where you are in the building, you get 
the same elevator service. 

Now, then, what does that mean? If there are any 
advantages because of light, air, quietude, peace of mind, 
you can charge for it. 

This building contains, as I said, a little over a million 
square feet of rentable area, we will assume in round figures 
about thirty thousand square feet of rentable area per floor. 
In New York by careful count statistics show that the den- 
sity of population in buildings surrounding the Equitable site 
is about one hundred and twenty square feet of rentable 
area to the person in a building. The population, therefore, 
in this building is the rentable floor area throughout the 
building divided by the factor one hundred and twenty. 
That will give you the probable density or number of people 
in the building when the building is fully rented. In this 
building it shows that when the building is fully rented 
there will be about eighty-three hundred people doing busi- 
ness in that building exclusive of their friends and customers. 
That is a big crowd to handle. Statistics further show that 
in New York from 20 to 30 per cent of the total population 
of the buildings come downtown, come across the ferries, 
and the bridges and enter the building in fifteen minutes, 
between nine-five in the morning and nine-twenty-five. It 
is a service that I do not believe is demanded anywhere else 
in this country. In Chicago they are workers. They go 
to work at eight, the bosses come in at ten, the bosses go 
home at four, the workers go home anywhere up to six. 
They have two hours to fill the building and two hours to 
empty. New York practically fills its buildings in one hour, 
and they put 30 per cent of the population into the building 
in fifteen minutes. 

In order to meet that great demand and still give the 
people "service," the principal thing they pay rent for, is 
worked out here. This was done by the trial and error 
4 349 


method. I first made up my mind I wanted forty-eight 
elevators, high speed electric overhead. The next thing 
was how to divide them up, how many floors to allow each 
group of elevators to serve, what speeds to make them, what 
car size to make them so as to control the people automati- 

After a great deal of calculation, we finally decided to 
run one bank of eight elevators and serve all of the floors 
from the first to the tenth inclusive. The shaft is, therefore, 
built for eight elevators, and doors put in to serve twelve 
floors, extending the shaft up two more floors. 

As we go up into the building the number of floors served 
per bank of elevators decreases. One is nine, another is 
eight. This still decreases until it is six and five. 

You say, why do you do that? Because the tenants in 
New York demand elevator service of at least thirty seconds. 
A car must pass a floor in any direction every thirty seconds. 
We have varied the size of the cars. The size of one car 
is designed so that twenty people can go in with the operator. 
The reason for this size of car is obvious. We serve ten 
floors, so there are more people to handle per car. The 
size of another car is still a little smaller, holding seventeen 
people, another one fourteen, one thirteen, and the high 
rise bank twelve. The reason that is done is to prevent 
kicks. The starter can not stop passengers from entering 
a half-full car without making trouble. Vary the size of 
the cars and you control your service automatically and 
can start the cars on time. 

There is another feature of this elevator service which is 
rather novel. It is novel because there are not many of us 
who have seen more than two or three banks of elevators 
in one building. It is novel again because there are no 
transfer floors. One car comes to the tenth, and the first 
st op of I he next bank of cars is the eleventh. If a man is 
on the wrong car, he can get off and use No. 6 bank of cars. 



We take care of that man. What he can do is this, — and 
in a building containing eight thousand people there will be 
lots of business done, one tenant with another. We have 
provided an additional bank of eight elevators called the 
intercommunicating bank which serves all of the floors of 
the building, and stops at all of the floors of the building 
from the basement to the roof. 

The speed of the cars, of course, you naturally would 
expect to vary in the several banks of elevators and they do. 
The speed of one bank of cars under full speed would be 
five hundred feet, one five-fifty, one six hundred, six hundred 
and another six hundred, so that in the straight run they 
can make time. Of course, you appreciate that during the 
local stopping period the speed will not be six hundred, it 
will not average that because of the stops, but in the straight 
way, there would be almost four hundred feet of straight 
run without a stop, the speed would be six hundred and 
fifty or six hundred feet. 

There is a novel feature about design which was first 
proposed by me and adopted by the owners of the Bankers 
Trust Company Building in New York, that is, to put no 
elevator doors on any of the floors not served by that 
respective bank of elevators. It was a novel proposition. 
"What happens if you get stuck in the shaft?" We put 
intercommunicating doors in the side of each car, so that 
you could bring it up alongside of another car and transfer 
across through the cars and release the passengers. I must 
admit that during the last year and a half that I have oper- 
ated the Bankers Trust Building I wonder whether my sug- 
gestion was going to prove a success or a failure. If success, 
it meant that in this building we had two hundred and eighty 
square feet additional of rentable area in front of the express 
bank of elevators in the local floors, which at three or four 
dollars a square foot meant almost a thousand dollars a 
year additional rental per floor because of that little idea. 



After the local elevators stop, of course, we built the floors 
up above the locals for use as it is common practice. 

But in connection with that let me warn you about one 
thing if you enter into the designing of a building. The 
overhead of a bank of elevators such as that which stops 
down within the building below the roof and is filled with 
machines, which machines absorb energy, and energy is 
heat, so we will get right back to old mother heat. All of 
that heat, therefore, is dissipated in that machine room and 
you cannot expect men to live in it unless you ventilate it. 
I am citing that because it is a mistake which is made often, 
but it is possible to ventilate the machine room of a bank of 
elevators when it is within the building and not containing 
windows in it or skylights. 

Two of these elevators will be capable of lifting about 
seven thousand pounds. The largest safes we bring into 
offices in New York weigh about six thousand pounds. 
Two of the elevators that stop at every floor will run down 
to the basement of the engine room so that the engineer if 
necessary, or his assistant can go quickly to any part of the 
building without using the staircases. We have in addition 
to the high rise a plunger type of elevator that goes down to 
the basement below the engine room. 

We have a lot of interesting problems in a building like 
the Equitable. We have a power plant of four thousand 
horsepower, fifty tons of coal to get in every day, twelve or 
fifteen tons of ashes to get out every day; it gets down to 
power plant proportions. 

I first made up my mind as to the number of groups of 
elevators we were going to have, and my final conclusion 
was that bank number one, would serve from the second to 
the eleventh floor, inclusive, making ten floors actually 
served; the second group from the twelfth to the eighteenth 
inclusive;, seven floors served; the next from the nineteenth 
to tin; I wenty-fourth, six served; twenty-fifth to the thirtieth, 



six served; thirty-first to thirty-fifth, five served, with the 
auxiliary group landing you on the roof. There is a con- 
venience which I find to be very valuable in operating a 
building. Give service to the roof so that a car opens onto 
the roof, so that we have an auxiliary elevator onto the roof. 

If a passenger gets on number one bank of elevators by 
mistake and wants to go, we will say, to the thirteenth floor, 
he can use this auxiliary bank of elevators and he can get 
off at any floor he wants, as soon as he discovers his mistake; 
he can call the next floor, get off, and walk over a short 
distance to the auxiliary bank of elevators and go to any 
floor that he desires either up or down. That is for inter- 
communication and for mistakes. 

A car six by seven we allow four square feet for the opera- 
tor and two square feet for each passenger. The operator 
has got to move around, open and close his door, operate 
his control. We allow for each passenger that may occupy 
that car two square feet, a comfortable load. 

Here are two important points. Our schedule shows the 
round trip time in seconds. Any elevator can land on the 
ground floors, open the doors, take in its people, start up, 
make a stop at every floor in the section served, start down, 
stop somewhere in the length of the run down, take on a 
passenger, shut the car door, go for the bottom, let that one 
passenger out and the cycle is complete. That cycle taken 
in this calculation is 181 seconds, practically the average. 
Every car in the building can do it exactly in the same time. 

Another point is to give them all the same service. As 
I told you before, that is very important. Do not let a 
man have an excuse for not paying for the nice light up on 
the top of the building because of poor elevator service. 
Make the time in the area served by the car until you can 
get the cars exactly the same throughout the building, and 
equal to our friends and neighbors, twenty-three seconds 
between cars in the rush, in the maximum load conditions, 



and at ten or eleven o'clock we can get it down to a basis 
where we can make it in fifteen seconds. 

A good thing for us office building managers is to decide 
if we can ever get our association in the various cities, to 
decide some of these economic principles. You can see there 
is no limit to the elevator service an unreasonable tenant 
can demand. He can demand elevator service every two 
seconds on a floor. Before one car gets away, the other 
cars must be there, and where shall we stop? There is one 
building in New York in which I have made tests that 
gives a car on a floor every fifteen seconds. They are going 
too far, taking all of the profits out of the building, so that 
we ought to decide among ourselves as managers to advise 
the owners as managers, not in combination, but as a busi- 
ness agreement that we shall not give in any building better 
than thirty-second service, which is as good as any rea- 
sonable man should have. A few years ago when we had the 
old type of hydraulic or steam-driven elevator, if we got a 
car every minute and a half you were mighty lucky to ride 
down and not walk, and we were entirely satisfied. It is 
all a matter of comparison. 

The matter of the location of the ladies' master toilets is 
rather important for the elevator service. If it was not for 
the fact that we consider it very advisable to give flexibility 
to the shaft so as to take care of possible future zones of 
population in the building, I would recommend that the 
ladies' lavatory be put on the last stop on the down in each 
group of elevators, for this reason. The matter of handling 
women in office buildings demands considerable elevator 
service, and the major cost of running any electric elevator 
system is the cost of stopping and starting. If you put the 
women's room on the lowest floor, you are running slow, and 
the operator knows under most all average conditions he 
would make the last stop. Now on the up he is going at 
full speed over the blank shaft. He has to retard, he cannot 



go into the top section of the building at full speed. He 
retards, and if he is retarding, it is easy to make the first 
stop. He expects to stop. If the operator on the elevator 
expects something, you have no trouble, but it is the unex- 
pected which causes over-runs, reverses to hit the floor. It 
means we get two or three stops to make the landing, when 
the operator ought to take it in one. 

I might say that the enthusiasm for high buildings took 
possession of some of us when we found that forty-eight 
elevators would serve thirty-six floors. The question was 
asked, why not go to forty floors, or forty-four floors. We 
can go there, but we cannot give the service, and what is 
the use of building any kind of a building that you cannot 
give service? The architect and the man who supplies the 
brick and mortar get the profits. The owner has a big 
bunch of mortar he cannot rent. He is carrying it as a 
dead load with no earning capacity, so make every square 
foot of area that you put in a building rentable. Don't 
build it unless you know that it can rent, unless it has got 
all the facilities which induce tenants to take it. 

I think this will illustrate my next point. In the Bankers 
Trust Company Building at 14 Wall Street, New York, 
taking an express car, after you leave the ground floor, the 
first door opening that you pass in the shaft is at the six- 
teenth floor. That does two or three things. Those cars 
run pretty fast, but when you are riding in a Pullman car 
with good springs under the car, there is only one way you 
can tell how fast you are going and that is to see the tele- 
graph poles go by. We do not provide any door openings 
or telegraph poles for the people to see go by. We have 
got a perfectly blank shaft, and the first thing you know you 
see a number flash by which is the signal that you are ap- 
proaching the sixteenth floor, so you can shoot up very fast 
without the slightest feeling of speed, because you see noth- 
ing and feel nothing. 



Don't over-illuminate your cabs or your public halls 
artificially. If a tenant comes into a building the hall ought 
to be lighted brighter than the elevator cab. The pupil of 
the eye will gradually open up as he comes into the hall. It 
will seem dark at first, but by the time he reaches the eleva- 
tor it seems quite normal. He gets into the cab, which is 
lighted a little darker than the hall. His pupil still opens 
up. He gets off at his floor, walks into his office and says, 
"What a beautifully lighted office. " If you give him too 
much illumination in going there, when he gets into his 
office it appears to be dark. First impressions are what 

There are openings at the bottom of this shaft which are 
not used for passengers. Freight, building employees, 
anything in the operation of the building, is brought down 
and is kept out of the main hall. All the dirty, greasy things 
are kept out of the hall. It is all done from a platform, which 
is called a working platform. If a great length, six hundred 
or a thousand feet of cable is dragged along the white marble 
halls, what janitor can ever get it clean? 

Another thing, do not let any architect talk you into 
serving two ground floors. You cannot get good elevator 
service if street A is at one level, street B at another level. 
There has been a great deal of enthusiasm over trying to 
serve the subway crowd and give them elevator service 
from the subway level. That kills a building. They would 
walk up outside from the subway and they are mighty glad 
to do it uptown. Let them do it downtown. You could 
put an escalator in from the subway entrance to the first 
floor, which I believe the Western Union Telegraph Company 
is doing in its new building to serve that subway crowd. 




By John A. Bensel, '84 

■ ■ 

■ ■ 

lllllll 1 Wl T 1 11 Ml 1 Ml 11 1 1 1 4111! 11 M( M l\ U 1 11 IIM 1 M 1 IM I M M l\ li 1 1 II ! 1 1 11 1 1 M 1 1 1 1 1 M IM 1 11 

MONG the incidents which mark the various phases in 

* the development of a man, probably none is more 
individually important than that which marks the termina- 
tion of his academic training, when he leaves the institu- 
tion where he received his education and takes his first step 
into the field where he must practically apply what he has 
learned in the operations that surround the general field of 
activity where he follows the work of his profession. You 
have arrived at this period, and, like all, under similar cir- 
cumstances, must look backward with some regret and a 
certain amount of homesickness at leaving the institution 
where you have learned what can be taught by books and 
lectures and view the strenuous fields of activity into which 
you are about to go and where you will be left to yourself 
to practise and follow your profession along the lines where 
your ambition and fate will lead. 

At this period throughout the entire country schools and 
colleges are sending their representatives into the world's 
activities, and the older generation can well afford to extend 
a welcome to you and to the graduates of other technical 
schools as you go into the field of engineering activity. In 
all of the professions the movements are greater and the 
developments more rapid than have ever before occurred 
in the world's history, and this to my mind is particularly 
true of the engineering profession, and I know of nothing 

*An address delivered to the graduating class of the Clarkson School of Tech- 




which brings this activity so prominently before one as to 
realize that the older generation of engineers who laid out 
the railroads and canals of this country in the first instance 
have but recently passed from the scene of their activities. 
And while I know this to be true, it sometimes seems al- 
most incredible that I personally knew for many years, 
while carrying on my work, a man who designed the first 
engines for use in the naval vessels of the United States. It 
may be true, as is often said, that human nature in its ele- 
ments does not change or vary, but certainly the human 
machine in its various forms of activity has changed most 
amazingly along the lines of applying the forces of nature 
to the benefit and improvement of man. This has been due 
in a great part to the multiplication and stimulation of 
discovery along the lines of engineering activity as well as 
to the discoveries that bring new elements into the field 
of operation and broaden, in this way, the lines by the 
changes that are occurring thereby in our social system. 

That so many men of scientific training should each year 
be put into the world's activities is encouraging to everyone 
who believes in the benefits to mankind that will result 
from the fact that science is more and more getting the 
requisite knowledge to control the forces of nature for 
man's supposed benefit; and to my mind, both socially 
and politically, the hope of the future comes from the fact 
of this increase each year in the percentage of the technically 
educated who might be said to be particularly needed at 
the present time, when so many notions for the relief of 
humanity from its present ills are being put forward with 
nothing behind them except the feeling of sympathy which 
has engendered them, and the further feeling that, things 
not being as they should be, any change is for the better. 
It would seem, after all, that the real and permanent benefits 
to mankind are going to be derived, not from I lie following 
of untried schemes of change but rather by following schemes 



derived from those who have been trained, and are thereby 
so mentally constituted as to be able to contemplate the 
facts in each case and to evolve from these facts the proper 
and successful application along which improvements should 
he rightly expected. Undoubtedly many of these things 
which we have regarded as permanent will have to be shifted 
and changed in our social system to make it fit, in some better 
manner, the demands of the people in this mechanical era 
in which we live, but it is important that this change should 
be made with a basis of calculation, and not, as might seem 
almost to be the case in regard to many of the notions which 
prevail, that these changes arise from what might be de- 
scribed in our closely settled communities as a sort of hyp- 
notic suggestion. 

In the field of engineering in which most of you are now 
about to begin your work, nothing is more marked to the 
older man in the profession than the large lines along which 
improvements, both public and corporate, are now neces- 
sarily undertaken. Railroads, in particular, are finding 
the demands made upon them, both for the accommoda- 
tion of the people and of freight, so great at times as to 
make it almost impossible for them to fulfil the demands; 
and the aggregation of people in our cities has brought 
many new problems into the field of engineering which, 
after all, concern the very life of the cities, which exist as 
they do within twelve or eighteen hours of actual starva- 
tion in case their lines of communication happen to be cut 
or prevented from operation. 

In the canal building in which this state has been pre- 
eminent among the states of the Union the change which 
has occurred from the time when the first canal was built 
through the various changes which have led up to the pres- 
ent design, and the requirements at this time, contrasted 
with those of the past, can be best grasped when one con- 
templates the fact that on the new Barge Canal of the state 



of New York, when completed, one of the types of canal 
boats that it will be possible to operate will be capable of 
carrying as much tonnage as an ordinary freight train now 
carries; or, that the new boats, that it might be possible 
to use, can have a capacity about equal to eight of the 
boats which one carries in his mind when thinking of the 
boats which traverse the present canal system of the state. 

Our concern, chiefly, is, that these activities which change 
the face of nature, operate beneficially to the lines of com- 
merce and movements of population. What the great change 
now under way will mean to the people at large no one, I 
think, can safely prophesy. The Panama Canal, for in- 
stance, when completed, will alter the whole line of com- 
mercial trade from the lines along which it now operates 
through new and somewhat virgin fields. The new canal 
for the state of New York, will have, I think, as large an 
influence directly affecting the people of the state as the 
Erie Canal had when it was first completed; and although 
it is impossible to state with accuracy to what extent the 
canal building of the state has affected the growth of its 
population, and particularly the growth of its big cities, its 
influence must have been extensive when one looks back 
and notes that before the building of the Erie Canal the 
city of New York was exceeded in population by the cities 
of Boston and Philadelphia, and both of these cities seem 
to have had as fair a chance for commercial growth, with 
the advantage in their favor to become the greater cities on 
our eastern seaboard. 

One interesting feature of the big improvements which 
are now under way is the fact that they are now undertaken 
almost entirely because of the demands of the people at 
large in their desires to secure, at public expense and for 
public use, lines of intercommunication throughout the 
state and the country which will belong to them as a public 
utility and be free from any possibility of corporate or 



private control. In other words, the present generation is 
resuming control, to a great extent, over the natural inherit- 
ances of the people, who have grasped the sense of their 
ownership in those things which, to my mind, are inherently 
part of the public domain. 

It is not remarkable that some effort has been wasted 
and that some funds should have been wasted during the 
processes of the evolution which has been going on along 
these lines; as, for instance, in the improvement of the water- 
ways throughout the country, where it has been calculated 
that over six hundred millions have been expended in the 
developments of the waterways without commensurate 
return in the use of them by the people in the development 
of commerce. The reason for this lack of use, in my mind, 
in the past has been from the failure to grasp the real es- 
sential feature of public improvement, and that is, that 
at the scenes of activity public control and public owner- 
ship must be given so that access to the lines of commercial 
travel shall be had by all of the people without any possi- 
bility of interruption because of the reasons which develop 
along the lines of corporate ownership and control. 

In following, broadly, these lines of the development of 
the people, no one should be better fitted to grasp the prob- 
lems that occur than those graduate engineers who should 
be capable of reasoning from cause to effect and of making 
a proper calculation and setting down the proper elements 
in an equation, without which no correct result can be ob- 
tained. The element of human nature should be a part of 
every engineer's calculation, particularly where work is 
done within the confines of a thickly settled community. 
This element has too often been neglected by the engineer, 
who has assumed a position of dealing alone with facts 
and figures, leaving the uncertain element for the manage- 
ment of those more capable of understanding the reasons 
which govern men in the aggregate. To operate, however, 



for the benefit of the people as a whole he must use his. 
knowledge of affairs and men in the broader sense, and he 
will thus be able by his efforts to create something which 
is worth while in the development of the people as a whole, 
and will have as his reward the attainment of the peace and 
prosperity of his country and the realization that his work 
has led to the general good of his fellow men. His work 
must be performed as one of service, and the satisfaction 
which he gets can only come from the sense of having per- 
formed such service, which brings to mind the words of 
Kipling in describing a portion of the work of the engineer, 
which can form a fitting conclusion to what I say, and 
express best to my mind the manner in which the engin- 
eer's work must be performed : 

"Not as a ladder, from earth to Heaven, 
Not as an altar to any creed; 
But simple service, simply given 

To his own kind, in their common need. " 


II 1 1 II 11 1 1 1 1 1 itii l»i 1 1 1 1 1 1 if i ii i ri i li 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 v 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ii 1 1 1 1 1 1 ill 1 1 1 M M 1 1 1 It 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 II 1 1 rTTTTTTTTn 

a a 
■ ■ 



By Prof. Wm. T. Magruder, '81 

■ ■ 

ii lit iiiitii mi liiiiiii iiii iiiiiiiiiiniiii iiii iiiiiitiiiiiiiiiii 1 1 iiii 1 1 1 1 1 1 ii im 1 1 1 1 1 1 n 1 

■ ■ 


A T THE meeting of Section E on Engineering Education 
* of the World's Engineering Congress which was held 
in Chicago in 1893 in connection with the World's Columbian 
Exposition, there were assembled "seventy or more" engi- 
neering educators from the United States and eight or more 
foreign countries. This society owes its existence to the 
congress and to the thought and labors of Professor Ira O. 
Baker, chairman of the Division Committee and Professor 
C. Frank Allen, its secretary pro tern. Of the seventy charter 
members, twenty-nine have either gone to their reward or 
have withdrawn from the society. Only forty-one of the 
seventy are now members of the society. Eleven of the 
living past-presidents are charter members, three became 
members in 1894, and one each in 1895, 1897 and 1902. 
That was twenty years ago. Some of us are no longer boys, 
even if we do feel as young and as full of enthusiasm as we 
did then. If time and your patience permitted it, and I 
were able, it would delight me to recall in great detail the 
lives and examples of some of the giants in engineering edu- 
cation whose successors we are — of the cultured Thurston, 
of that dynamic giant, DeVolson Wood, of that inventive 
genius, Robinson, of the courtly Chanute, of the erudite 
Johnson, and of the versatile Storm Bull. I offer you my 
congratulations on being allowed to follow where they have 
led the way. 

♦Address of the President of the Society for the Promotion of Engineering Edu- 



But after twenty years of this society's existence for the 
promotion of engineering education, at this its twenty-first 
meeting, when our growth betokens that we have come to 
our legal majority, at least in years, I desire to lead your 
minds into the consideration of what is a good engineering 
teacher and to give you an appreciation of his personality, 
and what he is as I have seen him in three score and more of 
engineering colleges and technical schools. 

What then is a good teacher? And my first answer is 
that he is one who knows enough of his subject to have some- 
thing to impart. I sometimes think the reason men from 
the highest ranks of consulting engineers so frequently make 
poor teachers, from the point of view of the students, is 
that they know too much, and cannot appreciate the fact 
that the students are down in the basement of the structure 
whose facade they are embellishing with artistic points of 
elegance and efficiency, and that the students are crawling 
on hands and knees along the path they are traveling with 
seven-league boots. In order that the teacher shall have 
something to impart, he should have had a proper education 
and some training, experience, travel and observation, as 
these are among the necessary qualifications for a good 
teacher. The man who has never earned his daily bread 
in the close commercial competition of the factory, works 
or mine, needs to learn one of the essential requirements of 
the successful engineering teacher, namely, to have rubbed 
elbows with workingmen of the artisan type and to have 
measured himself by their standards of knowledge and skill. 
One who has received only the education that he is trying 
to impart, possibly at his alma mater, probably in the same 
room in which he received it, who has never cut himself 
loose from his college's apron strings, and who has not taught 
or worked elsewhere, is not likely to make a good teacher 
until he has been trained in the school of experience else- 
where. If graduate students should migrate for their best 



good, surely college teachers should do the same. In a 
previous paper before this society I have already referred 
to one institution, almost one hundred per cent of whose 
teachers in one department are the educational offspring 
of the great mind which presided over the department for 
thirty years. Experience of any kind always serves a teacher 
well, and the more he has had of that which pertains to the 
subject that he is teaching, the better it will be for him and 
his students. Travel and inspection trips, to learn by obser- 
vation how others are doing the same thing that he is ex- 
pected to do, are extremely broadening and take him out 
of his natural groove. It is needless to say that continued 
reading and increase in one's knowledge of his profession is 
absolutely essential for the advancement of the good teacher. 

A good teacher is one who can talk on his feet audibly 
enough to be heard without effort and intelligently enough 
to be understood without subsequent correction. For, if 
the listener can not hear what is being said for his instruction, 
both parties are wasting time which is more or less valuable. 
If the recipient of the instruction continuously fails to get 
an intelligent understanding of what has been said, he has 
no right to be in attendance; and, similarly, if the teacher 
continuously fails to give an intelligent understanding of 
what he is trying to say, he should be removed and not 
allowed to waste the valuable time of the students. A man 
who can not impart his knowledge can not be a good 
teacher. Hence, health, adequate previous rest and endur- 
ance are essential to the good teacher. Few of us, I think, 
appreciate the difference in the instruction given and taken 
in September and in May, on Monday and on Friday, after a 
holiday spent in restful occupation and amusements and 
after an entertainment lasting until far past midnight. 
Some of us occasionally fail to consider and measure accu- 
rately the cash value of an hour of a class's time. We should 
be greatly disturbed if in our factory the power were need- 
5 365 


lessly shut off during the working hours of the day, or the 
lights went out at night, or the subsistence department 
failed to provide suitable food and lodging for our workmen, 
and we would at once discover the causes for this industrial 
inefficiency; but if the class is made to wait while a visitor 
or an assistant detains us, we may have little remorse, or 
indeed thought, concerning our academic inefficiency. To 
attend an engineering college it costs a student at least one 
dollar per week per credit hour of college work, or from six- 
teen to twenty dollars per week. If, therefore, the teacher 
in a college of engineering is absent without a substitute 
from a one-hour class-room engagement, it may be causing 
each of the ten to two hundred students to spend a dollar 
in needlessly trying to fulfil his part of the contract with the 
institution. The same is true of inexcusable latenesses. 

A good teacher is one who has an unimpeached and de- 
served reputation for mental honesty, right living, patience 
under harassment and sound character. The engineering 
teacher who describes tricks of the trade, petty dishonesties, 
evasions of both the spirit and the letter of the law, without 
showing at least his disapproval of them, who shuts his eyes 
to dishonesties in class-room and college life, is neither a 
good teacher nor yet a good citizen. The teacher who is a 
leader in trickery, deceit and bluff during the term and who 
permits students to sit in an examination room so close 
together as to be under constant temptation to undesired 
dishonesty is particeps criminis to any dereliction of the 
student then, and possibly later. When cheating in exam- 
inations is made a sine qua non for honor and high grades, if 
not for graduation, and when the most skillful compiler of 
invisible ponies and the most successful cheater becomes the 
honor man of the class, as I have heard reported in recent 
trips among the colleges, it would seem that an old-fash- 
ioned course in moral philosophy and ethics should be in 
order for both the teachers and the students. We all fail, 



I fear, frequently enough, but we should not be forced, or 
allowed, to fail inordinately. Occasionally we hear condona- 
tion expressed at the human frailties of the teacher, because 
he is considered as a genius in his specialty, and on account 
of his lovable qualities. Far be it from me to cast stones 
at my brother man, but I have never been able to discover 
a reason why a drunkard, or a libertine, should be tolerated 
in the teaching profession and frowned out of society in 
other professions and not allowed to work where the physical 
well-being of others was involved. Surely the mental and 
the spiritual well-being of our young men are paramount to 
their physical existence. 

The one moral trait which seems to be most frequently 
demanded above all others from the teacher is that of pa- 
tience. Some of us do not enjoy walking with persons who 
walk slowly or with very short steps, and who take a long 
time to get over very little ground. Similarly, we have to 
go equally slowly in expounding a new problem to a class, or 
in drawing out of even the average student the principle 
underlying the problem in hand, and in causing him to think 
about the subject consecutively and logically. We have all 
asked ourselves at the end of the hour, "How many in that 
class really took in the full significance of what I was talking 
about?" If this is true with the average class, how much 
more is it so with those members who are lazy or are natu- 
rally slow in their mental operations ? 

From the above it follows as a matter of course that the 
good teacher should deserve the respect of his students and 
his colleagues as a man, as a teacher and as an engineer. 
I think it frequently happens that the students know our 
failings and our strong points better than we do ourselves, 
or than they are known by our superiors. Student criticism 
may sometimes be unjust for want of full and complete infor- 
mation, but it must be remembered that the young human 



mind is likely to be as keen in its perceptions as is the older 
mind of the man who occupies the other end of the room. 

Another requisite in the good teacher is unbounded enthu- 
siasm for and intense loyalty to the work of the teacher and 
of the engineer. We can tolerate the hireling in the com- 
mercial office and the drafting room, and the time-server 
may have to be put up with out on the works and in the 
mine, but the teacher, as a leader of young men and as a 
man who should be looked up to with some degree of that 
kind of respect which may grow into veneration, should be 
so bubbling over with enthusiasm that it will be contagious. 

That prince of cultured scientists, Dr. S. Weir Mitchell, 
in giving at the semi-centennial celebration of the foundation 
of the National Academy of Sciences some of his recollections 
of the eminent men of science whom he had known, told the 
story of Professor Joseph Leidy's being asked "if he never 
got tired of life." "Tired!" he said, "Not so long as there 
is an undescribed intestinal worm, or the middle of a fossil 
bone or a rhizopod new to me." So, the enthusiastic teacher 
is never tired, so long as there is an intelligent boy to be 
trained or a mind to be developed. The engineer sets in 
motion the wheels of thousands of machines; the successful 
educator sets in motion the wheels of a thousand minds. 
Such a man can always get the work out of his students, 
even if they have to curtail the time properly due to some 
other instructor who is less inspiring. The enthusiastic 
teacher never counts the cost to himself of his labor for 
those whom he loves to call "his boys." 

I am of the opinion that our engineering colleges are less 
handicapped than are the academic colleges by the services 
of men who are teaching for a year or two either while study- 
ing for the bar or for holy orders, or to enable them to repay 
the debts contracted for their college education by the means 
which will permit the least effort during the shortest time. 
As a rule, the call to work in the bustle of the manufacturing 



and constructive world is preeminent in the mind of the engi- 
neering graduate. He is ready for the fray, and today he 
wants to get into it as never before, and no waiting until 
cooler weather or until after a summer vacation for him. 
"I am going to work next Monday," is his battle cry on 
commencement day. The courage of youth is beautiful to 
behold, and his zeal is a lesson to his teachers and to those 
who are following him. 

Akin to enthusiasm for his work in the good teacher is his 
inspirational value to his students and his colleagues in the 
faculty. The former is the child of youth; the latter is the 
product of age and genius. When the teacher begins to 
lose his enthusiasm, he should begin to think that possibly 
he may be getting old, or else lazy. Not infrequently, how- 
ever, the teacher who is devoid of enthusiasm may be of 
great inspirational value. He is the seer. He may be even 
halting in his speech, but by his ideas, his skill, or his manner 
of presenting the subject he may impress the student with 
the greatness of the profession that he is studying and lead 
him on to larger visions. Fortunately, the world needs 
both draft horses and speed horses, otherwise some of them 
would have to be put out of the way. Similarly, it is a great 
comfort to some of us to think that possibly we are doing 
the work of the world for which we are created, even if we 
are not breathing out great ideas at every breath. All hail 
to the man, however, who has ideas and can cause others to 
adopt them, to lift the world up and into larger visions, and 
so to do bigger things for the benefit of mankind. Great 
men are not necessarily either enthusiastic or yet inspira- 
tional, and some of the poorest teachers under whom I 
have sat were great men in other lines of human endeavor. 
But I am sure we can all recall some one of our own teachers 
who was both a great man and a good teacher at the same 
time. But, may I not ask, was he not a good teacher be- 
cause he was enthusiastic and inspirational, and had no 



thought of apologizing for being a teacher? The man who 
can never be a good teacher is he who is ashamed of his job, 
for to him it is most likely to be only the line of least effort 
to the pay-check. 

The good teacher is he who has felt the thrill of having been 
called to the upbuilding of character in others, who day by 
day sees the unfolding of the innermost life of his fellow 
citizen, who has a life of service to live and enjoy, and who 
deals with human minds in the laboratory of life; for, after 
all, is not education only scientific research applied to char- 
acter? Just as we go to the physician for improvement of 
the body, and to the priest for the betterment of the human 
soul, so we should go to the good teacher for the training in 
character which the young all need in different degrees. 
One of the inspiring sights of the college year and the one 
which always gives me a genuine thrill of happiness is on 
commencement day to look over the sea of upturned faces 
of men and women who have just been graduated and feel 
that we have been in some small degree a party to their 
training and responsible for their future success in the battle 
of life and in the part that they will hereafter play, for weal 
or for woe, as our fellow citizens in this republic. In their 
promise of success is our joy and reward for a year of hard 
work. But for the joy of service, some of us would not be 
willing parties to what the governor of Ohio recently de- 
scribed as "the scandal of low salaries paid to college pro- 
fessors. " I sometimes think that school boards and trustees 
occasionally take advantage of the idealism of the teacher 
to get his services below the proper market rate; and this 
is especially true of engineering teachers who in most cases 
can, and sometimes do, earn more money from their clients 
during a part of the year than they receive from their pro- 
fessorship during the major portion of the year. All the 
pay of I he good teacher does not come inside the pay en- 
velope. Much of it comes in that in ward consciousness of 



work well done in the training for citizenship, for that effi- 
ciency which will prevent poverty, for success in whatever 
walk of life may be followed, and finally for the larger life 
here and hereafter. Some one has defined the professional 
class as the one that has no leisure, as instanced by the min- 
ister, the physician and the lawyer. Judged by that stand- 
ard, we, as teachers, belong to the professional class. 

Probably some of you have been wondering why I have 
not as yet said anything about the good engineering teacher 
being above all other things a good engineer. That goes 
almost without saying in this presence, provided you mean 
the best teacher. The engineering teacher who has never 
practised anything that he has taught, who has never seen 
built anything that he has designed, who has never prepared 
for an elaborate test of some plant or machine and found that 
he had foreseen all the various requirements in the way of 
labor, apparatus and equipment, even to the board and 
lodging of himself and his assistants, cannot expect to be 
considered as yet a really good engineering teacher. How- 
ever, it must be remembered that as this is an educational 
society, and not an engineering or a technical society, as 
Dean Charles H. Benjamin has so aptly put it, so it must be 
remembered that the colleges need men who to be teachers 
must be first able to impart their knowledge, draw out from 
their students all that is in them, and cultivate in them the 
habits of correct thinking, clear vision, active imagination, 
sound reasoning powers, and good judgment; and because 
they possess these things themselves and can train others in 
them, they are therefore fit to be counted among the good 
teachers. It is for these reasons that good engineering 
teachers are said to be more difficult to find than are good 
teachers of other subjects. 

A good engineering teacher must know what engineering 
really is. He must have clearly defined ideas on what are 
the distinguishing features of engineering, technical, manual 



training, trade school and industrial educations. He must 
have no half-hearted ideas as to where the engineering 
trades stop and where the profession begins. He must not 
be afraid to get out into the deep water of the profession of 
engineering. He must not believe that the proper engineer- 
ing education is strictly utilitarian and vocational, and not 
one bit cultural. He must look between the folds of the 
ancient armor of his colleague in the college of arts of his 
institution, and discover that the scientific spirit has largely- 
superseded the literary spirit even in such subjects as Latin, 
Greek and the modern languages; that in fact in the work of 
some language teachers there is more of science than of 
language; that the so-called literary colleges are training 
men for vocations just as truly as are our colleges of engi- 
neering, law and medicine; that while the old-time classical 
colleges used to train men to be gentlemen, their successors 
in the educational world train men for journalism, insurance, 
politics, trade and business, as well as for education, the law 
and the ministry as heretofore. We engineers think that 
they are to be congratulated, in that they have enlarged their 
system of education and no longer make it so general as to 
fit the student for nothing in particular and non-technical 
as to be useless except as a preparation for one of the pro- 

"To know the best that has been thought and said in the 
world" is what Matthew Arnold calls culture. To the 
engineer, this is not the fullness of culture, but the rather to 
know the best that other men have thought, and said, and 
done. Even this is only half of the full duty of a cultured 
engineer. He should not only know the best that others 
have thought, and said, and done, but he should, as far as 
he may be mentally able, have contributed to the thought, 
and writings, and doings of the world. The engineering, 
above all other professions, demands thai its members shall 
not be solely scholars, nor yet students of unsolved problems, 


but they shall have solved some of the problems which have 
pressed upon civilization for solution. Engineering teachers 
should be not scholars solely, nor yet students only, but 
pioneers and creators in the work of civilization. The first 
live in the spiritual palace called a library, where time, 
memory and the receptive faculties are alone required. The 
student lives in the laboratory where the powers of observa- 
tion are developed, logic reigns and laws are discovered. 
The successful engineer lives on the frontier of civilization, 
on the firing line of human endeavor, where those material 
problems have to be solved that have been set for the ages, 
and where the art of creation is wedded to the science of 
industry. The scholar deals with the past. The student 
lives in the present. The engineer looks into the future and 
solves its problems. 

To be a good engineering teacher, one must be something 
of a scholar, student and creator and, highest of all, an edu- 
cator capable of leading others to be the same. Such men 
are necessarily scarce, and while their financial rewards may 
be small, the satisfaction that they very properly get from 
their work transcends all their many self denials and enables 
them to hold their heads up with the world's best people. 

This society was formed for the promotion of the kind of 
education which has been described. This is its twenty- 
first annual meeting. It may be now said to be of age. 
In closing this address I desire to leave with the next pro- 
gram committee and the incoming officers just two sugges- 
tions with the hope that they may be possible of adoption. 

Let the program next year include a rousing session on 
"Education as a Science, rather than as an Art." Those of 
you who are familiar with the proceedings of the society 
know that we have had the subject of education con- 
sidered as an art dealt with from many points of view. 
Until this meeting, little, if anything, has been done to con- 
sider the rationale and science of our chosen profession of 




education. Let the best minds in the educational world 
tell us, and in a practical way, all that time will permit 
concerning the science of education, including its psychology, 
as applied to engineering education. Schools of salesman- 
ship have their special courses in the psychology of their 
chosen vocation; but did any one ever hear of a course in 
psychology being demanded as a part of the necessary train- 
ing required for the engineering teacher? As training and 
instruction in the normal school are required of grammar 
school teachers, and as graduation from a college of arts or 
of education is expected or demanded from the would-be 
high school teacher, and since successful courses are given 
in our colleges of education on how to teach mathematics, 
chemistry and physics, surely courses are needed on how to 
teach the applications of these subjects. Hence I claim that 
some professional training in education should be required 
of the man who desires to impart his knowledge and to train 
young men for the practice of the engineering profession. 
We are engineering educators. Why should we be required 
to possess much professional knowledge and training in 
engineering and none in education? 

And this leads me to my last suggestion, which is that the 
faculties of some of those universities which maintain col- 
leges both of engineering and of education should offer in 
their summer terms strong courses of study in psychology 
and in education considered both as a science and as an art. 
These should be conducted by their most virile and experi- 
enced men, and college presidents, deans and heads of depart- 
ments should be requested to influence their younger assist- 
ants and fresh graduates who expect to go permanently 
into the work of education to take these proposed courses 
of study in the summer term in preparation for their work 
in the college of engineering in the succeeding year. If this 
is done, more engineering teachers will become engineering 


> ■ 


* e 






e a 
■ • 


ilUllllllilllllllltllllilllflllllltllllltllllllillllllfllll 111 


THE exhibits in the famous Selden patent suit, which 
was contested in the courts for about ten years, to 
determine priority in the invention of a practical auto- 
mobile, have been presented to Stevens, as announced by 
President Humphreys at the annual meeting of the Alumni 
Association last June. These exhibits comprise the following: 

1. A Patent Office model of the Selden patent. 

2. Two working models of engine and parts, partly glass. 

3. A full-sized vehicle fac-simile of the patent drawing, 
known as the "Selden 1877 model." 

4. A Ford car of 1904, used for proof of infringement. 

5. Another full-size car, copied from the patent to prove 

6. Two horizontal Bray ton engines made and used in the 
70's in motor boats; they are very heavy and were used to 
show the state of the art of liquid hydrocarbon engines at 
that time. 

7. A single cylinder, like Selden engine, for test. 

8. A clutch, said to be used in an experimental motor 
'bus in Pittsburgh, in the 70 , s. 

9. A number of small parts in connection with the vehicle 
and engine exhibits. 

These exhibits, which make a very valuable addition to 
the history of the automobile and the internal combustion 
engine, were obtained for Stevens on the initiative of 
Hermann F. Cuntz, '93, who was the first to appreciate the 
importance and value of the Selden patent, and who was 
the "man behind the gun" during the whole course of the 



celebrated contest over this patent. He was also largely 
instrumental in organizing the Association of Licensed Auto- 
mobile Manufacturers, which afterwards became the Auto- 
mobile Board of Trade, and has now been succeeded by the 
Automobile Chamber of Commerce, and which has had 
such a great influence on the automobile industry in the 
United States. This association dominated the great au- 
tomobile shows in this country, and the automobile shows in 
New York, Chicago and elsewhere are still run under its 
auspices. When with the association, Mr. Cuntz personally 
arranged quarters for various engineers in the automobile 
industry, which led to the formation of the Society of Auto- 
mobile Engineers, of which he has just been asked to serve 
as treasurer for a third term. 

The negotiations for the transfer of the Selden suit ex- 
hibits to Stevens Tech involved many difficulties, but these 
were successfully overcome through the efforts of W. E. 
S. Strong, '92, and Mr. Cuntz, and the transfer was con- 
cluded officially by Mr. Strong and Roberts Walker, as 
receivers of the United States Motor Company. Besides 
Mr. Cuntz and Mr. Strong, various other Stevens men 
have been connected, in one way or the other, with this 
Selden litigation, which was one of the most important 
patent cases ever tried in the United States courts. 


a o 
e a 

J^Zan-TTTTT M M t ! M M ! M M t M 1 M M M rn i n t M 1 1 M \ 1 1 1 1 1 1 U I M M i i \ M i I W i \ 1 M M 1 ! M M 1 1 1 \ 1 M 


a ■ 

■ 3 


■ ■ 

r I ^HE joint committee of the Alumni Association and 
* the various Stevens clubs has been working for some 
time on methods of organization, and has finally drafted the 
"Articles of Federation" printed below, as a tentative 
scheme for discussion at the first regular conference of clubs 
to be held on the morning of Saturday, January 10, 1914. 
This date has been fixed in accordance with the arrange- 
ments of the committee on a Stevens Convention. The 
annual dinner of the Alumni Association will be held on the 
evening of the same day. 

The committee communicated with a large number of 
colleges in the United States, and received the following 
information in regard to federations of alumni clubs: 

Harvard has had such an organization for fifteen years in 
which there are at present about ninety clubs. Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology and the University of Pennsyl- 
vania both started similar organizations last spring, known 
as "The Technology Clubs Associated' ' and the "Associated 
Pennsylvania Clubs. " The University of Wisconsin, Cornell, 
Williams and Rutgers have recently appointed committees 
to work along the same lines. The University of Cali- 
fornia, Rensselaer and Union, among others, are very much 
interested in the subject, and have asked that copies of the 
constitution or other method of organization be sent to them 
as soon as some plan has been adopted by Stevens alumni. 

The committee felt that the organization should start in 
a small way without any very elaborate constitution, by- 
laws, dues, etc., and, therefore, has made the "Articles of 
Federation" short. No conclusion has been reached as to a 
name, but the following have been suggested : Federation of 



Stevens Clubs, Federation of Stevens Alumni Clubs and 
Federation of Stevens Tech Clubs. 

In order that the Federation might work in perfect har- 
mony with the Alumni Association, and that the Alumni 
Association might keep in close touch with the clubs, the 
"Articles of Federation" provide that the secretary and 
treasurer be the same as those in the Alumni Association, 
and that the chairman be ex-officio a member of the Execu- 
tive Committee of the Alumni Association. It is proposed 
to have two conferences a year about the time of the meet- 
ings of the Alumni Association to which all members will be 

The chief objects of the federation of clubs are to obtain 
greater publicity for Stevens and to foster a wider acquaint- 
ance among Stevens alumni, especially among those in the 
various clubs. The social part of the conferences will be 
made an important feature. 

The committee, consisting of David C. Johnson, '06, 
chairman; Walter Kidde, '97; Thomas C. Stephens, '00; 
William A. Shoudy, '99; Frederick C. Fraentzel, '83, and 
Frederick C. Freeman, '03, will welcome any suggestions 
from alumni. 

Following are the proposed "Articles of Federation": 

Name. — The name of this organization shall be the Federation of 
Stevens Alumni Tech Clubs. 

Purpose. — The objects of this Federation shall be, in cooperation with 
the Alumni Association, to further the interests, influence and efficiency 
of Stevens Institute of Technology; to strengthen the relations between 
the College and the Alumni; to foster a wider acquaintance among Stevens 
Alumni; and to increase the usefulness of local Stevens Alumni Clubs. 

Members. — Any Stevens Alumni Club, properly organized, shall be 
eligible to membership. 

New clubs may be elected to membership at any conference of the Fed- 
eration by a majority vote of all the Clubs. 

()i 1 1< i.ks. The officers of the Federation shall be a Chairman, a Secre- 
tary and a Treasurer. The Chairman shall be elected by the Clubs. 



The Secretary of the Alumni Association shall be the Secretary of the 
Federation. The Treasurer of the Alumni Association shall be the Treas- 
urer of the Federation. The Chairman shall be ex-qfficio a member of the 
Executive Committee of the Alumni Association. 

The term of office shall be one year from July 1st to July 1st (coincident 
with the fiscal year of the Alumni Association). 

Meetings. — There shall be two "Conferences" a year, preferably about 
the same time and place as the meetings of the Alumni Association. Spe- 
cial meetings may be called by the Chairman or by five of the Clubs. 

Any Stevens man may attend the conferences and participate in the 

Each Club, however, shall have but one vote. Clubs unable to be 
represented by one of their own members may appoint a proxy. 

Amendments. — These articles may be amended at any conference by 
majority vote of all the federated clubs, provided the amendment has 
been proposed by at least two clubs and a copy thereof sent to all the 
clubs two months before the conference. 

These articles and any future amendments must be ratified by the Exec- 
utive Committee of the Alumni Association before they shall take effect. 


Stevens Indicator 







Gerald E. Terwilliger, '09 
One Liberty Street, New York City 

Subscription Price, $1.50 per Year. Single Copies, 50 Cents 


Stevens has taken a logical step in concluding to admit 

freshmen without entrance examinations from a restricted 

^ ^ number of approved preparatory schools. 

„ , . The worth of the entrance examination 

Regulations , , , , , 

has come to be more and more seriously 

questioned as a means of discovering whether a candidate 
possesses a thorough grasp of a range of preparatory work 
covering many years. The great majority of the colleges of 
the country have inclined to the view that a certificate of 
diligence and success during a period of years at a secondary 
school of recognized efficiency means full as much as a pass- 
ing mark which may be the result of the "cramming" proc- 
ess or good luck in hitting the high spots while reviewing. 
Stevens is, therefore, in excellent company in making the 
change. The ideal of service in the fullest measure has 
dictated the new policy. President Humphreys and other 
members of the faculty have expressed a hope that it may 



result in drawing students in goodly numbers from remote 
sections of the country to promote a wholesome cosmopoli- 
tanism which is always beneficial. The alumni will watch 
the outcome with close attention. 

The income of college graduates is a matter of interest, 
not only to the income tax collector, but to a large number 
of persons who are convinced that a college 
education is an aid or a hindrance, as the view- 
point may be, to material advancement. The 
Class of 1909 has, of its own initiative, undertaken a com- 
prehensive census of class salaries to discover what the aver- 
age Stevens man earns when he has been graduated five 
years. This poll will be taken in such a manner that the 
identification of the men belonging to the various salaries 
will be made impossible. Thus it is hoped to obtain figures 
from every man in the class. Particular attention will also 
be paid to tabulating and collecting the data in a way which 
will reveal the earning power of the men apart from income 
which comes without effort. This is an activity which 
might well be taken up by other classes, since the class is 
essentially a unit better adapted to elicit the information 
than the Alumni Association. 

With the Stevens Convention in early January an as- 
sured fact, reservations promising to tax one of New York's 

t . largest theatres at the second Stevens theatre 
Line! P ar ^y> an< ^ the monthly Stevens luncheon in New 
York a popular recurrent function, the fall and 
winter activities of the alumni are in a most flourishing state. 
The get-together spirit is in the air and no one is searching 
for an antitoxin. 







First Vice-President. . 
Second Vice-President 

J. Alfred Dixon, '91 

William E. S. Strong, '92 
.Gustav G. Freygang, '09 
Louis A. Martin, Jr., '00 

J. H. Cuntz, '87 


Directors: Term Expires 1914 — F. J. Gtjbelman, '89; H. E. Griswold, 
'93; R. C. Post, '89; R. W. Pryor, Jr., '02. Term Expires 1915— 
John S. DeHart, '90; Frederick A. Muschenheim, '91 ; Charles H. 
McCullough, Jr., '91; Frank E. Law, '92. 

Trustees: John S. DeHart, '90; J. A. Dixon, '91; Walter Kidde, '97; 
R. W. Pryor, Jr., '02; Gustav G. Freygang, '09. 

Alumni Trustees: Walter Kidde, '97; John W. Lieb, Jr., '80; Ernest 
H. Peabody, '90. 

Stevens Institute Alumni Association (European Branch) — Lafayette D. 
Carroll, '84, Acting Secretary, 36-38 Victoria St., London, S. W., 

Stevens Club of Newark — W. R. Halliday, '02, Secretary, Stevens 

Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N. J. 
Stevens Club of Brooklyn — William E. Paulson, '04, Secretary, 13 

Fulton St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Southern Alumni Club — A. M. Norris, '07, Secretary, 1412 Continental 

Bldg., Baltimore, Md. 
Stevens Club of Philadelphia — J. B. Klumpp, '94, Secretary-Treasurer ; 

U. G. I. Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Stevens Club of Schenectady — Richard H. Marvin, '03, Secretary- 
Treasurer, General Electric Co., Schenectady, N. Y. 
Wisconsin Stevens Club — Cornelius T. Myers, '00, Secretary, 44 Pingree 

Ave., Detroit, Mich. 
Western Stevens Club — A. K. Hamilton, '95, Secretary, 72 West Adams 

St., Chicago, 111. 

Stevens Club of Pittsburgh — E. A. Condit, Jr., '02, Secretary -Treasurer, 

2348 Oliver Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
New England Stevens Club — F. M. Gibson, '01, President, American 

Su^'ar Refining Co., Boston, Mass. 
Stevens Tech Club of Michigan — L. J. Schneider, '11, Secretary, 754 

Woodward Ave, Detroit, Mich. 



'73— J. A. Henderson, 120 North 19th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
'74. — H. W. Post, Box 415, Mountain Lakes, Boonton, N. J. 
'75. — S. D. Graydon, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N. J. 
'76. — A. Riesenberger, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N. J. 
'77.— F. E. Idell, 50 Church St., New York City. 
'78— A. A. DeBonneville, 132 Nassau St., New York City. 
'79. — John S. Cooke, 364 Broadway, Paterson, N. J. 
'80.— J. W. Lieb, Jr., 55 Duane St., New York City. 
'81— R. M. Dixon, 2 Rector St., New York City. 
'82. — Hosea Webster, 85 Liberty St., New York City. 
'83. — F. C. Fraentzel, 804 Broad St., Newark, N. J. 
'84. — W. L. Lyall, 439 Aycrigg Ave., Passaic, N. J. 
'85.— A. W. Burchard, 30 Church St., New York City. 
'86.— F. A. LaPointe, 63 Eighth St., Hoboken, N. J. 
'87.— J. D. Flack, "Orienta," 302 West 79th St., New York City. 
'88.— Richard Beyer, 902 Hudson St., Hoboken, N. J. 
'89.— F. J. Gtjbelman, 47 West 34th St., New York City. 
'90— E. H. Peabody, 85 Liberty St., New York City. 
'91. — C. G. Atwater, 17 Battery Place, New York City. 
'92— W. O. Ludlow, 12 West 31st St., New York City. 
'93— E. D. Lewis, 185 Madison Ave., New York City. 
'94. — G. B. Fielder, Cartaret Trust Co., Sip Ave., Jersey City, N. J. 
'95. — A. F. Ganz, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N. J. 
'96.— W. H. MacGregor, 165 Broadway, New York City. 
'97.— J. M. Towne, 54 Walnut St., East Orange, N. J. 
'98. — Robert Boettger, United Piece Dye Works, Lodi, Bergen Co., N. J. 
'99.— J. S. Henry, Safety Car Htg. & Ltg. Co., 2 Rector St., New York 

'00.— H. L. Underhill, Consolidated Gas Co., 501 East 21st St., New 
York City. 

'01. — A. Siegele, Jr., 167 Lenox Road, Flatbush, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
'02— L. K. Lydecker, 2 Rector St., New York City. 
'03. — S. H. Lott, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N. J. 
'04. — C. E. Hedden, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N. J. 
'05.— I. R. Lewis, care of Walter Kidde, 140 Cedar St., New York City. 
'06. — L. A. Hazeltine, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N. J. 
'07. — Peter Minck, Kilbourne & Jacobs Mfg. Co., 25 Broad St., New 
York City. 

'08.— G. D. Thayer, 24 Monticello Ave., Jersey City, N. J. 



'09.— G. E. Terwilliger, 1 Liberty St., New York City. 

'10. — Nelson Ogden, New London Ship & Engine Co., Groton, Conn. 

'11. — S. J. Bell, Babcock & Wilcox Co., Bayonne, N. J. 

'12. — Russell G. Hess, 709 Billings Ave., Paulsboro, N. J. 


Graduates Fund 

Hbnbt Torrance, '90, Chairman George Dinkel, '88 

Anson W. Burchard, '85 J. A. Dixon, '91 

J. L. Coker, '88 Walter Kidde, '97 

Securities of Life Membership Fund 

J. A. Dixon, '91, Chairman Walter Kidde, '97 

J. S. DeHart, Jr., '90 R. W. Pryor, Jr., '02 

G. G. Freygang, '09 

Increase of Membership 

J. A. Dixon, '91, Chairman Robert Boettger, '98 

F. DeR. Furman, '93 T. C. Stephens, '00 
J. M. Towne, '97 Peter Minck, '07 

Castle Headquarters 

George Dinkel, '88, Chairman J. A. Dixon, '91 

W. D. Hoxie, '89 F. A. Muschenheim, '91 

W. O. Ludlow, '92 


G. E. Terwilliger, '09, Chairman D. C. Johnson, '06 

F. DeR. Furman, '93 C. C. Phelps, '08 


G. B. Fielder, '94, Chairman Henry F. Pratt, '06 

E. H. Bedell, '05 Stewart J. Bell, '11 

Stevens Clubs 

D. C. Johnson, '06, Chairman Walter Kidde, '97 

T. C. Stephens, '00 


R. S. Kursheedt, '80, Chairman T. C. Stephens, '00 

EL DeB. I'akhon.h, '84 R. W. Pryor, Jr., '02 

F. A. Muschenheim, '91 B. Q. Horton, '05. 




Midwinter Convention 
Walter Kidde, '97, Chairman W. E. S. Strong, '92 

D. S. Jacobus, '84 D. C. Johnson, '06 

H. M. Brinckerhoff, '90 G. E. Terwilliger, '09 

Annual Banquet 
W. E. S. Strong, '92, Chairman R. C. Post, '98 

W. C. Cuntz, '92 J. C. Hegeman, '05 

H. E. Griswold, '93 C. G. Michalis, '07 

Theatre Party 

B. F. Hart, Jr., '87, Chairman E. H. Peabody, '90 

W. D. Hoxie, '89 F. A. Muschenheim, '91 

E. O. Heyworth, '06 


F. E. Law, '92, Chairman H. B. Atkins, '92 

R. E. Willis, '07 


Morton Memorial Volume 
F. DeR. Furman, '93 

Denton Testimonial 

D. S. Jacobus, '84, Chairman W. D. Hoxie, '89 

W. F. Zimmerman, '76 August Siegele, Jr., '01 

R. W. Pryor, Jr., '02 

Song Book 

E. H. Peabody, '90, Chairman C. G. Atwater, '91 
Henry Torrance, Jr., '90 W. A. Shoudy, '99 

Addressing Machine 
T. C. Stephens, '00, Chairman F. J. Gubelman, '89 

Walter Kidde, '97 

Geographical Directory 

G. G. Freygang, '09, Chairman C. C. Phelps, '08 

D. C. Johnson, '06 G. E. Terwilliger, '09 


■ ■ 

llflllllftllllflfff Jlllllflllllllltlfflltlllff Iff IIIIIIIIIIIIIIMffllllflllllllf lilltllllflllll 







Isaac N. Knapp represented the Natural Gas Association at the organ- 
ization meeting of the American Petroleum Society at Pittsburgh, Pa., 
on August 1. 


Maurice Coster has been appointed chairman of the Board of Exam- 
iners of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers for the present 
fiscal year. This is the seventh consecutive year Mr. Coster has been a 
member of this important committee, an honor which is highly regarded 
in the electrical world. 


H. Van Atta's present address is 164 West 147th Street, New York 


A. A. Righter is now with the Water Arch Furnace Company, Suite 
1252, First National Bank Building, Chicago, 111. 

William E. Gibbs' address is The Engineers' Club, 32 West 40th Street, 
New York, N. Y. 


William R. Aldrich has been appointed acting professor of Electrical 
and Mechanical Engineering, University of Arizona, during the Sabbatic 
leave of absence of Prof. W. W. Henley, following Mr. Aldrich's past two 
years with the United States Reclamation Service, Shoshone Project, 
Powell, Wyo. 


J. Day Flack's home address is P. O. Box 45, West Summit, N. J. 

Julius Salisch is with the General Electric Company, 30 Church Street, 
New York, N. Y. 

Robert N. Baylis was married to Miss Lilian Burt, daughter of Mrs. 
Silas Wright Burt, on August 4, in New York. 


Alten S. Miller has been spending several months examining the gas 
fields of Hungary. 




Andrew Moore Lockett has received an appointment from the 
governor of Louisiana as a member of the Board of Port Commissioners 
of the port of New Orleans, which includes, besides the city itself, all the 
shipping facilities above and below New Orleans within a range of about 
ten miles. The board has complete control of all the docks, wharves and 
floating craft belonging to the state, in and about the City of New Orleans. 
The board has under it a staff of deputy commissioners and engineers. 


A monograph, entitled "A Review of Liability and Workmen's Compen- 
sation Loss Reserve Legislation," has recently been published by Frank 
E. Law, who is vice-president of the Fidelity and Casualty Company, of 
New York. 


Announcement has been made of the engagement of Herman F. Cuntz 
and Miss Lydia H. K. Edwards of Kew, Long Island, daughter of the late 
Tryon Hughes Edwards, Esq., of Hagarstown, Md. Miss Edwards is a 
sister-in-law of William C. Cuntz, '92, and she is a descendant of Jona- 
than Edwards, the famous New England philosopher and theologian of the 
eighteenth century, who became the third president of Princeton. 


Prof. Albert F. Ganz has been reappointed chairman of the Electro- 
chemical Committee of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. 
Professor Ganz has also been appointed a member of the Street Lighting 
Committee of the National Electric Light Association. 

Guy Hopkins has been appointed acting general superintendent of the 
Morgan's Louisiana and Texas Railroad and Steamship Company, and 
the Louisiana Western Railroad Company, to succeed H. W. Sheridan, 
resigned. Speaking of the appointment, the New Orleans Picayune says: 
"The appointment of Mr. Hopkins will prove a popular one, as there is 
no man in local railroad circles who enjoys a higher reputation for thorough 
efficiency or is more admired for his many good qualities. " 

The address of Richard Gunagan is 1463 Dean Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 


E. B. Bumsted is located in the First National Bank Building, San 
Francisco, Cal. 

The present address of Allen E. Whitman is P. O. Box 98, Weehawken, 
N. J. 




S. C. Yeaton's address is 28 Fuller Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Henry W. Crowell is now superintendent of the Inspection Depart- 
ment, Globe Indemnity Company, 45 William Street, New York, N. Y. 


Cornelius T. Myers* present address is 44 Pingree Avenue, Detroit, 


C. D. Chasteney has sold his interest in the Turbine Equipment 
Company of New York to become general superintendent and assistant 
manager of Louis Dejonge Co., manufacturers of coated paper, at Fitch- 
burg, Mass. His home address is 170 Prichard Street, Fitchburg, Mass. 

Clarence T. Coley has resigned his position as supervising engineer 
and director of the real estate managers, Douglas Robinson, Charles S. 
Brown Company, No. 14 Wall Street, and has accepted a position of 
operating manager for the new thirty-six story Equitable Building, to be 
built on the lot bounded by Broadway, Nassau, Pine and Cedar Streets, 
which will be the largest office building in the world, and will contain 
about 4,000 horsepower of boiler capacity, and 2,600 k. w. engine-driven 
electric generator, with ice-making machinery, forty-nine elevators and 
other equipment on a similar scale. 

William Bland has announced the engagement of his niece, Miss Mary 
Elizabeth Treese, of Marion, Ohio, to August Siegle, Jr. 

R. R. Jones has severed his connection with Albert M. Allen, consulting 
engineer of Cleveland, Ohio, to enter the employ of the Firestone Tire and 
Rubber Company, at Akron, Ohio. 

Henry J. Botchford read a paper on June 6 at the Interstate Cotton 
Oil Mill Superintendents' Convention at Atlanta, Ga. 

J. J. Sinclair is with the New York Municipal Railway Corporation, 
85 Clinton Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 


Prof. C. B. Le Page has been elected a member of the Illuminating 
Engineering Society. 

Howard Hoffman's address is 207 Poplar Avenue, Wayne, Pa. 


F. C. Freeman is with the United Gas Improvement Company, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 




The mailing address of V. J. Hedden is 431 Ogden Street, Newark, N. J. 

A daughter was born to Mr. and Mrs. Charles W. Dunlop, at Maple- 
wood, N. J., July 18, 1913. Mr. Dunlop has been recently appointed 
general superintendent of the Pintsch Compressing Company, with offices 
at 2 Rector Street, New York. 


E. H. Bedell's address is in care of Metallurgical & Chemical 
Engineering, 239 West 39th Street, New York City. 


T. M. Condit's home address is 86 North Walnut Street, East Orange* 


The home address of S. A. Nauheim is 66 Holmes Street, Waterbury, 

C. G. Michalis is with the Torsion Balance Company, 92 Reade Street, 
New York City. 

H. R. Jarvis is connected with the United States Reclamation Service, 
Arrowrock Dam, Idaho. 


The present address of A. S. Harlow is 1470 North Street, Springfield, 

A. L. Van Syckle's address is Hackettstown, N. J. 

On September 10 a daughter was born to Mr. and Mrs. C. W. Arthur 
Steinmetz. She has been named Ethel Emma. 

Mr. and Mrs. Warren Beebe Flanders have announced the marriage 
of their daughter, Dorothy Ethel Bacon, to Harold O. Woolley on Sep- 
tember 24, at Havana, Cuba. 


John Henry Peper, Jr.. was married to Miss Mabel Brauckmuller, 
only daughter of Mr. and Mrs. August Brauckmuller, at the Hotel St. 
George, Brooklyn, N. Y., on Thursday, September 25. Among the 
ushers were three of the groom's classmates, Otto E. Draudt, Charles 
A. Stewart and Gerald E. Terwilliger. Mr. and Mrs. Peper will 
reside at 404 Hancock Street, Brooklyn. 

Otto E. Draudt is now assistant to the purchasing agent of the Ameri- 
can Ever Ready Company, New York City. 

The engagement has been announced of Sidney Cornell, ex '09 to 
Miss Edna Gulbranson of East Milton, Mass. 



Mrs. Martha Woodruff Mayer has announced the marriage of her 
daughter, Margaret Strohauer, to Walter von Voigtlander on Septem- 
ber 20, at Bridgeton, N. J. Mr. and Mrs. von Voigtlander will reside 
at 40 Atterbury Avenue, Trenton, N. J. 

Miss Miriam Paillard, daughter of Mrs. Alfred E. Paillard of Park Hill, 
was married on July 13 to Howard A. Skinner, ex '09, at the home of the 
groom's parents, Mr. and Mrs. Albert L. Skinner, 197 Shonnard Terrace, 
Yonkers, N. Y. Mr. and Mrs. Skinner will live in Stamford, Conn. 

A. F. Wright has returned from a trip to the Pacific Coast in the inter- 
est of the American Button Company and Wright Manufacturing Com- 
pany of Newark, N. J. 

Frank L. Eidmann has been appointed instructor in thermo-dynamics 
and in mechanical engineering at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. 


On June 4 a son was born to Mr. and Mrs. F. A. Weisenbach. Mr. 
Weisenbach is connected with the Central Construction & Supply Com- 
pany, and lives at 5516 Poplar Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

J. A. Messenger is in the Construction Department of the United Gas 
Improvement Company, Broad & Arch Streets, Philadelphia, Pa. 

The present home address of John Murphy, Jr., is 80 Westervelt 
Place, Passaic, N. J. 


Raymond L. Thompson is manager of the feed water department of 
the International Pump Company. 

William G. H. Brehmer has been appointed instructor in mechanical 
engineering at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

J. L. Myers is with the Michenor Stowage Company, Whitehall Build- 
ing, New York, N. Y. 

G. L. Mitchill is with the Electric Bond & Share Company, 71 Broad- 
way, New York City. His home address is 106 Hamilton Avenue, 
New Brighton, S. I., N. Y. 

Ernest O. Hickstein is with the Quapaw Gas Company, Bartlesville, 


Marcus Stern's present address is 940 Fox Street, Bronx, N. Y. 

The address of Harold C. Noe is P. O. Box 216, Oconomowoc, Wis. 

E. BntON is in the Experimental Department of the Goodyear Tire 
and Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio. His home address is 32 South 
Profpect Avenue, Akron, Ohio. 



A. E. Bauhan is with the Appalachian Power Company at Bluefield, 
W. V. He was formerly with the same company at Byllesby, Va. 

L. R. Anderson delivered an address on the economic use of gasolene 
in motor vehicles at the New York Furniture Warehousemen's Conven- 
tion at Shelter Island, N. Y., in July. 

An eight-pound daughter was born to Mr. and Mrs. Russell G. Hess 
on August 13. She is the 1912 "Class Baby" and has been named Doris 


Following are the business positions of members of the class which 
graduated last June: 

Henry J. Appert, Jr., assistant manager, Claremont Power Co. & 
Colonial Power & Light Co., Claremont, N. H. 

Peter R. Aronson, New Jersey Zinc Company of Pennsylvania, 
Palmerton, Pa. 

John A. Austin, sales engineer, N. O. Nelson Manufacturing Co., 439 
East 3d Street., Los Angeles, Cal. 

Gerald L. Bassett, special apprentice, N. Y. C. & H. R. R. R., Depew, 
N. Y. 

Kenneth H. Bedell, Proposition Department, The Babcock & Wil- 
cox Co., Bayonne, N. Y. 

Harold P. Bender, salesman, International Typesetting Machine 
Co., World Building, New York City. 

Robert C. Blakslee, special apprentice, Rock Island Lines, Trentoni 

John W. Bogert, Schedule Department, North River Insurance Co., 
95 William St., New York City. 

T. P. Bradshaw, 3 Manning Square, Albany, N. Y. 

J. Herbert Brautigam, American-La France Fire Engine Co., Elmira, 
N. Y. 

John Collins, Jr., assistant in testing, Edison Electric Illuminating 
Co. of Brooklyn. 

T. R. Eilenberg, special apprentice, Motive Power Department, 
N. Y. C. & H. R. R. R., 3 Manning Square, Albany, N. Y. 

Arthur W. Frundt, draftsman, Carbondale Machine Co., Carbondale, 

Henry F. Gremmel, liability inspector, Fidelity & Casualty Co., 92 
Liberty St., New York City. 

E. M. Hammerschlag, The Jersey City Stock Yards Co., Jersey City, 
N. J. 



Walter O. Hoermann, inspector, Riter-Conley Manufacturing Co., 
Chester, Pa. 

Chester Kingsbury, special apprentice, Union-Pacific Shops, Odgen, 

R. H. Lansdell, United Gas Improvement Co., Broad & Arch Sts., 
Pahildelphia, Pa. 

Nichol H. Memory, Construction Department, Isbell-Porter Co., 46 
Bridge St., Newark, N. J. 

Kenneth R. Millspaugh, general engineer, Higginson Mfg. Co., 
Newburgh, N. Y. 

Edwin K. Mosier, Engineering Department, Carnegie Steel Company, 
Farrell, Pa. 

Waldemar G.Nichols, Underwriters'Association of the Middle Depart- 
ment, 316 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Robert M. Oram, American Telephone & Telegraph Co., 24 Walker 
St., New York City. 

Raymond P. Pennoyer, engineer draftsman, Carnegie Steel Company, 
Homestead, Pa. 

George G. Potterton, Engineering Department, United Piece Dye 
Works, Hawthorne, N. J. 

Jerome Strauss, metallurgist, Illinois Steel Co., South Works, South 
Chicago, 111. 

John Tucker, Jr., tester, New York Edison Co., 92 Vandam St., New 
York City. 

John H. Vander Veer, Stone & Webster Management Association, 
147 Milk St., Boston, Mass. 

Carleton Wandel, special apprentice, Pennsylvania R. R., Altoona, 

German J. F. Weber, estimator, Walker & Chambers, 222 East 41st 
St., New York City. 

Theodore W. Weigele, cadet engineer, Public Service Gas Com- 
pany, 35 Front St., Newark, N. J. 

Robert L. Wellman, draftsman, Standard Oil Co., Constable Hook, 
Bayonne, N. J. 

Ralph H. Williams, Stone & Webster Management Association, 147 
Milk St., Boston, Mass. 

Nelson A. Zeiger, cadet engineer, Public Service Gas Company of 
N. J., Jersey City, N. J. 

P. R. Anderson and Miss Frances Alexa Stuart, daughter of Mr. and 
Mrs. Charles Stuart, of 929 Willow Avenue, Hoboken, were married on 
July 27 in the rectory of the Church of Our Lady of Grace, at Hoboken. 







Plans for the first Stevens Convention, to be held on January 9-10, 
1914, are rapidly rounding into shape. The convention will open on 
Friday afternoon, January 9, with a Technical Conference in the college 
auditorium on "Public Service Utilities, Laws and Their Workings." 
There will be a discussion of this most vital topic by experts among the 
Stevens alumni. Some of those who will be invited to speak are President 
Alexander C. Humphreys, John W. Lieb, Jr., '80, third vice-president and 
associate general manager of the New York Edison Company; James E. 
Sague, '83, member of the Public Service Commission of New York; and 
George J. Roberts, '84, first vice-president of the Public Service Corpora- 
tion of New Jersey. 

On Friday evening an informal dinner for guests of the conference and 
alumni will be held at Castle Stevens, and later in the evening the mid- 
winter meeting of the Alumni Association will be held at the Castle. 

A conference of Stevens alumni clubs at Castle Stevens will be scheduled 
for Saturday morning, and some special function, details of which will be 
announced later, will be the attraction on Saturday afternoon. This may 
be in the nature of an inspection trip, but in any event will be concluded 
early enough to give the alumni opportunity to jump into evening dress 
for the concluding event of the convention, the annual alumni dinner, 
which will be held at the Hotel Astor, New York City. 

It is believed that many alumni who do not feel that they can get to 
New York for the alumni dinner alone, will take the opportunity of de- 
voting a week-end to Stevens activities when the various functions are 
grouped together in the manner outlined. 

The general committee in charge comprises Walter Kidde, '97, chair- 
man; D. S. Jacobus, '84; H. M. Brinckerhoff, '90; W. E. S. Strong, '92; 
F. DeR. Furman, '93; D. C. Johnson, '06, and G. E. Terwilliger, '09. 


The second annual Stevens Theatre Party, held in accordance with the 
unanimous vote of those who attended last year's performance, will be 



held on Friday evening, December 5. Notices will shortly be sent to all 
alumni describing the details of the plans for the evening. In order to 
give the affair a still stronger Stevens flavor, it is planned this year to 
charter the top gallery as well as the orchestra, boxes and first balcony, 
and to turn the "peanut heaven" over to the undergraduates. After 
the performance it is planned to hold a reception at the Hotel Astor for 
those who care to participate. 


At an enthusiastic meeting of the Michigan alumni at the home of Aus- 
tin Church ,'95, at Trenton, Mich., on September 27, it was decided to re- 
name the club the "Stevens Tech Club of Michigan." In the afternoon 
the party enjoyed fishing, and then limbered up with a little lacrosse. 
After dinner a business and social session was held, at which many matters 
of intimate interest to alumni were discussed, including the proposition 
to form a federation of Stevens alumni clubs, which was looked upon un- 
favorably as conflicting with the province of the Alumni Association. 
Announcement was also made that a Monday noon-day luncheon would be 
held every week at the Hotel Cadillac in Detroit, at which all Stevens 
Alumni would be made welcome. Among those present at the meeting 
were Austin Church, '95, E. T. Birdsall, '86, J. C. Danzinger, '89, L. J. 
Schneider, '11, C. T. Myers, '00, H. H. Haynes, '10, R. S. Lane, '08. A 
column and a half account of the meeting appeared on the first page of the 
Trenton (Mich.) Times for October 3, 1913. 


At the request of many alumni, the photograph of the 1913 Alumni 
Dinner at the Hotel Astor, which, through inadvertence on the part of the 
publisher, was omitted from the April issue of The Indicator, is here 


The Executive Committee of the Alumni Association met in New York 
City at the Lawyers Club on Wednesday, July 2, 1913. The meeting was 
( ailed to order at 1 P. M. by President J. H. Cuntz. The other members 
present were J. A. Dixon, L. A. Martin, Jr., H. E. Griswold, R. C. Post, 
R. W. Pryor Jr., J. S. DeHart, Jr., F. E. Law, Walter Kidde, E. H. Pea- 
body and (i. (i. Frcy^ang. Dr. A. C. Humphreys and A. P. Trautwehv 



past presidents of the association, and G. E. Terwilliger, Managing Editor 
of the Indicator, were also present. T. C. Stephens attended by invi- 

The minutes of the previous meeting, having been sent to all members 
of the Executive Committee, were approved as written upon motion made 
by Mr. Dixon, seconded by Mr. Griswold. 

Professor Martin read the Treasurer's report for the year 1912-13. At 
the conclusion of the report Mr. Pryor moved that the Treasurer's report 
be accepted, pending the report of the Auditing Committee. Seconded 
by Mr. Freygang and unanimously carried. 

President Cuntz called for a report from the retiring president, E. H. 
Peabody, who stated he had no formal report to make. 

President Cuntz read the following report of the Committee on the 
Securities of the Life Membership Fund : 

"Gentlemen: — Your Committee on the Securities of the Life Member- 
ship Fund begs to submit the following report, as a supplement to its 
report of March 12, 1913, to which reference is made: 

"It is believed that everything stated in our report of March 12, 1913, 
about the bonds of the Bush Terminal Company and those of the Middle- 
sex and Somerset Traction Company still holds good, and that they are 
as safe as they were then. 

"The market price of the preferred stock of the American Tobacco 
Company, of Liggett and Myers Company and P. Lorillard Company has 
fallen since our last report, probably partly owing to political influences, 
but there seems no danger of the dividends on these stocks being passed. 
These stocks could be sold only at a loss now, and your committee recom- 
mends that they be undisturbed for the present, but that they be care- 
fully watched. 

"The members of this committee hereby tender their resignations to 
take effect July 1, 1913. 

"Respectfully submitted 

J. H. Cuntz 
George Dinkel 
R. W. Pryor, Jr." 

At the conclusion Mr. Post moved that the report be accepted. Sec- 
onded by Mr. Griswold. Unanimously carried. 

The report of the Increase of Membership Committee followed. Mr. 
Dixon moved that the Executive Committee recommend the election of 
J. Herbert Ballantine, ex '87, to associate life membership in the Alumni 



Association at the next regular meeting of the association. Mr. Peabody 
seconded the motion. Unanimously carried. 

The following men, having complied with the requirements of the 
constitution were presented to the Executive Committee for election to 
life membership: Harold E. Griswold, '93; E. J. J. Sievers, '09. 

Mr. Dixon moved that these men be elected to life membership and that 
they be sent by the Secretary proper notice of their election and acknowl- 
edgment of their remittance, also that they be accorded all privileges 
according to the constitution. Seconded by Mr. Peabody. Unanimously 

The following men having complied with the requirements of the con- 
stitution were presented to the Executive Committee for reinstatement to 
active membership: D. H. Lopez, '88; Harold B. Atkins, '93. 

Mr. Dixon moved that these men be reinstated to active membership 
and that they be sent by the Secretary proper notice of their reinstatement 
and acknowledgment of their remittances, also that they be accorded all 
privileges according to the constitution. Seconded by Mr. Peabody. 
Unanimously carried. 

T. C. Stephens reported progress for the Committee on Stevens Clubs. 

Mr. Griswold reported that the Class of '93 was making an effort to 
get as many men as possible from the Class of '93 to become life members. 

Mr. Terwilliger reported for the Publicity Committee. 

Mr. Stephens reported progress for the Addressing Machine Committee. 

Mr. Peabody reported for the 1913 Alumni Day Committee in the 
absence of E. E. Hinkle. Mr. Kidde moved that the names of the invited 
guests be added to the report, and that the report be accepted with thanks. 
Seconded by Mr. Griswold. Unanimously carried. 

Mr. Griswold moved that the surplus reported by the 1913 Alumni Day 
Committee be turned over to the general fund and that no money be 
returned to the various classes contributing; that the Secretary notify 
the various class representatives that the surplus was turned over to the 
general fund to help make up the deficits of previous years, the secretary 
to express the appreciation of the Alumni Association of the loyalty shown 
by them and their classmates. Seconded by Professor Martin. Passed 

Mr. Peabody reported that the Class of '90's contest was won by E. E. 
Hinkle, '90, who donated the amount of $204 to the Alumni Association. 
Mr. Hinkle's generous action was greatly appreciated. 

Mr. Griswold moved that the term of office of the standing committees, 
consisting of the Graduates Fund, Life Membership Fund, Increase of 
Membership, Publicity, Athletic, Castle Headquarters, Stevens Clubs and 



Luncheon Committees, terminate either on July 1, with the outgoing 
administration, or when their successors are appointed. Seconded by Mr. 
Kidde. Unanimously carried. 

Mr. Griswold moved that the Chair appoint new standing committees. 
Seconded by Mr. Kidde. Unanimously carried. 

President Cuntz then said that he would announce the committees at 
the next meeting. 

Upon motion made aDd seconded the special committees, consisting of 
the Song Book, Denton Testimonial, Addressing Machine and Morton 
Memorial Volume committees were continued for the year 1913-14 or until 
discharged. Unanimously carried. 

Mr. Griswold moved that the Chair appoint a committee for the pur- 
pose of arranging for a theatre party on or about December 5 or 6, 1913, 
and if, upon investigation, the committee found it advisable to hold a 
reception after the theatre party, it was to be so arranged. 

President Cuntz stated that it might be arranged to hold a convention 
of Stevens men some time in January, the dates of the convention to be 
so arranged as not to conflict with any of the meetings of the various 
prominent engineering societies. 

Mr. Griswold then moved that the annual dinner and the midwinter 
meeting be held in January and that the Chair appoint a committee 
to undertake the arrangements. Seconded by Mr. Post. Unanimously 

President Cuntz brought up the question of issuing a geographical 
directory in some convenient form, possibly in the form similar to the 
directory issued by the association in 1906. Mr. DeHart moved that 
the Secretary confer with the Registrar in connection with publishing a 
geographical directory in the annual catalogue of Stevens, this directory 
also to show the business of the alumnus immediately after his name. The 
Secretary was directed to report the results of this conference at the next 
meeting, and the President of the Alumni Association was authorized to 
appoint a committee. 

Mr. Peabody moved that a calendar be published as early as possible 
after the opening of the college, and that this calendar contain as many 
dates as possible. Seconded by Mr. Griswold. Unanimously carried. 

Mr. Kidde moved that the question of a monthly publication be referred 
to the Publicity Committee. Seconded by Mr. Griswold. Unanimously 

Mr. Kidde moved that the schedule of meetings of the Executive Com- 
mittee be as follows: September 17, October 8, November 12, December 10, 
7 397 


January 9, and, be held immediately preceding the midwinter meeting. 
Seconded by Mr. DeHart. Unanimously carried. 

Mr. Peabody moved that the names of the men dropped from the rolls of 
the association for non-payment of dues be sent to the Increase of Mem- 
bership Committee. Seconded by Mr. Freygang. Unanimously carried. 

President Cuntz stated that the Trustees of the Alumni Association 
should really constitute the Committee on the Securities of the Life Mem- 
bership Fund, and he, therefore, appointed Messrs. Dixon, DeHart, Frey- 
gang, Kidde and Pryor as the committee for the ensuing year. 

Mr. Terwilliger brought up the question of changing the name of the 
publishers of the Stevens Indicator, the wording at the present time 
being "Stevens Indicator, Published by the Alumni and Undergraduates 
of the Stevens Institute of Technology." Since it is not customary for 
the undergraduates to have any connection with an alumni publication, 
Mr. Terwilliger requested that the wording "Alumni and Undergraduates 
of the Stevens Institute of Technology" be changed to "Alumni of Stevens 
Institute of Technology." Mr. Post moved that Mr. Terwilliger's sug- 
gestion be adopted and that the wording of the phrase be changed to 
"Alumni of Stevens Institute of Technology." Seconded by Mr. Gris- 
wold. Passed unanimously. 

Mr. Freygang moved that the loss of $19.68 reported by the Stevens 
Indicator previous to January 1, 1913, be paid to the Indicator by the 
Almuni Association. Seconded by Mr. Peabody. Unanimously carried. 

The Secretary reported that Mr. Terwilliger, Managing Editor, and 
Professor Martin, Treasurer, were desirous of instituting a voucher system 
for the Stevens Indicator, and that before this system could be inaugu- 
rated the Executive Committee would have to authorize the bank to 
accept the signatures of both the Managing Editor and Treasurer. Mr. 
Griswold then moved that the Managing Editor of the Stevens Indicator 
and the Treasurer of the Alumni Association of Stevens Institute of Tech- 
nology be authorized to open an account in the First National Bank of 
Hoboken, which is hereby authorized to recognize the joint signatures of 
the Managing Editor, Gerald E. Terwilliger, and Treasurer, Louis A. 
Martin, Jr., in payment of checks, drafts, notes and other evidences of 
indebtedness until further notice. Seconded by Mr. Post and unanim- 
ously carried. 

Mr. Peabody moved that the cost of the room for the meetings of the 
Executive Committee be borne by the association. Seconded by Mr. 
Post. Carried unanimously. 

A motion for adjournment was made at 2.30 by Mr. Post, seconded by 
Mr. Kidde. Unanimously carried. 




A meeting of the Trustees of the Alumni Association, at which were 
present Messrs. J. A. Dixon, J. S. DeHart, G. G. Freygang, Walter Kidde 
and R. W. Pryor, Jr., was held at the Lawyers Club, New York City, on 
July 2, 1913. Mr. Kidde moved and Mr. Freygang seconded that all 
the proceedings of the Executive Committee, at its meeting held July^, 
1913, be ratified. Unanimously carried. 


(From July 1, 1912, to June 30, 1913) 

Balance on hand, July 1, 1912 $264.00 

Account of General Fund 

Dues for current year $1,822.50 

Dues for arrears 340 . 00 

Dues in advance 55 . 00 

Dues for 154 living members 385.00 


From class of '90 contest 204.00 

Check collections 14.35 

Anonymous 32 . 53 

Interest on deposit in First National Bank 7.23 



Annual banquet, one-half cost of reporting $21.00 

Calendar 15.50 

Check collections 1 . 10 

Clerical work prior to Dec. 1, 1912 4.00 

Executive Committee, room rent for meeting 5.00 

Life membership — cost of lettering certificates 2.15 

Lock on office door and one key 1 . 50 

Memorial to S. S. Palmer 20.00 

Minute book 6.00 

Photo of model of Castle 1.87 

Safe deposit box 5 . 00 

Salary of secretary's stenographer: 

(a) From July 1, 1911, to June 30, 1912 197.50 

(b) From July 1, 1912, to Nov. 30, 1912 150.00 

(c) From Dec. 1, 1912, to June 30, 1913 143.75 

Secretary's salary from July 1, 1912, to Dec. 1, 1912 187.42 

Secretary's office, clerical expenses 11.56 

Cardboard signs (announcing annual meeting) 6.00 

Stationery, printing and postage 161.01 

Telephone 3.70 

Treasurer's office 100.00 

Typewriter. Amount paid Stevens Institute of Technology 25.00 




Account of Alumni Day 1912 




Stevens Tech and Castle Stevens $126.08 

Advanced by Treasurer of Alumni Day Committee .19 


Account of Alumni Dat, 1913 

Old Guard $100.00 

Classes '84, '86 to 1912 inclusive 810.00 

Classes '85, 1914, '15 and '16, 4 classes, at $5 20.00 

Class of '99 20.00 

For advertisement on menu 50 . 00 

Ice cream privilege 10 . 00 

Refreshment privilege 25 . 00 

Proceeds of gate receipts 66.00 

Proceeds of dinner 38.40 

Class of 1913 for loan of chairs 12.00 

— $1,151.40 


Printing and postage of 1st notice $12 . 25 

Printing of 2d notice 113 . 70 

Clerical work on 2d notice 3 . 65 

Carfare and postage on 2d notice 2 . 70 

Printing ticket programs 89.75 

Distributing ticket programs 3.27 

Printing letterheads and envelopes 5 . 75 

Engraving invitations and envelopes 24 . 20 

M usical programs 9 . 00 

Band 217.00 

Orchestra 28.00 

54 armbands at 35c 18 . 90 

1 sash 2.00 

Priae flags 39 . 25 

Flags and bunting 31 . 10 

Flagpoles 9.00 

Brass pole ends 1 . 20 

3 red and 3 gray pennants 4 . 50 

Rental of flag 4.00 

Electrical work 86.89 

Tent 50.32 

Class signs 30.00 

Flowers for tables 30 . 00 

Ice 8.40 

Rental of chairs 33.00 

Refund of ice cream privilege 10.00 

Contribution to Police Pension Commission 25.00 


Account of Athletic Council 

From Treasurer of Council $19 . 00 


Printing $19.00 



Account of Banquet 


Sale of tickets to Alumni and guests (595) $2,380.00 

Sale of tickets to seniors (62) 248.00 

Sale of boxes 250.00 

Refund from printer 1.41 

Advertisement on menu 50 . 00 

Sale of photographs 3 . 75 

Wines and cigars 149 . 75 

Anonymous 97 . 30 



Printing and postage of notices $18.58 

Printing tickets, etc 103 . 70 

Menus 257.54 

Engraving 9.09 

Expressage .85 

Hotel Astor 2,575.00 

Hotel Astor for wines and cigars 202.25 

Stevens Dramatic Society 13.20 


Account of Increase of Membership Committee 




Cuts of plan of '"Greater Stevens" $13.20 

Printing and postage 35 . 84 


Account of Midwinter Meeting 

Sixty -one dinners $91 . 50 


Printing and postage of notices $22.08 

Printing 5 . 50 

Castle Stevens 94 . 90 


Account of Publicity Committee 



Printing $5 . 50 

Account of Songs of Stevens 

Sale of books $41.25 



Account of Stevens Indicator 





By order of the Executive Committee to pay deficit to Stevens Indicator 

for period July 1, 1912, to Dec. 31, 1912 $ 19.68 

For January, 1912, issue 376.50 

For April, 1912, issue 314 . 63 

Back numbers for 191 1-12 108 . 38 

For July, 1912. issue 340. 50 

For October, 1912, issue 350.63 

For January, 1913, issue 360.00 

For April, 1913, issue 339.38 

Back numbers for 1912-13 90 . 75 


Account of Stevens Institute of Technology 




Stenographer's services at Castle $25 . 00 

Account of Stevens Lunch 

Anonymous $7 . 00 


Printing $7.00 

Account of Stevens Night 

Loans from 10 members $975.00 

Sale of boxes 200.00 

Sale of seats 2,149.50 

Contributions 35 . 00 

Returns of 59 dinners 29 . 50 



Klaw & Erlanger $1,400 . 00 

Repayment of loans 975 . 00 

Postage 34 . 50 

Printing 19.00 

Printing and incidentals 24.75 


Account of Stute 

One subscription $1 . 50 


One subscription $1 . 50 


Total receipts $11,005.47 

Total diabursomontB $10,251.59 

Balance in First National Bank $753.88 




Account of General Fund: 

125 men $2. 50 in arrears $312 . 50 

93_men $5. 00 in arrears 465 . 00 


Assuming that 45% will be collected $349.88 

Account of 1913 Alumni Day Committee: 

Old Guard $25.00 

Class of '85 25.00 

Class of '99 10.00 

W. S. Ackerman, '91, for extra charge on six dinners. ... 6.00 

Refund of overcharge on electrical work 8. 12 


Account of Stevens Institute of Technology: 

Stenographer's services 25.00 

Account of Stevens Indicator: 

Loan as Working Capital $700 . 00 

Half profits for period Jan. 1 to June 30, 1913 144 .06 



Balance in First National Bank 753.88 

Total assets $2,046.94 


Account of General Fund: 

Advance dues $55.00 

Account of 1913 Alumni Day Committee, Stevens Institute 
of Technology: 

Boys tending water coolers $7 . 00 

Postals .10 

Cost of erecting and fixing tent after storm 

and taking down tent 16.00 

Loan to collector at gate 25 . 00 


Estimated cost of current and transformer charges 20.00 




Balance on hand, July 1, 1912 $227.11 


Advertising $1,907 . 50 

Alumni subscriptions 2,280 . 77 

Interest on deposit in First National Bank 1 . 53 

Outside subscriptions 15.50 

Sales 6.00 

Undergraduate subscriptions 66.00 

Alumni Association by order of Executive Committee, for loss during 

period July 1 to Dec. 31, 1912 19.68 





Advertising Commissions $236 . 18 

Alumni Association, account of W. H. Koch 1 . 50 

Annual Banquet, one-half cost of reporting 21.00 

Carfare .24 

Check collection .15 

Copyright charges 9.00 

Editor of Stevens Indicator: 

One-half gain for 1911-1912 57.74 

Editor's salary 200 . 00 

Engraving 111.80 

Express charges 1 . 62 

Handbook advertisement 9 . 00 

Messenger service .90 

Petty cash 10 . 68 

Photographs 15.00 

Printing 3,067.05 

Stationery, printing and postage 125.26 

Stenographer's services 87 . 35 

Telephone 6.15 


Balance in First National Bank 563.47 

Total receipts $4,524 . 09 

Total disbursements $4,524 . 09 

Condensed Balance Sheet 

(For period July 1, 1912, to Dec. 31, 1912) 

Assets Liabilities Loss Gain 

Advertising $61.29 $887.48 

Advertisers (outstanding) 484 . 04 

Alumni Association 799 . 51 

Alumni Association, account of one-half profits . . $57 . 74 

Alumni subscriptions 691 . 13 

Capital 700.00 

Cash 549.45 

Discount $4.58 

Engraving 85 . 94 

Expense 42.93 91.56 

Outside subscriptions 1 1 . 75 1 . 05 

C. C. Phelps .01 

Printing 1,378.01 

Salary 100.00 

Sales 3.00 

Trow Press 1,245.15 

$1,937.22 $2,014.64 $1,660.09 $1,582.67 
Net loss 77.42 77.42 

$2,014.64 $2,014.64 $1,660.09 $1,660.09 

The net loss together with the credit of $57.74 shown above makes tho net amount of $19.68 
owed by the Alumni Association to the Indicator on Dec. 31, 1912. 



Condensed Balance Sheet 
(For period Jan. 1, 1913, to June 30, 1913) 

Assets Liabilities Loss Gain 

Advertising $744 . 15 

Advertising commissions $100.47 

Advertisers, outstanding prior to Jan. 1, 1913. . 320.29 
Advertisers, outstanding after Jan. 1, 1913 161.94 

Alumni subscriptions 790 . 13 

Capital $700.00 

Cash 563.47 

Discount $4.28 

Engraving 20.40 

Expense 8.00 99.44 

Interest 1.53 

Outside subscriptions 5.20 

Printing 785.03 

Power Specialty Co 4 . 37 

Rumf ord Printing Co 5.46 

Salary 100.00 

Sales 3.00 

Stenographer service 87 . 35 

$1,159.63 $709.57 $1,096.50 $1,546.56 
Net gain 450.06 450.06 

$1,159.63 $1,159.63 $1,546.56 $1,546.56 

Distribution of Net Gain: 

•Accounts Receivable Jan. 1 to June 30, 1913 $161.94 

Alumni Association, account of one-half profits 144 . 06 

G. E. Terwilliger, account of one-half profits 144.06 



Balance on hand, July 1, 1912 $228.61 

Interest to January 1, 1913 $4.56 

Interest to July 1, 1913 4.66 




Balance in fund July 1, 1912 $2,006.80 


Interest on deposit in Hudson Trust Company (4%) from July 1, 1912, 

to June 30, 1913 $0.24 

Interest from loan to Stevens Institute of Technology (5%) $100. 00 

$100. 24 


Refund of interest to Stevens Institute of Technology by order of the 

Alumni Association $100.00 


Total receipts $2,107.04 

Total disbursements 100.00 

Balance in fund, July 1, 1913 $2,007.04 

♦This account shows all advertising contracted for and inserted but not paid after January 
1, 1913. 



Investment of Beneficiary Fund 

Loan to Stevens Institute of Technology $2,000.00 

On deposit in Hudson Trust Co., July 1, 1913 7.04 



Balance in Fund, July 1, 1912 $7,892.36 


Fees from 10 new life members $500.00 

Dividend on 13 shares of American Tobacco Company, preferred stock 78.00 

Dividend on 2 shares of P. Lorillard Company, preferred stock 14.00 

Dividend on 3 shares of Liggett & Myers Company 21 . 00 

Dividend of Middlesex & Somerset Traction Company 100 . 00 

Dividend of Bush Terminal Company 150.00 

Interest to Jan. 1, 1913 23.96 

Interest to July 1, 1913 32.56 



Dues for 154 living life members $385.00 

Total receipts $8,811.88 

Total disbursements $385.00 

Balance in Fund, July 1, 1913 $8,426.88 

Investment of Life Membership Fund 

13 shares of American Tobacco Company, preferred stock, 2 shares of 
P. Lorillard Company, preferred stock, 3 shares of Liggett & Myers 

Company $1,882.91 

Three $1,000 consolidated bonds (5%) of Bush Terminal Company 2,967 . 70 

Two $1,000 bonds (5%) of Middlesex & Somerset Traction Company. . 1,982.50 

On deposit in Hudson Trust Company (4%) 1,593.77 


The membership of the Association is made up as follows: 

Class of 

Living Life 


1 year in 

2 years in 
























Total Enrollment in Life Membership Fund 158 

Dropped April 1, 1913, according to Art. VII, Section 4 of the constitution: 

Active 48 1 gg 

Associate , 2 / 

Total number of graduates, July 1, 1913 1,625 

Percentage of graduates who are members of the Association 71% 

Approved: Respectfully submitted, 

Frank E. Law, Chairman. LOUIS A. MARTIN, Jr., 

Robert E. Willis. Treasurer. 
Harold B Atkins. 

Auditing Committee 












As a result of agitation which was commenced last year by the Faculty 
Publicity Committee, students who have made satisfactory records in 
approved preparatory schools will be admitted to the freshmen class at 
Stevens without entrance examinations. The details of the new regula- 
tions are now being worked out by a committee of the faculty, and will go 
into full force with the class entering in the fall of 1914. The new rule 
resulted not from any lowering of the standard of preparation required 
by Stevens but from a belief that many who would make excellent stu- 
dents and good engineers were being led away from Stevens by the old 
rules. The faculty was practically unanimous in endorsing the change. 

The freshman class is up to the average of recent years in numbers, and 
the entire outlook from a scholastic standpoint is favorable. During the 
past summer, a summer school was conducted for the benefit of students 
who were deficient in any special branches, and the results are said to be 
very satisfactory, especially in comparison with the haphazard review 
work done individually by most conditioned students. 


Following the new custom of holding a dinner of Stute editors and former 
editors in the fall, a dinner was held at the Castle on October 10. A 
number of the older men were present to give counsel and suggestions to 
the present board, and an atmosphere of mutual co-operation was evident 
at the meeting. 


The Student Council began its first full year of control of undergraduate 
activities at a meeting on October 9. This body is made up of the leaders 
of the various activities of the college and acts as a student governing 
board, except in matters concerning the honesty of examinations and term 
work, which are handled by the Honor Board. One of the important 
matters considered was the question of the Wednesday Assembly. This 



is a feature of college life which is of recent date, and the Student Council, 
appreciating the importance of reaching the students through such regular 
mass-meetings discussed ways and means of making them most profitable 
for students and faculty alike. 


The fall meeting of the Athletic Council, which now controls the various 
athletic activities of the college by co-operation between undergraduates 
and alumni, was held at the Castle on October 2. Reports were received 
from the managers of the teams, who reported the outlook to be en- 
couraging. One of the matters considered was the holding of an alumni 
tennis tournament in June or July. The council emphasized its request 
that alumni aid in coaching the teams. 


In the first of the organized clashes between the two lower classes, the 
sophomores were victorious in the cane rush on September 26. At the 
end of five minutes of the struggle, the upper classmen in charge dug down 
to the bottom of the heap and found thirty-two hands gripping the cane, 
seventeen belonging to sophomores and fifteen to the freshmen. No 
casualties were reported. 

CLASS OF 1917 

Alling, H. W., 33 Spring St., Taunton, Mass. 
Anderson, W. S., Jr., 186 Gregory Ave., Passaic, N. J. 
Andresen, W. H., 264 Glenwood Ave., East Orange, N. J. 
Antosch, W., 690 Third Ave., New York City. 
Barry, J. L., Jr., 211 Clinton Ave., Jersey City, N. J. 
Bass, A. H., 108 Prospect Park West, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Bergen, G. W., Old South Road, Woodhaven, N. Y. 
Bergstrom, C. L., 6732 Ridge Boulevard, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Bernner, M. St. J., 46 Whitney Ave., Elmhurst, L. I., N. Y. 
Black, W. A., 324 Orange Road, Montclaire, N. J. 
Bohde, F. J., 151 East 81st St., New York, N. Y. 
Brady, R. R„ 55 Steuben St., East Orange, N. J. 
Bruning, J. H., Jr., 934 Hudson St., Hoboken, N. J. 
Bgnn, P. H., 933 Avenue C, Bayonne, N. J. 
Burnard, J. J., 2628 East 14th St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Couse, K. W., 58 West 57th St., New York, N. Y. 
Derivaux, A. J., 623 Higli St., Newark, N. J. 



Dietz, G. L., 330 East 18th St., New York, N. Y. 

Dietz, P. C., Jr., 303 Harrison Ave., Hasbrouck Heights, N. J. 

Doremtjs, W. J., 609 14th Ave., Paterson, N. J. 

Downs, W. S., 286 Essex Ave., Orange, N. J. 

Doxsey, A. M., Lynbrook, N. Y. 

Dreyer, H. W., 2021 Dorchester Road, Flatbush, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Dunn, R. I., 131 Riverside Drive, New York, N. Y. 

Dunn, W. K., 237 Washington Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Elwell, T., 345 East 35th St., Paterson, N. J. 

Everett, A., 7 Retford Ave., Cranford, N. J. 

Feist, S., 245 West 139th St., New York, N. Y. 

Flood, H. G., 84 Edgecombe Ave., New York, N. Y. 

Gavin, W. J., 166 Engert Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Gerold, F. G., 23 Polhemus Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Given, C. R., 278 North 20th St., East Orange, N. J. 

Gorman, T. L.. 665 Bergen Ave., Jersey City, N. J. 

Grahn, J. A., Jr., Serpentine Road, Tenafly, N. J. 

Graydon, D. M., 158 Maple Ave., Ridgewood, N. J. 

Hart, H., 75 Maple Ave., Morristown, N. J. 

Hazard, S., 3089 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

Hiebeler, H. G., 45 E. Greenpoint Ave., Woodside, L. L, N. Y. 

Hiller, P. W., 68 Laurel St., Carbondale, Pa. 

Igoe, W. J., 164 Jewett Ave., Jersey City, N. J. 

Johnson, R. R., 38 Washington Terrace, East Orange, N. J. 

Kenly, R. G., Hagerstown, Md. 

Kent, R., Tuxedo Park, N. Y. 

Klett, M. J., Jr., 3709 Paulding Ave., Williamsbridge, New York, N. Y 

Koehler, O. A., 310 West San Pedro Place, San Antonio, Texas. 

Krollpfeifer, C. F., 113 West 118th St., New York, N. Y. 

Kusel, H. F., Jr., 1000 Washington St., Hoboken, N. J. 

Kynor, M. W., 22 Conover Terrace, Orange, N. J. 

Lewis, O. N., 102 West Liberty St., Bridgeport, Conn. 

Locke, C. A., 89 Winthrop St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Loeffler, H. W. D., 14 Hedden Terrace, Newark, N. J. 

Lubash, M., 291 Central Ave., Jersey City, N. J. 

Mandell, S., 524 Grand St., New York, N. Y. 

Markley, W. F., 334 Henderson St., Jersey City, N. J. 

McCutchen, R. M., 701 Ocean Ave., Belmar, N. J. 

McElroy, C. J., 1850 Noble Ave., Bridgeport, Conn. 

McLean, A., Jr., Ill Passaic Ave., Passaic, N. J. 

McQueeney, J. T., 790 Westminster Road, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Memory, C. H, 508 N. Arlington Ave., East Orange, N. J. 

Meyer, J. W., Jr., 919 Clinton St., Hoboken, N. J. 

Middleton, M., 122 N. Maple Ave., East Orange, N. J. 

Milburn, R. P., 820 Lake St., Newark, N. J. 

Miller, E. F., 433 West 23d St., New York, N. Y. 

Morgan, A., 1 St. Nicholas Terrace, New York, N. Y. 

Morton, E. R., 73 West Lacrosse Ave., Lansdowne, Pa. 

Munroe, G. C, 626 East 24th St., Paterson, N. J. 

Neidhart, L. E., 661 Jersey Ave., Jersey City, N. J. 



Newbery, G. F., 45 Second St., Weehawken, N. J. 

Nicolson, H. W., 3059 Q St., Washington, D. C. 

O'Dougherty, E. F., 854 Park Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

O'Neill, H. A., 449 Scotland St., Orange, N. J. 

Parpart, W. E., Jr., 921 Washington St., Hoboken, N. J. 

Payne, E. B., 600 Meridian St., Nashville, Tenn. 

Peale, J. A., 231 Claremont Ave., Montclaire, N. J. 

Post, A. J., Jr., Sound Beach, Conn. 

Regan, E. F., 144 Nassau Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Richard, W. R., 256 84th St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Savale, G. H., 45 Pomp ton Road, Haledon, N. J. 

Savoye, C. U., 138 Euclid Ave., Hackensack, N. J. 

Schmidt, W. K., 460 West 142d St., New York, N. Y. 

Schuchard, E. F., 221 Guenther St., San Antonio, Texas. 

Schuyler, P. K., 130 Hillside Ave., Orange, N. J. 

Searles, A. G., 366 Summer Ave., Newark, N. J. 

Siegler, G., 218 Newark Ave., Jersey City, N. J. 

Snow, E. L., 3216 West Penn St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Sofield, H. K., 2557 Boulevard, Jersey City, N. J. 

Souther, W. L., 426 Sterling Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Spaulding, J. K., Central Valley, Orange Co., N. Y. 

Springer, J. A., 116 Hudson Ave., Haverstraw, N. Y. 

Staudinger, C. P., 519 Eighth Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Taylor, H. S., 25 Washington Terrace, Bridgeport, Conn. 

Tonking, J. B., Jr., Hotel Bretton Hall, 86th St. & Broadway, New York. 

Vogel, R., Jr., Manasquan, N. J. 

Ware, P. N, 42 Bank St., New York, N. Y. 

Whitmore, G. S., Forest Hills, L. L, N. Y. 

Wilkinson, W., 542 Bergen Ave., Jersey City, N. J. 

Willis, LeR. W., 478 Passaic Ave., Nutley, N. J. 

Woehrle, E. A., 2928 Richmond Terrace, Mariners Harbor, N. Y. 

Wong, H. K., Canton, China. 

Wyant, R. R., 192 Livingston St., New Haven, Conn. 



Academic Efficiency. William Kent 20 

Alumni Association, Annual Meeting of 260 

Alumni Banquet, To Celebrate Dr. Humphreys' Decennial at . 1 

Alumni Day 219 

Alumni Day Committee, Report of 1912 175 

Alumni Dinner of 1913 394 

Alumni Dinner in Honor of President Humphreys, Great Success 

Attends .... 93 

Alumni Directory 66, 158, 281, 382 

Alumni News 73,169,291,393 

Alumni Nominations 172 

Alumni Trustee, Report of Retiring. Hosea Webster .... 271 

Alumni Trustees Meet 183 

Anderson, Prof. R. M 185 

Annual Meeting of the Alumni Association 260 

Antz, Oscar. Obituary 154 

Art of Management, The New Element in the. John Colder . . 203 

Athletic Council Formed 184 

Athletic Council Meets 408 

Athletics 76 

Baccalaureate Sermon 224 

Balloons, Spherical. R. H. Upson, '10 301 

Banquet, To Celebrate Dr. Humphreys' Decennial at Alumni . . 1 
Bensel, John A., '84. The Relation of the Engineer to Public Im- 
provements 357 

"Blazer Girl." The Varsity Show 76 

"Blazer Girl" Presented 187 

Bradley, Chester Edmonds. Obituary 59 

Brooklyn Club Dinner 75 

Calder, John. The New Element in the Art of Management . . 203 

Castle Stevens Affairs 76 

Changes in Management 73 

Class of 1893 Dinner 173 

Class of 1909 Dinner at the Castle 297 

Class of 1910 Banquet at Castle 75 

Class of 1917 408 

Closer Affiliation of Stevens Alumni Clubs 257 



Coley, C. T.,'01. A Method of Chec king the Economical Height of 

an Office Building 344 

College News 76 

Collegiate Education, Four Versus Five Years of. Alexander C. 

Humphreys, '81 189 

Commencement Addresses 232 

Commencement Week 215 

Crosby, Franklin Butler. Obituary 278 

Cuntz, J. H., '87. The Engineer and the World's Work ... 338 

Debating Club Formed 300 

Depreciation: Estimated and Actual. Alex. C. Humphreys, '81 . 311 

Dinner of Schenectady Club 173 

Editorial Comment 64, 155, 279 

Engineer and the World's Work, The. J. H. Cuntz, '87 ... 338 

Engineering Society Dinner 300 

Engineering Society Entertains 184 

Executive Committee Meetings 73, 176, 291, 394 

Federation of Stevens Alumni Clubs 377 

First Reunion of 1912 297 

Football 300 

Four Versus Five Years of Collegiate Education. Alexander C. 

Humphreys, M.E., Sc.D., LL.D 189 

Freshmen Vanquish Sophs 77 

Fritz, John. Obituary . 152 

Ganz, Albert F. Hydroelectric Developments at Niagara Falls . 79 
Good Engineering Teacher, His Personality and Training. Prof. 

Wm. T. Magruder, '81 363 

Gift of Thermit Apparatus 78 

Great Success Attends Alumni Dinner in Honor of President Hum- 
phreys 93 

Humphreys, Alexander C. '81. The Present Opportunities and Con- 
sequent Responsibilities of the Engineer 8 

Depreciation: Estimated and Actual 311 

Four Versus Five Years of Collegiate Education 189 

Humphreys' Dr., Decennial at Alumni Banquet, To Celebrate . . 1 
Humphreys, Great Success Attends Alumni Dinner in Honor of 

President 93 



Hydroelectric Developments at Niagara Falls. Albert F.Ganz . . 79 

Kent, William. Academic Efficiency 20 

Lasker, Harold H. C. Study of the Relative Merits of the Various 
Types of Electric Arc and Incandescent Lamps for Lighting 

Urban and Suburban Streets 37 

Library Notes 185 

Magruder, Prof. Wm. T., '81. The Good Engineering Teacher, His 

Personality and Training 363 

Martin's, Prof., New Book 78 

Method of Checking the Economical Height of an Office Building, 

C. T. Coley, '01 344 

Michigan Alumni Adopt New Name 394 

Michigan Stevens Club Formed 172 

Michigan Stevens Men Meet 297 

Midwinter Meeting 169 

Mr. Kinsey Honored 300 

Mudge, Samuel Tenney. Obituary 60 

New Element in the Art of Management. John Colder .... 203 

New Entrance Examination Plan 407 

News of Stevens Men 68, 160, 284 

News of the College 184, 299, 407 

Obituary, Oscar Antz 154 

Chester Edmonds Bradley 59 

Franklin Butler Crosby 278 

John Fritz 152 

Samuel Tenney Mudge 60 

Stephen Squires Palmer 150 

Maunsel White 57 

Palmer, Stephen Squires. Obituary 150 

Pittsburgh Club Banquet 174 

Pond, Dr., Resigns as Treasurer 184 

Present Opportunities and Consequent Responsibilities of the Engi- 
neer. Alexander C. Humphreys, '81 3 

Report of 1912 Alumni Day Committee 




Relation of the Engineer to Public Improvements. John A. Bensel, 

'84 357 

Report of Retiring Alumni Trustee. Hosea Webster 271 

Report of Treasurer of Alumni Association 399 

Senior Inspection Trip . .187 

Slides on Safety Devices 187 

Sophomores Win Cane Rush 408 

Spherical Balloons. R. H. Upson, '10 301 

Spring Athletic Schedules 186, 299 

Stevens Alumni Clubs, Close Affiliation of 257 

Stevens Club of Brooklyn 172 

Stevens Convention in January 393 

Stevens Gets Selden Patent Exhibits 375 

Stevens Football Schedule for 1913 187 

Stevens Theatre Party 62, 393 

Student Council Active 407 

Study of the Relative Merits of the Various Types of Electric Arc 
and Incandescent Lamps for Lighting Urban and Suburban 

Streets. Harold H. C. Lasker 37 

Stute Board and Stute Alumni Dine 187 

Tau Beta Pi Initiates 407 

To Celebrate Dr. Humphreys' Decennial at Alumni Banquet . . 1 

Trustees of the Alumni Association 75, 296, 399 

Twentieth Birthday of 1893 297 

Upson, R. H., '10. Spherical Ballons 301 

Webster, Hosea. Report of Retiring Alumni Trustee 271 

White, Maunsel. Obituary 57 

Wilson, Dr., Visits Castle Stevens 184 



Alumni and Undergraduates of the 

Hoboken, New Jersey 





A working necessity of every engineer is 
defijiite knowledge as to what strain 
the new Yale Triplex Block will stand. 

Ask for the results of the recent remark- 
able shock tests on the all-steel suspension 
members of this ?iew block. You will see why 
the new Yale Triplex Block will stand more 
overload — more abuse than any other block 
made. Deliveries now. 

The Yale & Towne Mfg. Co. 

The Makers of Yale Products 
9 East Fortieth St. New York 

Chain Blocks, 
Electric Hoists, 
Locks, Padlocks &> 
lWiilders' Hardware 

Local Offices: 
Chicago: 74 East Randolph St. 
San Francisco: 134 RialtoBldg. 

Increased Production 

is the aim of all Stevens graduates who are in 
charge of manufacturing plants. One way to 
help is to have all the mechanics provided with 

Starrett Tools 

These tools are d"s : gned each for a number of 
different uses, and are made to stand years 
of service. Accuracy is their fundamental; 
convenience, their feature. The line covere 
micrometers, levels, calipers, rules, et'j. 
Send for Catalog 19. 

The L, S* Starrett Co*, 

Athol, Mass. 





(Stevens '97) 

Attorney and Counselor at Law 



Patents and Patent 

Room 157 
'Phone, 945 Rector 

Cop3 r rights 
Foreign Patents 



(M. E., Stevens '87) 
(Master of Patent Law, Columbian 

(LL.B., National Law University) 

(Member A.S.M.E.) 

McGill Building, Washington, D.C. 


Established 1880 

Solicitors of U. S. and 
Foreign Patents 
(Attorneys at Law) 


Ex-Chief Examiner Elec. Division, 
U. S. Patent Office 

Stevens Institute of Technology 


(M.E. Stevens Institute) 
(A.M. Columbia University) 

Successor to 

50 Church Street 
New York 

Solicitor of United States and Foreign 


(Stevens '83) 



American and Foreign Patents 
Trade-Marks and Copyrights 
and Mechanical Engineering 

Federal Trust Building 
745 and 747 Broad Street, Newark, N. J. 

American Tract Society Building 

150 Nassau Street, New York City 
Rooms 832 and 833 

Cfjemtcal &nalpses 

Investigations mads in 
all branches of Chemical 
I t chnology. Address 


Ti lephone, 962 Uoboken 


Mcmhcr Socittlt Chemique <lc Paris, France; Deutsche Chemisehc ( Icsellschaft, 
Berlin, Germany; Amciican Chemical Society; International Society for Testing 
Materials for Construe t ion, Zurich, Swit/.crland; Ainei ican Klccti o -Chemical Society; 
Society of Chemical Industry, London. 




(Stevens '09) 


Patents — Trade Marks — Copyrights 

One Liberty Street 


Consulting Engineer 

Successor to 

ion Chestnut Street 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

P J. POND, Ph.D. 

Chemical Engineer 

Consulting Chemist 

Stevens Institute of Technology 

New York 


Consulting Engineer 

Central Building, 143 Liberty St. 

New York City 


Investigations, Tests, Reports, etc., on 
all subjects connected with 

Inventions Developed 

Send for Booklet 


Consulting Electrical 

Electrolysis Investigations 
a Specialty 

Expert in Patent Causes 

Stevens Institute of Technology 


Prepaid, $2.25 

The best known of all authorities on 
Stationary Engine Indicator Practice 



Prepaid, $2.25 

The only complete treatise published 
devoted exclusively to Marine Engines 

Both these volumes should be in every mechanical engineer' s library 

In connection with the universal use of our American Thompson Improved Indicator 
we found it absolutely necessary to supply the information these works contain 

PROGRESS: An interesting little history by ELBERT HUBBARD— FREE 





In Their 
Requirement, viz. : 




Are Fully 

C^e Cwcwnatt dKear Cutting |Rart)we Co, 


MANNING, MAXWELL & MOORE, Inc., New York, Agents 


For 26 years it has been preferred as the most efficient of Vertical Gas Engines. 

Economy, Simplicity, Reliability and Safety are features found in a higher degree 
In a Nash than in any other ^as engine. 

Especially adapted for Electric Light, Water Works and Power Plants. Sizes 5 to 
joo H. P. Send for Catalogue. 

NATIONAL METER COMPANY 84 Chambers Street, New York 


Everlasting Rock Made Into 
Ready Roofing 

J-M Asbestos Roofing is literally a pliable rock. It consists of 
several layers of solid Asbestos rock fibers cemented firmly together 
wi h genuine Trinidad Lake Asphalt. It is all mineral. No per- 
ishable material in it. 

This roofing contains nothing that can rot, melt, crack or be 
affected by water. And it affords perfect fire protection. 


is still in service, without any painting or graveling, after more 
than a quarter century of wear. 

Get this roofing from your dealer — or send your order direct if he 
can't supply you. Sample of the curious Asbestos Rock sent free, 
if you write our nearest Branch for Catalog No. 303. 




Kansas City 
Los Angeles 

New Orleans 

New York 

San Francisco 
St. Louis 


ALTEN S. MILLER, Vice-Pres. 
HOWARD E. WHITE, Gen'l Counsel 


Humphreys & Miller, Inc. 

Successors to Humphreys & Glasgow, Inc. 

Consulting Engineers 



165 Broadway, New York 

io Kw. Double Current Generator Set 

Electrical Machines 

Especially Designed for Experimental Work in 
College Laboratories 

Double Current Generator: Designed to illustrate the char- 
acteristics of the following machines. 

Two-phase or three-phase synchronous converter. 
Double current generator, giving direct current and single- 
phase, two-phase or three-phase alternating current. 
Direct current generator. 

Two-phase or three-phase alternating current generator. 
Direct current motor. 

Two-phase or three-phase synchronous motor. 
Inverted synchronous converter giving two-phase or three- 
phase alternating current. 

Polyphase Generator: Equipped with revolving field and 
three extra induction motor rotors. Illustrates the operating 
characteristics of generator, synchronous motor, and of squirrel 
cage, slip ring and internal resistance type induction motors. 

RegulatingPoleConverter: An 8 kw. machine that illustrates 
one of the more recent developments in synchronous motors. 

General Electric Company 

Largest Electrical Manufacturer In thv World 
General Office, Schenectady, N. Y. Sales Offices In fifty-four cities 


"ThcGuui an tec ot" (fi5v>«T 011 Qs><>ds 
b Excellence- vmdH^%i & 


Stevens Indicator 



Spherical Balloons. R. H. Upson, '10 301 

Depreciation: Estimated and Actual. 

Alex. C. Humphreys, '81, M.E., Sc.D., LL.D. 311 

The Engineer and the World's Work. J. H. Cuntz, '87 338 
A Method of Checking the Economical Height of an 

Office Building. C. T. Coley, '01 344 

The Relation of the Engineer to Public Improve- 
ments. John A. Bensel,'84- 3o7 

The Good Engineering Teacher, His Personality and 

Training. Prof. Wm. T. Magruder, 81 363 

Stevens Gets Selden Patent Suit Exhibits 375 

Federation of Stevens Alumni Clubs 377 

Editorial Comment 380 

Alumni Directory 382 

News of Stevens Men 386 

Alumni News 393 

News of the College 407 

Index for Volume XXX 413 




castle point, HOBOKEN, N. J. 
Gerald E. Terwilliger, Managing Editor 
One Liberty Street, New York 
Issued Quarterly in January, April, July, October 
Annual Subscription, $1.53 in advance; single copies, 50 cents 

Application for entry as second-class matter at Post Office at Concord, N, H, pending. 
Copyright, 1913. by Gerald E. Terwilliger. 

VI 11 


Gueney Electric 

The Gurney Type Traction Elevator 

Our Bulletin No. 4 and Technical Bul- 
letin No. 5 are devoted to this machine 

! Gceney EleworCommny ■ 

H. F. GURNEY, President (Stevens *92) 

4$ih Street, New 




Of Carbon and HIGH SPEED STEEL, 
are big factors in attaining 


They are up-to-date, progressive, 
well-made, accurate tools 





GUntteti #as improvement Company 

Lessees, Operators, and Builders of 


Sole Builders of the 

Standard Double Superheater Lowe Water Gas Apparatus 

Tar Extractors for Carburetted Water Gas 
Photometrical Apparatus Gas Analysis Apparatus Recording Gauges 

Straight Standpipe System for Coal Gas Retorts 
-Straight Standpipe Cleaners Hygrometers Waste Heat Boiiers 

Meters for Regulating Air and Steam Supply to Water Gas Apparatus 




American Gas Furnace Co xvlii 

American Steam Gauge and 

Valve Manufacturing Co iii 

Ashcroft Mfg. Co xii 

Bigelow Company, The xvi 

Bristol Company, The xxvi 

Cameron Steam Pump Works xxv 

Campbell, Donald ii 

Carbondale Instrument Co xxxii 

Carbondale Machine Co xxix 

Cincinnati Gear Cutting Ma- 
chine Co iv 

Cooper, Chas., & Co xxxii 

Cox & Sons Co xi 

Dixon, Jos., Crucible Co xvii 

Electrical Testing Laboratories xv 

First National Bank of Hoboken .... xxx 
Fletcher, W. & A., Co xxiii 

Ganz, Albert F iii 

Gautier J. H. & Co xxii 

General Electric Co vi 

Gurney Elevator Co viii 

Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection 

and Insurance Company xi 

Hendrick Mfg. Co., Ltd xxviii 

Hewes & Phillips xiv 

Higgins, Chas. M., & Co xv 

Hoboken Land & Imp. Co xxvi 

Humphreys & Miller v 

Isbell-Porter Co xxix 

Jeffrey Mfg. Co xix 

Jenkins Bros xx 

Jessop, Win., & Sons, Ltd xxx 

Johns-Man ville Co., H. W v 

Keasbey, Robert A xxxii 

Kenwood Bridge Co xxi 

Kolesch & Co xxvii 

Koven, L. O., & Bro xxvii 

Ladd, Jamei B iii 

Lidk'crwood Mfg. Co xviii 

Mead-Morrison Mfg. Co xi 

Mietz, August xiv 

Morse Twist Drill & Machine Co .... ix. 

Nason Mfg. Co xx: 

Nathan Manufacturing Co xii 

National Meter Co iv 

Norton Company xxi 

Otis Elevator Co xxii 

Peerless Rubber Mfg. Co xvii 

Pond, Dr. F. J iii 

Post & McCord xxiii 

Power Specialty Co xxvii. 

Pulsometer Steam Pump Co xxii 

Quimby, William E., Inc xi 

Rail Joint Co., The xxvi 

Roebling's Sons Co., John A xix 

Roelker, H. B xxviii 

Roessler & Hasslacher Chemical 
Company xxxii 

Safety Car Heating & Lighting Co. . .xv 

Schoenborn, W. E ii. 

Schuetz, Fred'k F ii 

Smith, Samuel, & Son xxiv 

Starrett, The L. S., Co i 

Stevens Institute of Technology cover 

Stevens School cover 

Stillman, Dr. Thomas B ii 

Terwilliger, Gerald E iii 

Tietjen & Lang Dry Dock Co xxiv 

Townsend & Decker ii 

Trendwell Engineering Co xvi 

Tucker, Ben). W iii 

Uehling Instrument Co xx 

( fnited ( las Improvement Co ix 

U. S. Wood Preserving Co xxvi 

Vacuum Oil Co xiv 

V;in Nostrand, I)., Co \iii 

Weston Electric Instrument Co. . 

Yale & Townc Mfg. Co., The i 



Builders of Pipe Cutting and Thread- 
ing Machinery of all styles and sizes 
for pipe mill and heavy shop duty, 
either belt, steam or motor driven as 
desired. Also a full line of Two, Four 
and Six Spindle Socket Tappers. 

Our new catalogue will be sent on application. 

Philadelphia Office Main Office and Works 
5 1 9-520 Lafayette Bid?. Bridgeton, N. J. 


Bilge Pumps Sump Pumps 

Quimby Screw Pumps 


548 West 23d St. New York 

djorouglj 3Jujspectton 

and Insurance Against Loss or Damage 
to Property, and Loss of Life and 
Injury to Persons caused by 


L. B. HRATNERD, President and Treasurer 
F. B. ALLEN, Vice-President 
C. S. BLAKE, Secretary 

L. F. MIDDLE BROOK, Assistant Secretary 
W. R. C. CORSON, Assistant Secretary 




For every variety of service there is 
a Mead- Morrison Hoisting Engine. 


Main Office: Old South Bldg., Boston, Mass. 

New York Office: 149 Broadway 2081 




With Houghtaling 
Reducing Motion 

with Outside Spring 

is especially adapted for aiding engi- 
neers in locating quickly any defects 
m the engine. 

ACCURACY is one of its many good 

THE TABOR is considered the stand- 
ard indicator by a majority of the 
engineers of today. 

You will agree with them alter seeing 
our catalog. Write for it. It is free. 

Th3 Ashcroft Manufacturing Co. 

151 Broadway 

New York 

Western Offices J 1612 ° ld Colon y Bld S-' Chicago, 111. 
western unices / ^ Frisco B \dg., St. Louis, Mo. 

Manufacturers of 







Diesel Engines 

For Land and Marine Work 


With an Introduction by DR. RUDOLPH DIESEL 


Introduction. General Theory of Heat Engines with Special Reference to Diesel 
Engines. Action and Working of the Diesel Engine. Construction of the 
Diesel Engine. Installing and Running Diesel Engines. Testing Diesel Engines. 
Diesel Engines for Marine Work. Construction of the Diesel Marine Engine. The 
Future of the Diesel Engine. Appendix. 

A complete and thorough presentation of the working and design of this very effi- 
cient engine presented comprehensively to the American engineer for the first time. 

230 Pages 6x9 Inches 81 Illustrations Net, $3.00 

Primer of 
Scientific Management 


Member of the Amer. i5oc. of Mechanical Engineers. Author of "Motion Study, a Method for 
Increasing the Efficiency of the Workman." Consulting Management Engineer 

With an Introduction by LOUIS D. BRANDEIS, Esq. 

This book contains the answers in plain, simple language to many hundreds of 
questions that were asked the publishers of the "American Magazine," by intelligent 
business men who had read the articles on "The Principles of Scientific Manage- 
ment," by Frederick W. Taylor, that were published in the magazine last year. All 
are pertinent questions that would naturally suggest themselves to any one studying 
scientific management and each question is answered very fully in as much space 
as it requires. 

116 Pages 5x8 Inches Net, $1.00 

Descriptive Circulars and Complete Catalogs Free on Request 

D. Van Nostrand Company 


25 Park Place New York 




Through our large 
and varied clientele 
at home and abroad, 
we have encountered 

and studied lubricating problems in great variety. 

We have met the most exacting requirements of all classes of machinery 
in a way that has left no question of our pre-eminence on the subject of 

We earnestly solicit an opportunity to analyze any lubricating problems 
and suggest the oil that 

will show the greatest effi- VACUUM OIL COMPANY 

ciency and economy. ROCHESTER, U. S. A. 



Simple, Safe, Reliable and Economical 

Stationary and Marine. 
2-400 H. P. 

Operated on Kerosene, Fuel Oil 
Crude Oil and Alcohol. 

Over 200,000 H. P. in operation for 
all power purposes. 

Send for Catalogue 


28-138 Mott Street, New York 


Steam means coal; coal costs money; if you would save both and secure the maxi- 
mum of power at a minimum cost, purchase and install one of our latest HIGH 
BPBBD CORLISS ENGINES equipped with the "Franklin" (patent) Horizontal 
Gravity Latch- Releasing Valve Gear. Highest attainable economy and close regu- 
lation guaranteed. Rotative speed 150 to 200 revolutions per minute. Direct con- 
nected or belted types, either simple or compound. Send for descriptive catalogue to 







and learn what's what in inks and adhesives for drafting 
room, photograph mounting, and general office and home 
use. Emancipate yourself from ill-smelling and dirty 
pastes and mucilages, and corrosive and weak-colored 
inks, and adopt the Higgins Inks and Adhesives. 
Their high qualities will be a revelation to you. 


Chas. M. Higgins & Co., M anufacturers 




Main Office, 271 Ninth St. 
Factory, 240-244 Eighth St. 

U. S. A. 

candle power 
Pintsch Mantle Light 


Electrical Testing Laboratories 


Photometrical Tests of all forms of commercial illuminants. Illumination test* 
made anywhere indoors or outdoors. 


Tests of electrical instruments, apparatus and materials. Inspection of electrical 
material and apparatus at factories. 


Coal and ash analysed. Paper tested. Industrial and clinical thermometer* 
checked. Tensile, compression and torsion tests of structural materials. Com- 
plete tests on cement and concrete. 

WUson S b H J £we 8 li; Manner 8uth STREET AND EAST END AVENUE 

Claytor H. Sharp, Test Officer NEW YORK, N. Y. 



Electric Steel Castings 

Made from metal that is melted and refined in 
an Electric Furnace 

A superior quality of steel of unusual guaran- 
teed physical test and chemical analysis 

Small steel castings a specialty 

Your inquiries solicited for prompt attention 

Treadwell Engineering Company 
Easton, Pennsylvania 

New York Office - - - - 140 Cedar Street 

The fcigelow-Hornsby Water Tube Boiler 

meets every requirement of the modern power plant. 

Unlimited size of units. Small ground space occupied. Coldest 
water meets the coldest gases. Direct heating surface about four 
times as great as the average water tube boiler. All parts both exter- 
nal and internal readily accessible. All boiler tubes perfectly stra'ght. 
Circulation of water and l.beration of steam unrestricted. Very dry 
steam also ample room for superheaters where required. H gh con- 
tinuous economy due to extreme cleanliness of the most efficient heat- 
ing surface. Greatest flexibility both as to construction and in 
steaming qualities. No cast iron used in any portion of the boiler 
proper. Constructed both as to workmanship and material in accord- 
ance with the most advanced boiler practice. 

The Bigelow-Manning' Boiler 

is most efficient as to operation and maintenance. 

Generates superheated steam. No porti >f shell comes in direct 

contact with furnace gases. All radiant heat from furnace is directly 
absorbed by water heating surfaces, resulting in high economy. Occu- 
pies less ground space than any other type of boi'er. All parts aie 
rcadi y accessible for inspection and cleaning. Write for our latest 
catalogs and full information. Also manufacturers of Horizontal Re- 
turn Tubular Boilers, Internally Fired Holers, LoeomoLve Type of 
Boilers, Slacks, Hues, Driers, Coolers, 1 )igesters, Vuleani/ers, Jacketed 
Tanks, Plate Steel Work anil Heavy Special Machinery. 

The Bigelow Company, 74 River St., New Haven, Conn. 

Boston Office, 1003 Ollrer Bldg. Now York Office, '>.«> Singer Bldft. 


Don't have to 
use wire and 
cloth to hold 

Can't blow 

it out. 

Three Roivs of Diamonds extending throughout the entire length of each and every roll 
of Rainbo w Packing. 


Copyrighted and Manufactured Exclusively by 

^eerlessss Kubber jttanufactimttg Company 

16 Warren Street and 88 Chambers Street, New York. 

6-24 Woodward Ave., Detroit, Mich. 202 210 So. Water St., Chicago, HL 

17-19 Beale St and 18-24 Main St., San Francisco, California. 



For more than half a century 
the recognized 

Standard Lubricant 

For all purposes where the most 
lasting, effective and economical 
lubrication is required. 

Send for free text-book, "Graphite as a Lubricant" No. 166 
Made in JERSEY CITY, N. J. by the 

Joseph Dixon Crucible Co* 

Established 1827 

Thousands of 

No Equal. 

Will Hold 






Are built to gauge on the Duplicate Part Sys- 
tem. More than 300 styles and sizes, 
to suit all conditions. 

Standard for Quality 
and Duty 

i^Over 36,000 

Engines and Electric 
Hoists in Use 

Send /or Latest Catalogue 


96 Liberty Street 

•Standard Lidgerwood Double Cylinder, Double Friction , 

Drum Hoisting Engine and Boiler NEW YORK 


Seating J¥ladnne0 


eciiantcal Heating processes 

Hcquirinff JJrccicion 


GaJ Engi?iccrs and Manufacturers 


Send for Catalogue C- 



Power Transmission 

Catalog No. 50 

is one of the most complete and up- 
to-date, containing detail informa- 
tion, including illustrations and 
valuable data for the Student or 
Engineer, and is being sent out only 
on .request. 

Write for copy of this and any other 
catalogs, describing our various 
lines, in which you may be inter- 

Jeffrey Mfg. Company 




Don't Forget ! as You Leave Stevens, 



The N a so 11 Steam Trap is an 
Open Bucket Intermittent Discharge 

It has been on the market for nearly 
70 years and has been widely imitated. 
These two facts prove conclusively its 
adaptabilit}' for all service conditions. 

The Nason -Vesuvius has: A Re- 
grinding Ball Valve; A Large Dis- 
charge Orifice insuring ample capacity 
for maximum conditions; An Inter- 
mittent Discharge eliminating the con- 
tinuous throttling - or wire drawing 
between discharges. 

Special Catalogues Sent on Application 


Uehling Instrument Company 


pneumatic Optometer (Healing <*Ba^€ompogimeter 

Office and Works : - — - Passaic, N.J. 

Foreign Agents: Messrs. J. Wild & Co., Ltd., Middlesbrough, Eng. 

Constructed of high-grade steam metal. Well propor- 
tioned, heavy, strong, and durable. Preferred l>y cx- 
peri?nced engineers. Have "made good" for over in 
yean. Writt for CtUoloff. 

JENKINS BROS., Nen York, Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago 



PAUL WILLIS, President Tel., 3771 Central A. J. T. BENNETT, Sec'y and Eng'r 


Engineers and Builders of Structural Steel Work 

Offices : 

14 J 6 First National Bank Bldg., Chicago, 111. 

Grand Crossing, 111* 


Materials Taken from Stock in the Yard When Immediate Shipments Are Required 

Let Us Help Select Grinding Wheels 

Whether or not grinding costs average high or low depends largely on 
wheel selection. 

The world has not yet produced any better abrasive materials than Alun- 
dum and Crystolon. Alundum leads on practically every kind of steel 
grinding. On such metals as cast iron, brass, bronze, etc., there is noth- 
ing better than Crystolon. 


Worcester, Mass. 

Alundum Plant, Niagara Falls, N. Y. Crystolon Plant, Chippawa, Canada 
New York Store, 151 Chambers St. Chicago Store, 11 N. Jefferson St. 



Otis Elevator Company 

Otis Elevator Building 
Eleventh Avenue and Twenty-sixth Street, New York 

Offices in All Principal Cities of the World 

Over fifty-five years' experience and success in solving all kinds of 
elevator problems. We build and erect 

All Types of Elevators for All Kinds of Power 

including Otis " Traction " and " Drum " Type Passenger and Freight 
Elevators ; Otis Inclined Freight Elevators and Horizontal Carriers ; 
Otis Escalators or Moving Stairways, and Moving Sidewalks ; Otis 
Spiral Gravity Conveyors; and Otis Automatic Push-button Elevators, 
and Dumbwaiters for private residences. 

Inquiries Invited 

on any question involving the conveyance of Passengers and Freight 
from level to level or horizontally to widely-separated points. 



For Rough Service Drainage 

20 to 1000 gallons per minute. Catalogue gratis 




Jersey City, N. J. 

= Fire Brick 
Black Lead Crucibles 


xx m 

ST- AM © 






W. & A. Fletcher Co. 


Steam Engines^ Boilers 
and Machinery 

Hudson Street 
12th to 14th Streets 

Hoboken, N. J, 




2&uilfcer£ of £team 25oiler£ 


Ctetjen & &ana ®tp Bock Co. 


600, 800, 1,000, 1,200, 1,400, 1,800, 2,000, 
5,000, 10,000 TONS 

General &epatns 
on WotiUtn attti fron Wrssels 

•n.KPiioifB, 700 Boson*. 

17th Street and Park Avenue 


The Slogan of the Cameron — " Character: The Grandest Thing " 


SHAFT SINKING is diffi- 
cult work — it requires un- 
usual qualities in a pump. And 
in the Cameron Pump you get 
these qualities in full measure. 

The Vertical Plunger Pattern 
has fewer working parts than any 
other steam pump. The Steam 
Mechanism consists of four stout 
pieces only and there is no out- 
side Valve Gear. The Steam 
Valve movement works with- 
out arms or levers so that the 
Cameron can be run faster, with- 
out danger of breaking, than 
other pumps. 

Practical mining men are 
enthusiastic about the service 
Cameron Pumps give. 

" We have had fifteen years' experience with your pumps 
and will accept no other for shaft-sinking purposes/' writes 
S. Saunders, Superintendent of the Teziutlan Copper Co., Aire 
Libre, Pueblo, Mexico* 

Complete Catalog No. 27 will be Mailed on Request 


// Broadway, New York 



U« 8« WOOd BlOCkS most heavily traveled 

streets of New York, where 

they are undergoing the hardest traffic test in America without showing evidence 
of wear. For shop floors, factory yards, etc., where pig iron, castings, coal, etc., are 
to be handled and dumped, this pavement is the only practicable one, as the elas- 
ticity of the wood enables it to endure shocks and abrasions which speedily destroy 
stone floors. 

Write for our booklet on Shop Floors 


165 Broadway, New York 







Make Continuous Records Day and Night. Over Seven Hundred 
Different Varieties. Thousands in Daily Use. Awarded Medal 
and Diploma at World's Fair. 



Branch Offices: New York, Pittsburg and Chicago 

50,000 Miles 
in Use 

Rolled from 
Best Quality 


THF RATI IftlXTT Cfi General Offices: 

ovrnn J. VsVr* m madison avenue, new york city 
Makers of Base=Supported Rail Joints for Standard and Special Rail Sections ; also 
Girder, Step or Compromise, Frog and Switch, and Insulated Rail Joints, protected 
by Patents. 

Hoboken Land and Improvement Co, 

ciiiizxxxiiixixij j-j ouses> Flats, Floors, 
rxxiixixxxi.xzxx: and Factory Lofts 

i anu m. ui<iui y 


Apply JOHN H. GROULS, Agent 




L. O. Koven & Brother 


Plate Steel and Sheet Iron Work 

Of Every Description 


Designers of Special Apparatus 
for Manufacturing Industries 

S e ro a o n m d s, 50 CLIFF STREET, NEW YORK 

WORKS, JERSEY CITY, N. J. Cable Address, « Kovenlo " 

138 JF ulton Street, Beta got* 

„ , /? e " ts f ? r ^ patumeterg 

Kern s Celebrated Genuine ir> 
Swiss Drawing Instruments S>ltUe Uu\t& t etC. 

Special Discount Send for 

to Students Illustrated Catalogue 



POWER SPECIALTY CO., 111 Broadway, New York 




For Ice Making and Refrigeration on Steamers 

Nearly 300 in tropical service in U. S. and foreign 
men-of-war, commercial steamers and steam yachts 


41 Maiden Lane, New York 

Perforated Plate Screens 

As Required f or 

Stone, Ore, Zinc 
Lead, and 



6<implcs and Information upon Request. 


NEW YORK OFFICE) Room 1017, Cortlandt Building 




Ice Making and 

Refrigerating Machine 


Operates with Exhaust Steam from Power Plants 
Making Practically a " By- Product " Equipment 




Isbell-Porter Company 


Refrigerating and Ice - Making Plants 
Machinery and Apparatus for Gas Works 





ongs of Stevens 


tebens &lumnt &ssoctatton 


Better buy a copy soon, if you have not done so 
already. One is needed in every Stevens home 

Price $1.65, postage prepaid 


Secretary of tfje Alumni Association 

Jessop's Jessop's "Ark" High 
Best Carbon Tool Speed Air Hard= 
Steel ening Steel 

is yet unexcelled for cutting gives marvelous results — heavy cuts 
tools of all kinds and for — at rapid speed; cannot be burned, 
general machine shop use. Manufactured in Sheffield, England. 

WM. JESSOP & SONS, Inc., 91 John Street, New York 

20 Highest Exhibition Awards 

JFtrst Jftattonal Mnk of S^obokn 

CAPITAL, $220,000 SURPLUS AND PROFITS, $640,000 

$ufyson nun ^ctnarfi £st& 

THKOJ'S. HIJTTS, V.u VK f.-I'kks. 

S^TBSeSSSS* o o Ookmebcial a.m. Sav.n.* Departments 


DIRECTORS _ _ ' M -mm 

OmUM. V. Matti.a<;i. AM.itr.u Ki.i Dully fin,,, p) A. M tO 9 /'. .»/. 

B a. si i.m ns A i n i ut C. W a i .j . Rnturthni* ') if) to 1° 

Wu. Skxfpsd Jobm Stkkxci aavuruayi, v.w to is 

it I* 'ii sin. nt i a' i.vs carlm lbbwiboab Mondays, 6 ton P. .)/., in our Savings and 

I'AI.MIK CAMI'HKLL Ohi-AK FltoMMF.L •' ' . .. .. ' . . 

Tutor*. Burn Louis Fnoiwoa hajc l)ei»mt lhi>artmn\U 



New Weston Miniature Precision 
Direct Current Instruments 

Switchboard and Portable Ammeters, Milammeters, Voltmeters, 
Milli-voltmeters and Volt-ammeters 


Model 267 — Switchboard Instruments. 

Model 280 — Portable Instruments. 

For their size, these Miniature Instruments have unusually long, and, therefore, 
very legible scales. 

The instruments are very dead-beat, extremely quick in action and sensitive. 
They possess the same general characteristics as the highest grade Weston instruments. 
Indeed these Miniature Precision Instruments are a typical Weston product. They 
are also inexpensive. 

We are justified in commending these new Instruments to all who desire good small 
direct current measuring instruments, as being in every way suited for the numerous 
purposes in which lightness combined with compactness is essential or desirable. 

We list nearly 300 different styles and ranges, and carry an enormous stock of fin- 
ished instruments on hand. Orders can be promptly filled, and the instruments can 
be safely transported by parcel post. 

For full information, send for Bulletin No. 8. 

iOeston Electrical instrument Co. 

NEW YORK, 114 Liberty St. NEWARK, N. J. 






Estimates Furnished and Contracts Executed 

Brand Asbestos, Flax and Rubber Packings 
100 North Moore Street New York City 

Telephone, 6097 Franklin 


Jacob Kleinhans, Pres. John B. Stobaeus, Vice-Pres. Hugo L, Kleinhans, Treas. 
Lewis C. Kleinhans, Sec'y. 

Manufacturing Chemists and Importers 


Near Chatham Square 






«0^ rf MiM 

Importing and Manufacturing Chemists 


100 William Street New York 

Brass Cased t hermometers 

Etched Thermometers For Precision Work 







^tetjens $n$titutt of Cecjmologp 

River Street, between 5th and 6th Streets 

Complete Courses of Study Preparatory 
to all Universities, Colleges, and 
Schools of Science, Law, and 

tuition, $150.00 per 3£mtum, or $50.00 ptt €erm 



Apply to the Principal of $a>ttf>CtTJJ £a>Cl)D0l 

Institute of Cecfmologp 

College of Mechanical Engineering 

f«wM by tb* tat« Edwin A. Stmoi 

THE course of The Stevens Institute 
is of four years' duration, and cov- 
ers all that appertains to the profession of 
a Mechanical Engineer. By means of a 
well-balanced course of instruction and 
completely equipped workshops, and phys- 
ical, chemical, electrical, and engineering 
laboratories, theory and practice are har- 
moniously combined. 


&tefeen* 3nstttute of Qfccfmologp